A traditional classification divides Indian philosophy into orthodox (āstika) and heterodox (nāstika) schools of philosophy, depending on whether it believes the Vedas as a valid source of knowledge. There are 5 major heterodox (nastika) schools— Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Charvaka which denies the Vedas as valid source of knowledge.

There are six major schools of orthodox (astika) Indian Hindu philosophy (shad-darśana) — Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta which believe the Vedas as ultimate valid source of knowledge.

Ancient and medieval Hindu texts identify six pramāṇas (Epistemology) as correct means of accurate knowledge and truths- one Pratyakṣa (Direct perception) and five Apratyakṣa (Indirect perception), i.e. (1) Anumāṇa - Inference or indirect perception, (2) Upamāṇa - Comparison and analogy, (3) Arthāpatti - Postulation, derivation from circumstances, (4) Anupalabdi - Non-perception, absence of proof, (5) Shabda - Word, testimony of past or present reliable experts. The focus of pramāṇa is how correct knowledge can be acquired, how one knows, how one doesn't, and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired.

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Published Books on: Darshanas

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Available Books on: Darshanas

Nyaya School

  1. The Nyāya Sūtras by Akṣapāda Gautama
  2. Commentary by Vātsyāyana (3rd Centrury CE)
  3. Commentary by Uddyotakara (c. 6th century CE)
  4. Commentary by Jayanta Bhatta (c. 9th Century CE)
  5. Commentary by Vācaspati Miśra (c. 9th Century CE)
  6. Commentary by Bhāsarvajña (c. 9th Century CE)
  7. Commentary by Udayana (c. 10th Century CE)
  8. Commentary by Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāya (c. 14th Century CE)
  9. Commentary by Vardhamāna Upādhyāya
  10. Commentary by Pakṣadhara Miśra
  11. Commentary by Vāsudeva Sārvabhauma
  12. Commentary by GPadmanābha Miśra
  13. Commentary by Raghunātha Śiromaṇi (c. 15th Century CE)
  14. Commentary by anakinath Bhattacharya
  15. Commentary by Kanad Tarkavagish
  16. Commentary by Rambhadra Sārvabhauma
  17. Commentary by Haridas Bhattacharya
  18. Commentary by Mathuranath Tarkavagish
  19. Commentary by Jagadish Tarkalankar
  20. Commentary by Jaygopal Tarkalankar (c. 18th Century CE)
  21. Commentary by Gadadhar Bhattacharya
  22. Commentary by Annaṁbhaṭṭa (c. 18th Century CE)
  23. Commentary by Viśvanātha
  24. Commentary by Radhamohan Vidyavachaspati Goswami
  25. Commentary by Kalishankar Siddhantavagish (c. 18th Century CE)
  26. Commentary by Golaknath Nyayaratna (c. 19th Century CE)

Vaisheshika School

  1. Vaiśeṣika Sūtra by Kaṇāḍa (1st century CE)
  2. Padārthadharmasaṁgraha by Praśastapāda (c. 4th century CE)
  3. Daśapadārthaśāstra by Candra (c. 7th century CE)
  4. Vyomavatī by Vyomaśiva (c. 8th century CE)
  5. Nyāyakandalī by Śridhara (c. 10th century CE)
  6. Kiranāvali by Udayana (c. 10th century CE)
  7. Līlāvatī by Śrivatsa (c. 11th century CE)
  8. Saptapadārthī by Śivāditya (c. 11th century CE)
  9. Commentary by Śaṅkara-Misra (c. 15th century CE)
  10. Commentary by Chandrakānta (c. 19th century CE)

Samkhya School

  1. Sāṅkhya Sūtra by Kapila (c. 5th century BCE)
  2. Sāṅkhya Kārikā by Īśvarakṛṣna (c. 4th century CE)
  3. Commentary by Gauḍapāda (c. 6th century CE)
  4. Jaya-Maṅgalā by Śaṅkarācārya (not Adi Shankara) (c. 6th century CE)
  5. Yukti-dīpikā by Rājāna (c. 7th century CE)
  6. Sāṅkhya-Tattva-Kaumudī by Vācaspati Miśra (c. 10th century CE)
  7. Sarvadarsanasangraha (c. 13th century CE)
  8. Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra (c. 14th century CE)
  9. Sāṁkhyasūtravṛtti by Anirruddha (c. 15th century CE)
  10. Sāṅkhya-Pravacana-Bhāṣya by Vijñāna Bhikṣu (c. 16th century CE)
  11. vṛttisāra by Mahādeva (c. 17th century CE)
  12. Laghu-sāṁkhya-sūtra-vṛtti by Nāgeśa (c. 17th century CE)

Yoga School

  1. Yoga Sūtra by Patañjali (c. 3rd century CE)
  2. Vivekachudamani
  3. Commentary by Vyāsa (c. 4th century CE)
  4. Commentary by Śaṅkara (c. 8th century CE)
  5. Tattvavai Śāradī by Vācaspati Miśra (c. 8th century CE)
  6. Yogavārttika by Vijñānabhikṣu (c. 15th century CE)
  7. Yogamaṇiprabhā by Rāmānanda Sarasvatī (c. 16th century CE)
  8. Bhāsvatī by Hariharānanda Āraṇya

Mīmāṃsā School

  1. Mīmāṃsā Sūtra by Jaimini (c. 4th century BCE)
  2. Commentary by Śābara (c. 6th century CE)
  3. Commentary by Kumārila (c. 7th century CE)
  4. Commentary by Prabhākara (c. 7th century CE)
  5. Commentary by Manḍana Miśra (c. 8th century CE)
  6. Nyāyaratnākara by Pārthasarathi Miśra (c. 13th century CE)

Vedanta School

  1. Brahma Sūtras (Vedānta Sūtras) by Bādarāyana (c. 1th century CE)
  2. Commentary by Śaṅkara (Advaita) (c. 8th century CE)
  3. Commentary by Rāmānuja (Viśiṣṭādvaita) (c. 12th century CE)
  4. Commentary by Madhva (Dvaita) (c. 13th century CE)
  5. Commentary by Nimbārka (c. 13th century CE)
  6. Commentary by Śrkaṇṭha (c. 15th century CE)
  7. Commentary by Vallabha (c. 16th century CE)
  8. Commentary by Baladeva (c. 18th century CE)
  9. Advaita - Mandukya Kārikā by Gaudapāda (c. 5th century CE)
  10. Advaita - Panchapadika by Padmapāda (c. 8th century CE)
  11. Advaita - Naiṣkarmya Siddhi by Sureśvara (c. 8th century CE)
  12. Advaita - Brahmasiddhi by Mandana Miśra (c. 8th century CE)
  13. Advaita - Commentary by Vacaspati Miśra’s (c. 9th century CE)
  14. Advaita - Commentary of Padmapāda’s Pancapadika by Prakashatman’s (c. 10th century CE)
  15. Advaita - Commentary by Prakāsātman (c. 10th century CE)
  16. Advaita - Commentary by Vimuktātman (c. 10th century CE)
  17. Advaita - Commentary by Sarvajñātman (c. 10th century CE)
  18. Advaita - Commentary by Śrī Harṣa (c. 12th century CE)
  19. Advaita - Commentary by Citsukha (c. 12th century CE)
  20. Advaita - Commentary by ānandagiri (c. 13th century CE)
  21. Advaita - Commentary by Amalānandā (c. 13th century CE)
  22. Advaita - Commentary by Vidyāraņya (c. 14th century CE)
  23. Advaita - Commentary by Śaṅkarānandā (c. 14th century CE)
  24. Advaita - Commentary by Sadānandā (c. 14th century CE)
  25. Advaita - Commentary by Prakāṣānanda (c. 16th century CE)
  26. Advaita - Commentary by Nṛsiṁhāśrama (c. 16th century CE)
  27. Advaita - Commentary by Madhusūdhana Sarasvati (c. 17th century CE)
  28. Advaita - Commentary of Dharmarāja Advarindra (c. 17th century CE)
  29. Advaita - Commentary by Appaya Dīkśita (c. 17th century CE)
  30. Advaita - Commentary by Sadaśiva Brahmendra (c. 18th century CE)
  31. Advaita - Commentary by Candraśekhara Bhārati (c. 20th century CE)
  32. Advaita - Commentary by Sacchidānandendra Saraswati (c. 20th century CE)
  33. Bhedabheda - Commentary by Caitanya (c. 15th century CE)
  34. Bhedabheda - Commentary by Bhāskara (c. 9th century CE)
  35. Bhedabheda - Commentary by Yādavaprakāśa (c. 17th century CE)
  36. Bhedabheda - Commentary by Yādavaprakāśa (c. 17th century CE)
  37. Bhedabheda - Commentary by Vijñānabhikṣu (c. 16th century CE)
  38. Vishishtadvaita - Commentary by Nathamuni (c. 9th century CE)
  39. Vishishtadvaita - Commentary by Yamuna
  40. Vishishtadvaita - Commentary by Swaminarayan
  41. Dvaita - Commentary by Padmanabha Tirtha
  42. Dvaita - Commentary by Vadiraja Theertha
  43. Dvaita - Commentary by Narayana Panditacharya
  44. Dvaita - Commentary by Trivikrama Panditacharya
  45. Dvaita - Commentary by Jayatirtha
  46. Dvaita - Commentary by Vyasatirtha
  47. Dvaita - Commentary by Sripadaraja
  48. Dvaita - Commentary by Raghavendra Swami
  49. Dvaita - Commentary by Raghuttama Tirtha
  50. Dvaita - Commentary by Satyanatha Tirtha
  51. Dvaita - Commentary by Purandara Dasa
  52. Dvaita - Commentary by Kanaka Dasa
  53. Dvaita - Commentary by Satyapriya Tirtha
  54. Dvaita - Commentary by Satyadharma Tirtha
  55. Dvaita - Commentary by Satyadhyana Tirtha

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