Chandogya Upanishad

The Chandogya Upanishad comprises the last eight chapters of a ten chapter Chandogya Brahmana text of Sama Veda. It is the longest of the Upanishads, describing ritual sacrifices. It contains (6.8.7) the maha vakya considered the essence of Sama Veda:- tat tvam asi, "you are That (Brahman)". It narrates the famous story of Satyakama Jabala, a boy son of a maidservant, who was recognized as brahmana due to the sense of truthfulness he had demonstrated. Within the text we also find many explanations on Vedic symbolism, especially in regard to the fire sacrifice and the mantras in relation to the life energy in the human body and in the senses, and in relation to the Sun. The text illustrates meditation on sound and prana and their identity with the Sun, that is svara and pratyasvara ("coming and going", i.e. cyclic) and states that the realization of the Pranava Omkara, its subtle manifestation, awards immortality. The text offers the conversation between Svetaketu and his father Uddalaka Aruni, rich with teachings and practical examples to understand the nature of Brahman- Atman. It teaches than only brahmacharya ("behaving as Brahman") enables one to realize Brahman, and that the difference between Devas and Asuras is that Asuras identify with the material body and consider it the true self. The text has eight Prapathakas (प्रपाठक, lectures, chapters), each with varying number of Khandas (खण्ड, volume). Each Khanda has varying number of verses. The first chapter includes 13 volumes each with varying number of verses, the second chapter has 24 volumes, the third chapter contains 19 volumes, the fourth is composed of 17 volumes, the fifth has 24, the sixth chapter has 16 volumes, the seventh includes 26 volumes, and the eight chapter is last with 15 volumes. The volumes are a motley collection of stories and themes. This edition uses the translation of the Upanishad and Shankaracharya's Commentary translated by Swami Lokeswarananda [Swami Lokeswarananda’s weekly discourses on Chandogya-upanishad - Shankara Bhashya].

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Shanti Mantra

छान्दोग्योपनिषत्

॥ अथ छान्दोग्योपनिषत् ॥

ॐ आप्यायन्तु ममाङ्गानि वाक्प्राणश्च्क्षुः

श्रोत्रमथो बलमिन्द्रियाणि च सर्वाणि ।

सर्वं ब्रह्मौपनिषदं माहं ब्रह्म निराकुर्यां मा मा ब्रह्म

निराकरोदनिकारणमस्त्वनिकारणं मेऽस्तु ।

तदात्मनि निरते य उपनिषत्सु धर्मास्ते

मयि सन्तु ते मयि सन्तु ॥

॥ ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

chāndogyopaniṣat

.. atha chāndogyopaniṣat ..

oṃ āpyāyantu mamāṅgāni vākprāṇaśckṣuḥ

śrotramatho balamindriyāṇi ca sarvāṇi .

sarvaṃ brahmaupaniṣadaṃ māhaṃ brahma nirākuryāṃ mā mā brahma

nirākarodanikāraṇamastvanikāraṇaṃ me'stu .

tadātmani nirate ya upaniṣatsu dharmāste

mayi santu te mayi santu ..

.. oṃ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ..


Sloka : 1.1.1

॥ प्रथमोऽध्यायः ॥

ओमित्येतदक्षरमुद्गीथमुपासीत ।

ओमिति ह्युद्गायति तस्योपव्याख्यानम् ॥ १.१.१॥

.. prathamo'dhyāyaḥ ..

omityetadakṣaramudgīthamupāsīta .

omiti hyudgāyati tasyopavyākhyānam .. 1.1.1..



1. Om is the closest word to Brahman. Recite this Om as if you are worshipping Brahman. [That is, treat this Om as the symbol of Brahman and concentrate on the idea of their oneness.] How you recite this Om is being explained.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Om iti, this Om [is closest to Brahman]; etat akṣaram udgītham upāsīta, recite this syllable as part of your upāsanā [ritual]; hi om iti udgāyati, how you recite this Om; tasya upavyākhyānam, is being explained. Commentary:-Om is as good as Brahman. To begin with, it is a symbol of Brahman. But it is not just a symbol; it is Brahman itself. The Upaniṣad says to recite Om as if you are worshipping Brahman. This recitation is called udgītha, and it is loud recitation. You recite Om aloud, but you do it with the feeling that you are worshipping Brahman. This worship then eventually purifies the mind. The importance of Om is being explained in the following verses.

Translation By Max Müller

1. LET a man meditate on the syllable [1] Om, called the udgîtha; for the udgîtha (a portion of the Sâma-veda) is sung, beginning with Om. The full account, however, of Om is this:--

Footnote:

1. Akshara means both syllable and the imperishable, i.e. Brahman.


Sloka : 1.1.2

एषां भूतानां पृथिवी रसः पृथिव्या अपो रसः ।

अपामोषधयो रस ओषधीनां पुरुषो रसः

पुरुषस्य वाग्रसो वाच ऋग्रस ऋचः साम रसः

साम्न उद्गीथो रसः ॥ १.१.२॥

eṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ pṛthivī rasaḥ pṛthivyā apo rasaḥ .

apāmoṣadhayo rasa oṣadhīnāṃ puruṣo rasaḥ

puruṣasya vāgraso vāca ṛgrasa ṛcaḥ sāma rasaḥ

sāmna udgītho rasaḥ .. 1.1.2..



2. The earth is the essence of all things, living or non-living; water is the essence of the earth; plants are the essence of water; human beings are the essence of plants; speech is the essence of human beings; the Ṛg Veda is the essence of speech; the Sāma Veda is the essence of the Ṛg Veda; and the udhītha is the essence of the Sāma Veda.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Eṣām bhūtānām, of these beings; pṛthivī rasaḥ, the earth is the essence; pṛthivyāḥ, of the earth; āpaḥ, water; rasaḥ, is the essence; apām oṣadhayaḥ rasaḥ, plants are the essence of water; oṣadhīnām puruṣaḥ rasaḥ, human beings are the essence of plants; puruṣasya vāk rasaḥ, speech is the essence of human beings; vācaḥ ṛg rasaḥ, the Ṛg Veda is the essence of speech; ṛcaḥ sāma rasaḥ, the Sāma Veda is the essence of the Ṛg Veda; sāmnaḥ udgīthaḥ rasaḥ, the part known as udgītha is the essence of the Sāma Veda. Commentary:-There are both living and non-living things on the earth. What sustains them? Obviously the earth. They all come out of the earth, are sustained by the earth, and finally dissolve into the earth. But what sustains the earth? Water. The earth is a mixture of water and earth, and there can be no earth without water. Plants are said to be the essence of water, for they grow from water. Similarly, human beings are the essence of plants, because the human body is the outcome of the food eaten by human beings. Speech is the essence of human beings, for it is the best part of them. The best speech is the Ṛg Veda, and the essence of the Ṛg Veda is the Sāma Veda. Finally, udgītha—that is, Om—is the essence of the Sāma Veda.

Translation By Max Müller

2. The essence [1] of all beings is the earth, the essence of the earth is water, the essence of water the plants, the essence of plants man, the essence of man speech, the essence of speech the Rig-veda, the essence of the Rig-veda the Sâma-veda [2], the essence of the Sâma-veda the udgîtha (which is Om).

Footnote:

1. Essence, rasa, is explained in different ways, as origin, support, end, cause, and effect. Rasa means originally the sap of trees. That sap may be conceived either as the essence extracted from the tree, or as what gives vigour and life to a tree. In the former case it might be transferred to the conception of effect, in the latter to that of cause. In our sentence it has sometimes the one, sometimes the other meaning. Earth is the support of all beings, water pervades the earth, plants arise from water, man lives by plants, speech is the best part of man, the Rig-veda the best part of speech, the Sâma-veda the best extract from the Rik, udgîtha, or the syllable Om, the crown of the Sâma-veda. 2. Because most of the hymns of the Sâma-veda are taken from the Rig-veda.


Sloka : 1.1.3

स एष रसानाꣳरसतमः परमः परार्ध्योऽष्टमो

यदुद्गीथः ॥ १.१.३॥

sa eṣa rasānāgͫrasatamaḥ paramaḥ parārdhyo'ṣṭamo

yadudgīthaḥ .. 1.1.3..



3. This udgītha [Om] is the best of all essences. It is the best of all that exists. It is the eighth, and it has the highest status.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ, that; eṣaḥ, this; rasānām, of all the essences; rasatamaḥ, the best essence; paramaḥ, the best; parārdhyaḥ, ranking the highest; aṣṭamaḥ, the eighth [in the order of earth, water, plants, human beings; speech, the Ṛg Veda, the Sāma Veda, and udgītha]; yāt, that; udgīthaḥ, udgītha [Om]. Commentary:-The best of all essences is the udgītha, which is Om. It is the highest and best because it is the same as Brahman.

Translation By Max Müller

3. That udgîtha (Om) is the best of all essences, the highest, deserving the highest place [1], the eighth.

Footnote:

1. Parârdhya is here derived from para, highest, and ardha, place. The eighth means the eighth or East in the series of essences.


Sloka : 1.1.4

कतमा कतमर्क्कतमत्कतमत्साम कतमः कतम उद्गीथ

इति विमृष्टं भवति ॥ १.१.४॥

katamā katamarkkatamatkatamatsāma katamaḥ katama udgītha

iti vimṛṣṭaṃ bhavati .. 1.1.4..



4. Which are the Ṛks? Which are the Sāmas? Which are the udgīthas? This is the question.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Katamā, which; katamā ṛk, which are the Ṛks; katamat katamat sāma, which are the Sāmas; katamaḥ katamaḥ udgīthaḥ, which are the udgīthas; iti vimṛṣṭam bhavati, this is the question. Commentary:-It has been stated that speech is the essence of the Ṛg Veda. The question now arises:- Which ones are the Ṛk, which ones are the Sāma, and which ones are the udgītha? The word katama, ‘which,’ is repeated to emphasize the importance of the question. But why is the word ‘which’ being used here? ‘Which’ is used when you have to pinpoint one thing out of many. The Ṛg Veda is taken as a single whole, so how is the use of ‘which’ justified here? The answer is that here ‘which’ refers to individual Ṛk mantras, and not to the whole body of the Ṛg Veda.

Translation By Max Müller

4. What then is the Rik? What is the Sâman? What is the udgîtha? 'This is the question.


Sloka : 1.1.5

वागेवर्क्प्राणः सामोमित्येतदक्षरमुद्गीथः ।

तद्वा एतन्मिथुनं यद्वाक्च प्राणश्चर्क्च साम च ॥ १.१.५॥

vāgevarkprāṇaḥ sāmomityetadakṣaramudgīthaḥ .

tadvā etanmithunaṃ yadvākca prāṇaścarkca sāma ca .. 1.1.5..



5. [In answer to the foregoing question:-] Speech is the same as Ṛk; prāṇa [life] is the same as Sāma; and Om is nothing but udgītha [Brahman] itself. They are pairs:- speech and life, Ṛk and Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Vāk eva ṛk, speech is Ṛk [being the cause of the Ṛk]; prāṇaḥ sāma, prāṇa [breath, or the life force] is Sāma [for you can sing the Sāma if your prāṇa is strong]; om iti etat akṣaram udgīthaḥ, the syllable ‘Om’ is the udgītha [for you recite it out of love for the Sāma]; tat etat vai mithunam, it is like a couple; yat vāk ca prāṇaḥ ca ṛk ca sāma ca, which are speech and prāṇa, Ṛk and Sāma. Commentary:-The word ‘couple,’ or ‘pair,’ is being used to suggest a relationship of cause and effect. Cause and effect are, in fact, one and the same. Speech is the cause, According to this Upaniṣad, the evolution of the gross world is in this order:- earth, water, plants, human beings, speech, Ṛk, Sāma, and udgītha (Om). Udgītha is rasatamā, the essence of all essences, the cause of all causes. It occupies the eighth position—that is, it is the ultimate in the evolution of things. It is the Paramātman, the Self of all selves.

Translation By Max Müller

5. The Rik indeed is speech, Sâman is breath, the udgîtha is the syllable Om. Now speech and breath, or Rik and Sâman, form one couple.


Sloka : 1.1.6

तदेतन्मिथुनमोमित्येतस्मिन्नक्षरे सꣳसृज्यते

यदा वै मिथुनौ समागच्छत आपयतो वै

तावन्योन्यस्य कामम् ॥ १.१.६॥

tadetanmithunamomityetasminnakṣare sagͫsṛjyate

yadā vai mithunau samāgacchata āpayato vai

tāvanyonyasya kāmam .. 1.1.6..



6. This dual combination of speech and life merge into each other and become one in this syllable Om. It is like a male and a female meeting and satisfying each other’s desires.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat, that; etat, this; mithunam, dual combination [i.e., speech and life]; om iti etasmin akṣare saṃsṛjyate, meet in this syllable Om; yadā vai, whenever; mithunau samāgacchataḥ, a couple [a male and a female] come together; tau, they; anyonyasya kāmam āpayataḥ vai, naturally satisfy each other’s desires. Commentary:-Those two, speech and life, merge into each other in Om. They attain their fulfilment in this way. Om thus stands for the fulfilment of all things.

Translation By Max Müller

6. And that couple is joined together in the syllable Om. When two people come together, they fulfil each other's desire.


Sloka : 1.1.7

आपयिता ह वै कामानां भवति य एतदेवं

विद्वानक्षरमुद्गीथमुपास्ते ॥ १.१.७॥

āpayitā ha vai kāmānāṃ bhavati ya etadevaṃ

vidvānakṣaramudgīthamupāste .. 1.1.7..



7. He who worships Om as the udgītha [Brahman], knowing it as the one who receives everything, himself [finally] receives everything he desires.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Āpayitā, he receives; ha vai kāmānām, all he desires; bhavati, this happens; yaḥ, he who; etat, this; evam, this way [as the one who receives everything]; vidvān, knows; akṣaram, Om; udgītham, as udgītha [Brahman]; upāste, worships. Commentary:-If you worship Om, you acquire the qualities of Om. If you worship Om as the one who receives everything, you also, like Om, receive everything you desire. The śruti says:- ‘You become whatever or whomever your object of worship is.’ (Maṇḍala Brāhmaṇa 20)

Translation By Max Müller

7. Thus he who knowing this, meditates on the syllable (Om), the udgîtha, becomes indeed a fulfiller of desires.


Sloka : 1.1.8

तद्वा एतदनुज्ञाक्षरं यद्धि किंचानुजानात्योमित्येव

तदाहैषो एव समृद्धिर्यदनुज्ञा समर्धयिता ह वै

कामानां भवति य एतदेवं विद्वानक्षरमुद्गीथमुपास्ते ॥ १.१.८॥

tadvā etadanujñākṣaraṃ yaddhi kiṃcānujānātyomityeva

tadāhaiṣo eva samṛddhiryadanujñā samardhayitā ha vai

kāmānāṃ bhavati ya etadevaṃ vidvānakṣaramudgīthamupāste .. 1.1.8..



8. That akṣaram [Om] stands for assent. A person says Om whenever he wants to say yes. This Om is the key to progress. He who worships Om as the udgītha [Brahman], knowing it thus [as the fulfiller of all desires], has all his desires fulfilled.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat, that; vai etat, this; anujñā akṣaram, syllable [Om] indicates assent; yat, when; hi kim ca anujānāti, assent is to be indicated; om iti, this Om; eva tadā āha, is then uttered; eṣā u eva, this; samṛddhiḥ, progress; yat, that; anujñā, assent; samardhayitā, makes it possible; ha vai kāmānām bhavati, one attains those desires; yaḥ, he who; etat, this; evam, this way; vidvān, having known; akṣaram udgītham upāste, worships the syllable Om as the udgītha [Brahman], Commentary:-The word Om means ‘yes.’ Once someone named Śākalya asked the sage Yājñavalkya, ‘How many gods and goddesses are there?’ Yājñavalkya replied, ‘Thirty-three.’ Then Śākalya indicated his agreement by saying ‘Om.’ When you say Om it is also an indication of your faith in yourself. It is proof of your strength and vigour, and proof also of your prosperity. Om is therefore a symbol of certain basic qualities. When you worship Om you acquire those qualities, and you begin to progress and also prosper.

Translation By Max Müller

8. That syllable is a syllable of permission, for whenever we permit anything, we say Om, yes. Now permission is gratification. He who knowing this meditates on the syllable (Om), the udgîtha, becomes indeed a gratifier of desires.


Sloka : 1.1.9

तेनेयं त्रयीविद्या वर्तते ओमित्याश्रावयत्योमिति

शꣳसत्योमित्युद्गायत्येतस्यैवाक्षरस्यापचित्यै महिम्ना

रसेन ॥ १.१.९॥

teneyaṃ trayīvidyā vartate omityāśrāvayatyomiti

śagͫsatyomityudgāyatyetasyaivākṣarasyāpacityai mahimnā

rasena .. 1.1.9..



9. With Om one begins the threefold Vedic ritual, and with Om one starts reciting the Vedas. With Om one starts singing the Vedic hymns, and again with Om one sings the udgān [from the Vedas, in praise of Om, or Brahman]. All this is a tribute to Om. Again, all this is possible by virtue of the essence derived from Om [in the form of wheat and other food].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tena, by this [Om]; iyam, this; trayī vidyā vartate, threefold Vedic ritual begins; om iti, with Om; āśrāvayati, the recitation begins; om iti śaṃsati, with Om begins the singing of the hymn; om iti udgāyati, with Om the udgān [the praise to Om] begins; etasya akṣarasya, to this akṣara [Brahman]; eva apacityai, to pay homage; mahimnā, for its greatness; rasena, with the essence [of Om], Commentary:-To create some interest in Om, it is being praised here. Om is indispensable even if you are performing a Vedic ritual. You begin reciting a Vedic verse with Om, singing a Vedic hymn with Om, and closing your final udgān with Om. In short, the whole procedure is dedicated to Om. Not only that, those who participate in this ritualistic worship derive their strength and vigour from Om, for the butter or barley syrup they drink as a stimulant is from Om. How? Om is the medium through which sacrifices are performed, and the effects of the sacrifices are carried to the sun. These then return to the earth as rain. From rain come life and food. Again, because of life and food, a person is able to perform sacrifices. Thus, it is the essence of Om that makes ritualistic worship, such as sacrifices, possible. Ritualistic worship is therefore a testimony to the greatness of Om. Om is both the cause and the effect.

Translation By Max Müller

9. By that syllable does the threefold knowledge (the sacrifice, more particularly the Soma-sacrifice, as founded on the three Vedas) proceed. When the Adhvaryu priest gives an order, he says Om. When the Hotri priest recites, he says Om. When the Udgâtri priest sings, he says Om, --all for the glory of that syllable. The threefold knowledge (the sacrifice) proceeds by the greatness of that syllable (the vital breaths), and by its essence (the oblations) [1].

Footnote:

1. These are allusions to sacrificial technicalities, all intended to show the importance of the syllable Om, partly as a mere word, used at the sacrifices, partly as the mysterious name of the Highest Self. As every priest at the Soma-sacrifices, in which three classes of priests are always engaged, has to begin his part of the ceremonial with Om, therefore the whole sacrifice is said to be dependent on the syllable Om, and to be for the glory of that syllable, as an emblem of the Highest Self, a knowledge of whom is the indirect result of all sacrifices. The greatness of the syllable Om is explained by the vital breaths of the priest, the sacrificer, and his wife; its essence by rice, corn, &c., which constitute the oblations. Why breath and food are due to the syllable Om is explained by the sacrifice, which is dependent on that syllable, ascending to the sun, the sun sending rain, rain producing food, and food producing breath and life.


Sloka : 1.1.10

तेनोभौ कुरुतो यश्चैतदेवं वेद यश्च न वेद ।

नाना तु विद्या चाविद्या च यदेव विद्यया करोति

श्रद्धयोपनिषदा तदेव वीर्यवत्तरं भवतीति

खल्वेतस्यैवाक्षरस्योपव्याख्यानं भवति ॥ १.१.१०॥

tenobhau kuruto yaścaitadevaṃ veda yaśca na veda .

nānā tu vidyā cāvidyā ca yadeva vidyayā karoti

śraddhayopaniṣadā tadeva vīryavattaraṃ bhavatīti

khalvetasyaivākṣarasyopavyākhyānaṃ bhavati .. 1.1.10..



10. He who knows about Om and he who does not know about it both work with strength they derive from Om. But knowledge and ignorance produce different results. Anything done with knowledge [about Om], with faith in the teachers and in the scriptures, and according to the principles of the Upaniṣads [or of yoga] is more fruitful. This certainly is the right tribute to Om.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ubhau, both [kinds of persons]; tena, by the power of that [Om]; kurutaḥ, work; yaḥ ca, whoever; evam, as such; veda, knows; etat, this [i.e., about Om]; yaḥ ca na veda, he who does not know; vidyā ca avidyā ca nānā tu, knowledge and ignorance are entirely different things; yat eva, anything; vidyayā karoti, one does with knowledge [about Om]; śraddhayā, with respect for one’s teachers and the scriptures; upaniṣadā, as taught by the Upaniṣads [i.e., according to yoga]; tat eva, that [work]; vīryavattaram bhavati,. is more powerful [i.e., more fruitful]; iti, this; khalu, certainly; etasya eva akṣarasya upavyākhyānam bhavati, is the right tribute to this Om. Iti prathamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the first section. Commentary:-Two kinds of people work:- one kind knowing what Om means and another kind knowing nothing about it. Both kinds of people, however, are able to work because of Om. What is the difference between the two? What special advantage does a person who knows about Om have? Someone may argue:- Suppose a person takes a medicine knowing what medicine he is taking and why he is taking it, and another person takes it without any knowledge of what he is taking and why he is taking it. Will the medicine produce different results in them? The answer is:- The analogy does not apply here. Knowledge is always an advantage, especially knowledge about Om. If you work because you are told to work, and if you work because you want to use the work as a stepping-stone to the attainment of Om—there is a vast difference between the two approaches. In the first instance, you are content with whatever the work produces; in the second, you are content only if it paves the way to your attainment of Om.

Translation By Max Müller

10. Now therefore it would seem to follow, that both he who knows this (the true meaning of the syllable Om), and he who does not, perform the same sacrifice [1]. But this is not so, for knowledge and ignorance are different. The sacrifice which a man performs with knowledge, faith, and the Upanishad [2] is more powerful. This is the full account of the syllable Om.

Footnote:

1. He who simply pronounces the syllable Om as part of his recitation at a sacrifice, and he who knows the hidden meaning of that syllable, both may perform the same sacrifice. But that performed by the latter is more powerful, because knowledge is better than ignorance. This is, as usual, explained by some comparisons. It is true that both he who knows the quality of the harîtakî and he who does not, are purged alike if they take it. But on the other hand, if a jeweller and a mere clod sell a precious stone, the knowledge of the former bears better fruit than the ignorance of the latter. 2. Upanishad is here explained by yoga, and yoga by devatâdivishayam upâsanam, meditation directed to certain deities, More likely, however, it refers to this very upanishad, i.e. to the udgîthavidyâ, the doctrine of the secret meaning of Om, as here explained.


Sloka : 1.2.1

॥ इति प्रथमः खण्डः ॥

देवासुरा ह वै यत्र संयेतिरे उभये प्राजापत्यास्तद्ध

देवा उद्गीथमाजह्रुरनेनैनानभिभविष्याम इति ॥ १.२.१॥

.. iti prathamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

devāsurā ha vai yatra saṃyetire ubhaye prājāpatyāstaddha

devā udgīthamājahruranenainānabhibhaviṣyāma iti .. 1.2.1..



1. The gods and goddesses and the demons are both children of Prajāpati, yet they fought among themselves. The gods and goddesses then adopted the path of the udgītha, thinking they would thereby be able to overcome the demons.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Devāsurāḥ. the gods and goddesses and the demons; ha vai yatra saṃyetire, fought among themselves; ubhaye, [though] both; prājāpatyāḥ, were Prajāpati’s children; tat, at that time; ha devāḥ, the gods and goddesses then; udgītham ājahruḥ, adopted the path of the udgītha; anena, by this; enān, them [the demons]; abhibhaviṣyāmah, will overcome; iti, thinking thus. Commentary:-The gods and goddesses are ‘bright’ by virtue of their self-control, while the demons are ‘dark’ because they have no control over themselves. Though they were offspring of the same Prajāpati, they often clashed with each other. The gods and goddesses represent virtue; the demons represent vice. This conflict between virtue and vice is eternal, but it is virtue that always prevails. Virtue is here said to be the udgītha—that is, reciting Om while performing sacrifices. The gods and goddesses choose the path prescribed by the scriptures, whereas the demons do just the opposite and defy the scriptures. No wonder then the demons lose. The udgītha is supreme because it is Om. It is the Paramātman, the Cosmic Self.

Translation By Max Müller

1. When the Devas and Asuras [1] struggled together, both of the race of Pragâpati, the Devas took the udgîtha [2] (Om), thinking they would vanquish the Asuras with it.

Footnote:

1. Devas and Asuras, gods and demons, are here explained by the commentator as the good and evil inclinations of man; Pragâpati as man in general. 2. Udgîtha stands, according to the commentator, for the sacrificial act to be performed by the Udgâtri, the Sâma-veda priest, with the udgîtha hymns; and as these sacrificial acts always form part of the Gyotishtoma &c., these great Soma-sacrifices are really intended. In the second place, however, the commentator takes udgîtha in the sense of Udgâtri, the performer of the udgîtha, which is or was by the Devas thought to be the breath in the nose. I have preferred to take udgîtha in the sense of Om, and all that is implied by it.


Sloka : 1.2.2

ते ह नासिक्यं प्राणमुद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे

तꣳ हासुराः पाप्मना विविधुस्तस्मात्तेनोभयं जिघ्रति

सुरभि च दुर्गन्धि च पाप्मना ह्येष विद्धः ॥ १.२.२॥

te ha nāsikyaṃ prāṇamudgīthamupāsāṃcakrire

tagͫ hāsurāḥ pāpmanā vividhustasmāttenobhayaṃ jighrati

surabhi ca durgandhi ca pāpmanā hyeṣa viddhaḥ .. 1.2.2..



2. The gods and goddesses worshipped the prāṇa presiding over the nostrils as udgītha. The demons, however, misused it. [To them it was only an organ of smelling.] That is why [because of this misuse] people smell both good and bad odours through the nostrils.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te, they [the gods and goddesses]; ha nāsikyam prāṇam udgītham upāsāñcakrire, worshipped as udgītha the prāṇa [life principle] presiding over the nostrils; asurāḥ ha, the asuras, however; tam pāpmanā vividhuḥ, pierced it with evil [i.e., misused it, as if it were meant only for sense pleasure such as enjoying fragrance]; hi, this is why; eṣaḥ, this [prāṇa presiding over the nostrils]; pāpmanā viddhaḥ, is tainted with evil; tasmāt, therefore; tena, by it [i.e., the nostrils]; jighrati, smells; surabhi ca, good odour; durgandhi ca, and also bad odour. Commentary:-Mark the contrast between the attitude of the gods and goddesses and of the demons. To the demons, the nostrils were only an organ for smelling. Being what they are, it is natural that they would think so. But to the gods and goddesses, the nostrils are the seat of prāṇa, the vital breath, and they worship prāṇa there. The nostrils are also holy to them for another reason:- they use the nostrils in reciting the udgītha to prāṇa. The demons know nothing about prāṇa or udgītha. To them, prāṇa is merely that which carries good and bad odours.

Translation By Max Müller

2. They meditated on the udgîtha [1] (Om) as the breath (scent) in the nose [2], but the Asuras pierced it (the breath) with evil. Therefore we smell by the breath in the nose both what is good-smelling and what is bad-smelling. For the breath was pierced by evil.

Footnote:

1. Udgîtha stands, according to the commentator, for the sacrificial act to be performed by the Udgâtri, the Sâma-veda priest, with the udgîtha hymns; and as these sacrificial acts always form part of the Gyotishtoma &c., these great Soma-sacrifices are really intended. In the second place, however, the commentator takes udgîtha in the sense of Udgâtri, the performer of the udgîtha, which is or was by the Devas thought to be the breath in the nose. I have preferred to take udgîtha in the sense of Om, and all that is implied by it. 2. They asked that breath should recite the udgîtha. Comm.


Sloka : 1.2.3

अथ ह वाचमुद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे ताꣳ हासुराः पाप्मना

विविधुस्तस्मात्तयोभयं वदति सत्यं चानृतं च

पाप्मना ह्येषा विद्धा ॥ १.२.३॥

atha ha vācamudgīthamupāsāṃcakrire tāgͫ hāsurāḥ pāpmanā

vividhustasmāttayobhayaṃ vadati satyaṃ cānṛtaṃ ca

pāpmanā hyeṣā viddhā .. 1.2.3..



3. Next the gods and goddesses worshipped speech as udgītha [i.e., they used speech in praise of Om]. The demons, however, pierced it with evil [i.e., misused it out of ignorance]. This is why people use the organ of speech to speak both truth and untruth. This happens beacuse speech was pierced with evil.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ha, next; vācam, speech; udgītham upāsāñcakrire, [the gods and goddesses] worshipped as udgītha; tām ha asurāḥ pāpmanā vividhuḥ, the asuras pierced it with evil [i.e., misused it]; tasmāt, that is why; tayā, by it [the organ of speech]; vadati, one speaks; ubhayam satyam ca anṛtam ca, both truth and untruth; pāpmanā hi eṣā viddhā, because this [speech] was pierced with evil [by the ignorant demons]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. Then they meditated on the udgîtha (Om) as speech, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore we speak both truth and falsehood. For speech is pierced by evil.


Sloka : 1.2.4

अथ ह चक्षुरुद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे तद्धासुराः

पाप्मना विविधुस्तस्मात्तेनोभयं पश्यति दर्शनीयं

चादर्शनीयं च पाप्मना ह्येतद्विद्धम् ॥ १.२.४॥

atha ha cakṣurudgīthamupāsāṃcakrire taddhāsurāḥ

pāpmanā vividhustasmāttenobhayaṃ paśyati darśanīyaṃ

cādarśanīyaṃ ca pāpmanā hyetadviddham .. 1.2.4..



4. Next the gods and goddesses worshipped the eye as udgītha [as a praise to Om]. The demons, however, pierced it with evil [i.e., misused it out of ignorance]. This is why people see both good and bad things with the eyes. They see both because of ignorance.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ha, next; cakṣuḥ udgītham upāsāñcakrire, [the gods and goddesses] worshipped the eye as udgītha [in praise of Om]; asurāḥ ha, the demons, however; tat, that [eye]; pāpmanā vividhuḥ, pierced with evil [misused it from ignorance]; tasmāt, this is why; tena, by this [eye]; paśyati, one sees; ubhayam darśanīyam ca adarśanīyam ca, both good and bad sights; hi, because; etat, this [eye]; pāpmanā viddham, was pierced by evil. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

4. Then they meditated on the udgîtha (Om) as the eye, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore we see both what is sightly and unsightly. For the eye is pierced by evil.


Sloka : 1.2.5

अथ ह श्रोत्रमुद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे तद्धासुराः

पाप्मना विविधुस्तस्मात्तेनोभयꣳ श‍ृणोति श्रवणीयं

चाश्रवणीयं च पाप्मना ह्येतद्विद्धम् ॥ १.२.५॥

atha ha śrotramudgīthamupāsāṃcakrire taddhāsurāḥ

pāpmanā vividhustasmāttenobhayagͫ śṛṇoti śravaṇīyaṃ

cāśravaṇīyaṃ ca pāpmanā hyetadviddham .. 1.2.5..



5. Next the gods and goddesses worshipped the faculty of hearing as udgītha [in order to praise Om]. The demons, however, pierced it with evil [i.e., misused it out of ignorance]. As a result, people hear both pleasant and unpleasant things with the ears. This happens because of ignorance.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ha, next; śrotram udgītham upāsāñcakrire, [the gods and goddesses] worshipped the faculty of hearing as their udgītha [praise to Om]; asurāḥ ha, the asuras, however; tat, that faculty; pāpmanā vividhaḥ, pierced with evil [misused from ignorance]; tasmāt, that is why; tena, by it [the organ of hearing]; ubhayam śṛṇoti śravaṇīyam ca aśravaṇīyam ca, one hears both pleasant and unpleasant things; hi, because; etat, this [faculty]; pāpmanā viddham, was pierced by evil [i.e., was misused by the ignorant], Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

5. Then they meditated on the udgîtha (Om) as the ear, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore we hear both what should be heard and what should not be heard. For the car is pierced by evil.


Sloka : 1.2.6

अथ ह मन उद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे तद्धासुराः

पाप्मना विविधुस्तस्मात्तेनोभयꣳसंकल्पते संकल्पनीयंच

चासंकल्पनीयं च पाप्मना ह्येतद्विद्धम् ॥ १.२.६॥

atha ha mana udgīthamupāsāṃcakrire taddhāsurāḥ

pāpmanā vividhustasmāttenobhayagͫsaṃkalpate saṃkalpanīyaṃca

cāsaṃkalpanīyaṃ ca pāpmanā hyetadviddham .. 1.2.6..



6. Next, the gods and goddesses worshipped the mind, because the mind makes it possible for them to chant the udgītha [the praise to Om]. But the demons even vitiated the mind. As a result, the mind has both good and bad thoughts. This happens because of ignorance.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ha, next; manaḥ udgītham upāsāñcakrire, [the gods and goddesses] worshipped the mind for its role in chanting the udgītha; asurāḥ ha, the asuras, however; tat, that [mind]; pāpmanā vividhuḥ, poisoned it with bad thoughts; tasmāt, for that reason; tena, in the mind; ubhayam saṅkalpanīyam ca asaṅkalpanīyam ca saṅkalpayate, one thinks both good and bad thoughts; pāpmanā hi etat viddham, because the mind is vitiated by evil [ignorance], Commentary:-Prāṇa is another name for Brahman. Prāṇa is pure, but when it is associated with the sense organs it is not pure. Similarly, Brahman as Brahman is pure, but with adjuncts it is not pure. It is not pure in the sense that it is subject to change. Here, these adjuncts are referred to as pāpma, impure or evil, because they are limitations imposed on Brahman. These limitations are not real, however, but only apparent. When the Upaniṣad speaks of the organs, it means the organs with their presiding deities. Both are described as pāpma. In these verses, some of the organs are mentioned, but it is to be understood that what is stated here about some organs applies to all the organs and their presiding deities.

Translation By Max Müller

6. Then they meditated on the udgîtha (Om) as the mind, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. Therefore we conceive both what should be conceived and what should not be conceived. For the mind is pierced by evil.


Sloka : 1.2.7

अथ ह य एवायं मुख्यः प्राणस्तमुद्गीथमुपासांचक्रिरे

तꣳहासुरा ऋत्वा विदध्वंसुर्यथाश्मानमाखणमृत्वा

विध्वꣳसेतैवम् ॥ १.२.७॥

atha ha ya evāyaṃ mukhyaḥ prāṇastamudgīthamupāsāṃcakrire

tagͫhāsurā ṛtvā vidadhvaṃsuryathāśmānamākhaṇamṛtvā

vidhvagͫsetaivam .. 1.2.7..



7. Next, the gods and goddesses worshipped the chief prāṇa as udgītha. As regards the demons, they all met their end in prāṇa, just as [chunks of earth] break into pieces when they hit an unbreakable stone.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ha, next; yaḥ eva mukhyaḥ prāṇaḥ, the chief prāṇa [the vital force, inclusive of its five aspects—prāṇa, apāna, vyāna, udāna, and samāna]; tam udgītham upāsāñcakrire, [the gods and goddesses] worshipped him as udgītha; yathā, just as; ākhaṇam, unbreakable; aśmānam, stone; ṛtvā, hit against; vidhvaṃseta, broken into pieces [and are destroyed]; [in the same way] asurāḥ ca, the demons also; tam ha ṛtvā vidadh vaṃsuḥ, hit against it [prāṇa] and were destroyed. Commentary:-The gods and goddesses worshipped pure prāṇa—that is, prāṇa without the organs—as udgītha. As before, the demons tried to hurt prāṇa, but they failed. In fact, they got lost in prāṇa. They met the same fate as chunks of earth thrown against granite. When the chunks hit the granite, they break into pieces and are destroyed. Similarly, it is beyond the power of the demons to do any harm to prāṇa.

Translation By Max Müller

7. Then comes this breath (of life) in the mouth [1]. They meditated on the udgîtha (Om) as that breath. When the Asuras came to it, they were scattered, as (a ball of earth) would be scattered when hitting a solid stone.

Footnote:

1. Mukhya prâna is used in two senses, the principal or vital breath, also called sreshtha, and the breath in the mouth, also called âsanya.


Sloka : 1.2.8

यथाश्मानमाखणमृत्वा विध्वꣳसत एवꣳ हैव

स विध्वꣳसते य एवंविदि पापं कामयते

यश्चैनमभिदासति स एषोऽश्माखणः ॥ १.२.८॥

yathāśmānamākhaṇamṛtvā vidhvagͫsata evagͫ haiva

sa vidhvagͫsate ya evaṃvidi pāpaṃ kāmayate

yaścainamabhidāsati sa eṣo'śmākhaṇaḥ .. 1.2.8..



8. Just as when chunks of earth are thrown against an unbreakable stone they are themselves reduced to dust, similarly, if anyone wishes ill or causes an injury to a person who knows prāṇa, he invites his own destruction thereby. The person who knows prāṇa is immune to injury like a piece of unbreakable stone.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Evam yathā, just as [chunks of earth]; ākhaṇam, unbreakable; aśmānam, stone; ṛtvā, having hit; vidhvaṃsate, are smashed; evam ha eva, in the same way; saḥ vidhvaṃsate, a person gets totally destroyed; yaḥ pāpam kāmayate, who wishes ill; evamvidi, of a person who knows thus [the true nature of prāṇa]; yaḥ ca enam abhidāsati, or who causes an injury to such a person; saḥ eṣaḥ, he [who knows] this [prāṇa]; aśmā ākhaṇaḥ, [is like] a stone that can never be broken. Commentary:-What is the difference between mukhya prāṇa (the chief prāṇa) and the prāṇa that is associated with our breathing, or smelling? Mukhya prāṇa is supreme prāṇa—that is, it is Brahman. It is pure, all-pervasive, and self-sufficient. But our breathing is associated with the organ of smelling and is not independent. It is also not pure. It has limitations and is susceptible to pāpma, impurities—that is, it is sometimes good and sometimes bad. Mukhya prāṇa, however, is always pure, always the same. One who knows the true nature of prāṇa is immune to injury. And anyone trying to hurt him will end up hurting himself.

Translation By Max Müller

8. Thus, as a ball of earth is scattered when hitting on a solid stone, will he be scattered who wishes evil to one who knows this, or who persecutes him; for he is a solid stone.


Sloka : 1.2.9

नैवैतेन सुरभि न दुर्गन्धि विजानात्यपहतपाप्मा ह्येष

तेन यदश्नाति यत्पिबति तेनेतरान्प्राणानवति एतमु

एवान्ततोऽवित्त्वोत्क्रमति व्याददात्येवान्तत इति ॥ १.२.९॥

naivaitena surabhi na durgandhi vijānātyapahatapāpmā hyeṣa

tena yadaśnāti yatpibati tenetarānprāṇānavati etamu

evāntato'vittvotkramati vyādadātyevāntata iti .. 1.2.9..



9. So far as the chief prāṇa is concerned, there is no good or bad odour for it. This is because it is pure [i.e., it is never touched by anything evil born of egotism]. If this prāṇa eats and drinks anything, it does so only to sustain the sense organs [such as the eyes, the ears, and so on]. When death occurs, the chief prāṇa does not eat or drink anything [and as a result, the sense organs collapse]. They seem to have left the body. [They still want to eat and drink, however, so that they may live, and] this is indicated by the fact that a person dies with the mouth open.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Etena eva, by this [chief prāṇa]; nā surabhi, no sweet odour; na durgandhi, no bad odour; vijānāti, is known; hi, because; eṣaḥ, this [prāṇa]; apahata-pāpmā, is pure [untouched by evil]; tena, by that [prāṇa]; yat aśnāti, whatever a person eats; yat pibati, whatever a person drinks; tena, by this [eating and drinking]; itarān prāṇān, the sense organs; avati, sustains; u antataḥ, at the time of death; etam, this [chief prāṇa]; avittvā eva, without receiving any food and drink; utkrāmati, goes out of the body; [this is why] antataḥ, at the time of death; vyādadāti eva, a person has the mouth open. Commentary:-For the chief prāṇa, there is no good or bad odour because it is pure. Egotism is the source of impurity, and the chief prāṇa is free from egotism. And being free from egotism, the chief prāṇa is selfless. People eat and drink because of the chief prāṇa. But the chief prāṇa does not eat or drink for itself. It enables But how do we know that the food and drink the chief prāṇa consumes goes to sustain the organs? When death occurs the chief prāṇa stops eating and drinking. As a result, the sense organs stop functioning, as if they have left the body. It is seen, however, that when a person dies his mouth is open. This is indicative of the desire of the chief prāṇa to eat and drink.

Translation By Max Müller

9. By it (the breath in the mouth) he distinguishes neither what is good nor what is bad-smelling, for that breath is free from evil. What we eat and drink with it supports the other vital breaths (i. e. the senses, such as smell, &c.) When at the time of death he [1] does not find that breath (in the mouth, through which he eats and drinks and lives), then he departs. He opens the mouth at the time of death (as if wishing to eat).

Footnote:

1. According to the commentator, the assemblage of the other vital breaths or senses is here meant. They depart when the breath of the mouth, sometimes called sarvambhari, all-supporting, does no longer, by eating and drinking, support them.


Sloka : 1.2.10

तꣳ हाङ्गिरा उद्गीथमुपासांचक्र एतमु एवाङ्गिरसं

मन्यन्तेऽङ्गानां यद्रसः ॥ १.२.१०॥

tagͫ hāṅgirā udgīthamupāsāṃcakra etamu evāṅgirasaṃ

manyante'ṅgānāṃ yadrasaḥ .. 1.2.10..



10. The sage Aṅgirā worshipped the chief prāṇa as udgītha [i.e., Brahman, to whom the udgītha is addressed]. The chief prāṇa is referred to as āṅgirasa, for it is the rasa [i.e., the essence, or support] of all the aṅgas [organs].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tam, that [the chief prāṇa]; ha aṅgirāḥ, the sage Aṅgirā; udgītham, as udgītha [the Supreme]; upāsāñcakre, worshipped; etam, this [Supreme Being, the chief prāṇa]; u eva āṅgirasam, as Āṅgirasa; manyante, [people] regard; aṅgānām yat rasaḥ, for it is the essence [support] of all the aṅgas [the organs]. Commentary:-The word āṅgirasa is derived from aṅga + rasa. That is, āṅgirasa is the rasa (essence) of the aṅgas (organs). It is the support of the organs. It is the same as prāṇa. When the sage Aṅgirā worships prāṇa, he is worshipping himself.

Translation By Max Müller

10. Aṅgiras [1] meditated on the udgîtha (Om) as that breath, and people hold it to be Aṅgiras, i. e. the essence of the members (angânâm rasah);

Footnote:

1. The paragraphs from 10 to 14 are differently explained by Indian commentators. By treating the nominatives aṅgirâs, brihaspatis, and ayâsyas (here the printed text reads ayâsyam) as accusatives, or by admitting the omission of an iti after them, they connect paragraphs 9, 10, and 11 with paragra , and thus gain the meaning that Vaka Dâlbhya meditated on the breath in the mouth as Aṅgiras, Brihaspati, and Ayâsya, instead of those saints having themselves thus meditated; and that he, knowing the secret names and qualities of the breath, obtained, when acting as Udgâtri priest, the wishes of those for whom he sacrificed. Tena is difficult to explain, unless we take it in the sense of tenânusishtah, taught by him.


Sloka : 1.2.11

तेन तꣳ ह बृहस्पतिरुद्गीथमुपासांचक्र एतमु एव बृहस्पतिं

मन्यन्ते वाग्घि बृहती तस्या एष पतिः ॥ १.२.११ ॥

tena tagͫ ha bṛhaspatirudgīthamupāsāṃcakra etamu eva bṛhaspatiṃ

manyante vāgghi bṛhatī tasyā eṣa patiḥ .. 1.2.11 ..



11. This is why Bṛhaspati worshipped prāṇa as udgītha. Prāṇa is regarded as Bṛhaspati, for vāk [speech] is great [bṛhatī] and prāṇa is its lord [pati].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tena, for that reason; bṛhaspatiḥ, Bṛhaspati; ha tam, that [prāṇa]; udgītham upāsāñcakre, worshipped prāṇa as udgītha [as Brahman, to whom Om is sung]; etam u eva bṛhaspatim manyante, they regard this [prāṇa] as Bṛhaspati; hi, for; vāk, speech; bṛhatī, is powerful; tasyāḥ eṣaḥ patiḥ, prāṇa is its lord. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

11. Therefore Brihaspati meditated on udgîtha (Om) as that breath, and people hold it to be Brihaspati, for speech is brihatî, and he (that breath) is the lord (pati) of speech;


Sloka : 1.2.12

तेन तꣳ हायास्य उद्गीथमुपासांचक्र एतमु एवायास्यं

मन्यन्त आस्याद्यदयते ॥ १.२.१२॥

tena tagͫ hāyāsya udgīthamupāsāṃcakra etamu evāyāsyaṃ

manyanta āsyādyadayate .. 1.2.12..



12. This is why Āyāsya worshipped prāṇa as udgītha. They regarded this as Āyāsya for it is that which comes [ayate] out of the mouth [āsyāt].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tena, for that reason; tam, that [i.e., the chief prāṇa]; ha āyāsya, the sage Āyāsya [or, that which comes out of the mouth]; udgītham, as udgītha; upāsāñcakre, worshipped; etam u eva āyāsyam manyante, they regarded this as Āyāsya; yat āsyāt ayate, that which comes out of the mouth. Commentary:-Prāṇa is also Bṛhaspati because it is the lord of all speech. Āyāsya means ‘that which comes out of the mouth.’ It is prāṇa, but it is also the name of a sage. Aṅgirā, Bṛhaspati, and Āyāsya—these sages worshipped prāṇa as udgītha. They, in fact, worshipped themselves.

Translation By Max Müller

12. Therefore Ayâsya meditated on the udgîtha (Om) as that breath, and people hold it to be Ayâsya, because it comes (ayati) from the mouth (âsya);


Sloka : 1.2.13

तेन तꣳह बको दाल्भ्यो विदांचकार ।

स ह नैमिशीयानामुद्गाता बभूव स ह स्मैभ्यः

कामानागायति ॥ १.२.१३॥

tena tagͫha bako dālbhyo vidāṃcakāra .

sa ha naimiśīyānāmudgātā babhūva sa ha smaibhyaḥ

kāmānāgāyati .. 1.2.13..



13. The sage Baka, son of Dalbha, came to know prāṇa as it was. That is why the sages of Naimiṣa forest selected him as the singer of their udgītha. He, in his turn, fulfilled their wishes.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Dālbhyaḥ, the son of Dalbha; bakaḥ, the sage Baka; ha tam, that [prāṇa]; tena, with the qualities as stated; vidāñcakāra, came to know; saḥ, he [Baka]; ha naimiṣīyānām, of the sages of Naimiṣa forest; udgātā, the singer of the udgītha; babhūva, became; ha ebhyaḥ kāmān, according to the wishes [of the forest dwellers]; saḥ āgāyati sma, he sang [the udgītha]. Commentary:-Not only did Aṅgirā and other sages worship prāṇa, but Baka, son of Dalbha, also did the same. That is, he recognized the power of prāṇa. The sages of Naimiṣa forest were pleased with him, and appointed him to sing the udgītha for them. He thus sang the udgītha in praise of prāṇa and pleased the sages by his performance.

Translation By Max Müller

13. Therefore Vaka Dâlbhya knew it. He was the Udgâtri (singer) of the Naimishîya-sacrificers, and by singing he obtained for them their wishes.


Sloka : 1.2.14

आगाता ह वै कामानां भवति य एतदेवं

विद्वानक्षरमुद्गीथमुपास्त इत्यध्यात्मम् ॥ १.२.१४॥

āgātā ha vai kāmānāṃ bhavati ya etadevaṃ

vidvānakṣaramudgīthamupāsta ityadhyātmam .. 1.2.14..



14. If a person knows the real meaning of prāṇa and worships it as udgītha akṣara [i.e., as Akṣara Brahman] he himself becomes Akṣara Brahman. He then worships everyone he wants to worship [i.e., in singing for prāṇa he sings for all], and he attains all he desires. This is the attainment on the level of the body [adhyātma]. [The inner attainment is that he becomes one with prāṇa—that is, Akṣara Brahman.]





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yaḥ, he who; evam, as such; vidvān, knows;; etat, this [prāṇa]; udgītham akṣaram, as udgītha akṣara [akṣara means both ‘syllable’ and ‘the undecaying,’ which is a name of Brahman]; upāste, worships [or meditates on]; vai kāmānām āgātā ha bhavati, he thereby becomes the udgātā [singer] of all that he desires; iti adhyātmam, this is so far as the udgītha relating to the body is concerned. Iti dvitīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ here ends the second section. Commentary:-Singing for prāṇa is the same as singing for all, for prāṇa is all. You may even achieve all you desire through it. This is so far as the individual is concerned. Praising Om has a threefold reward:- relating to the body (adhyātma), relating to animals (adhibhūta), and relating to the elements (adhidaiva).

Translation By Max Müller

14. He who knows this, and meditates on the syllable Om (the imperishable udgîtha) as the breath of life in the mouth, he obtains all wishes by singing. So much for the udgîtha (Om) as meditated on with reference to the body [1].

Footnote:

1. Adhyâtma means with reference to the body, not with reference to the self or the soul. Having explained the symbolical meaning of Om as applied to the body and its organs of sense, he now explains its symbolical meaning adhidaivatam, i.e. as applied to divine beings.


Sloka : 1.3.1

॥ इति द्वितीयः खण्डः ॥

अथाधिदैवतं य एवासौ तपति

तमुद्गीथमुपासीतोद्यन्वा एष प्रजाभ्य उद्गायति ।

उद्यꣳस्तमो भयमपहन्त्यपहन्ता ह वै भयस्य

तमसो भवति य एवं वेद ॥ १.३.१॥

.. iti dvitīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

athādhidaivataṃ ya evāsau tapati

tamudgīthamupāsītodyanvā eṣa prajābhya udgāyati .

udyagͫstamo bhayamapahantyapahantā ha vai bhayasya

tamaso bhavati ya evaṃ veda .. 1.3.1..



1. Next, how you worship from the standpoint of the forces of nature:- There is the sun rising to give us heat. Worship it as udgītha. The sun rises to pray, as it were, for the welfare of all living beings. As it rises, it dispels the fear of darkness. One who knows this overcomes the fear of ignorance about birth and death.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; adhidaivatam, relating to the elements [such as rain, lightning, and other forces of nature]; yaḥ eva asau, that [i.e., the sun] over there which; tapati, gives us heat; tam, to that; udgītham upāsīta, worship as udgītha; udyan, as it rises; vai eṣaḥ, this [sun]; prajābhyaḥ, for all living beings; udgāyati, [as if] it prays for their well-being; udyan, as [the sun] rises; tamaḥ bhayam apahanti, it removes the fear of darkness; yaḥ, one who; evam veda, knows this; vai bhayasya, the fear [of birth and death]; tamasaḥ, ignorance; apahantā bhavati, overcomes. Commentary:-There are many ways of using udgītha as worship. This verse gives an example of how you use it in worshipping the forces of nature (adhidaivata). There is the sun above giving us heat. The Upaniṣad says to worship udgītha as the sun. But if udgītha is Om, how can it stand for the sun? The sun helps the plants, such as paddy, to grow. Without the sun, life on this planet would be impossible. It is as if the sun sings the udgītha for us to sustain us. This is why the sun is referred to as the udgītha. As udgītha, the sun also dispels our fear of darkness. One who knows this is no longer afraid of birth and death. That is, he knows he is immortal.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Now follows the meditation on the udgîtha with reference to the gods. Let a man meditate on the udgîtha (Om) as he who sends warmth (the sun in the sky). When the sun rises it sings as Udgâtri for the sake of all creatures. When it rises it destroys the fear of darkness. He who knows this, is able to destroy the fear of darkness (ignorance).


Sloka : 1.3.2

समान उ एवायं चासौ चोष्णोऽयमुष्णोऽसौ

स्वर इतीममाचक्षते स्वर इति प्रत्यास्वर इत्यमुं

तस्माद्वा एतमिमममुं चोद्गीथमुपासीत ॥ १.३.२॥

samāna u evāyaṃ cāsau coṣṇo'yamuṣṇo'sau

svara itīmamācakṣate svara iti pratyāsvara ityamuṃ

tasmādvā etamimamamuṃ codgīthamupāsīta .. 1.3.2..



2. This prāṇa and that sun are alike. Prāṇa is warm, and the sun is also warm. Prāṇa is called svara [when it is ‘going out’ at the time of death]. The sun is also described as svara [when it ‘sets’] and pratyāsvara [when it ‘comes back’]. Therefore, worship both prāṇa and the sun as udgītha.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ayam, this [prāṇa]; ca asau, and that [sun]; samānaḥ eva, are equivalent; u ayam, this [prāṇa]; uṣṇaḥ, is warm; ca asau, and that [sun]; uṣṇaḥ, is warm; imam, this [prāṇa]; svaraḥ iti ācakṣate, [sages] call it svara [‘outgoing,’ at the time of death]; amum, that [sun]; svaraḥ iti, has set; pratyāsvaraḥ iti, [and] has returned [this is what people say]; tasmāt vai, for that reason; etam, this [going out]; imam, this [prāṇa]; ca amum, and that [sun]; udgītham upāsīta, worship as udgītha. Commentary:-Prāṇa and āditya (the sun) are similar. Both are warm. Sages call both svara, which means ‘going out.’ The difference is that while prāṇa goes out (at the time of death), the sun goes out (when it sets) and also returns (pratyāsvara, when it rises). Thus, prāṇa and āditya are similar in name and quality. It is therefore appropriate to worship both as udgītha. Both are Om.

Translation By Max Müller

2. This (the breath in the mouth) and that (the sun) are the same. This is hot and that is hot. This they call svara (sound), and that they call pratyâsvara [1] (reflected sound). Therefore let a man meditate on the udgîtha (Om) as this and that (as breath and as sun).

Footnote:

1. As applied to breath, svara is explained by the commentator in the sense of moving, going out; pratyâsvara, as applied to the sun, is explained as returning every day. More likely, however, svara as applied to breath means sound, Om itself being called svara (Kh. Up. I, 4, 3), and prasvâra in the Rig-veda-prâtisâkhya, 882. As applied to the sun, svara and pratyâsvara were probably taken in the sense of light and reflected light.


Sloka : 1.3.3

अथ खलु व्यानमेवोद्गीथमुपासीत यद्वै प्राणिति

स प्राणो यदपानिति सोऽपानः ।

अथ यः प्राणापानयोः संधिः स व्यानो यो व्यानः

सा वाक् ।

तस्मादप्राणन्ननपानन्वाचमभिव्याहरति ॥ १.३.३॥

atha khalu vyānamevodgīthamupāsīta yadvai prāṇiti

sa prāṇo yadapāniti so'pānaḥ .

atha yaḥ prāṇāpānayoḥ saṃdhiḥ sa vyāno yo vyānaḥ

sā vāk .

tasmādaprāṇannanapānanvācamabhivyāharati .. 1.3.3..



3. Worship vyāna [the breath held between prāṇa and apāna that enables you to speak] as udgītha. Prāṇa is the breath drawn in and apāna is the breath drawn out. Vyāna is the breath held between prāṇa and apāna. This vyāna is also called vāk [speech], for in speaking a person has to hold the breath.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, indirectly; khalu vyānam eva udgītham upāsīta, one should worship vyāna [the bridge between prāṇa (breathing in) and apāna (breathing out)] as udgītha; yat vai prāṇiti, that which is breathed in; saḥ prāṇaḥ, that is prāṇa; yat apāniti, that which is breathed out; saḥ apānaḥ, that is apāna; atha yat prāṇa-apānayoḥ sandhiḥ, then the bridge between prāṇa and apāna; saḥ vyānaḥ, that is vyāna; yaḥ vyānaḥ sā vāk, that which is vyāna is speech; tasmāt, therefore; aprāṇan, without inhaling; anapānan, without exhaling; vācam abhivyāharati, a person speaks. Commentary:-Here vyāna is being presented for worship as udgītha, for vyāna is only a form of prāṇa. What is vyāna? Vyāna is the bridge between prāṇa and apāna, between breathing in and breathing out. Vyāna is the state in which you hold your breath. Vyāna is also called vāk, speech, for when you speak you have to hold your breath. Śaṅkara says prāṇa is breathing out and apāna is breathing in. According to Monier-Williams, it is the other way around—prāṇa is breathing in and apāna is breathing out. Macdowell is of the same opinion. Both meanings are correct, depending on the context in which the word is used.

Translation By Max Müller

3. Then let a man meditate on the udgîtha (Om) as vyâna indeed. If we breathe up, that is prâna, the up-breathing. If we breathe down, that is apâna, the down-breathing. The combination of prâna and apâna is vyâna, back-breathing or holding in of the breath. This vyâna is speech. Therefore when we utter speech, we neither breathe up nor down.


Sloka : 1.3.4

या वाक्सर्क्तस्मादप्राणन्ननपानन्नृचमभिव्याहरति

यर्क्तत्साम तस्मादप्राणन्ननपानन्साम गायति

यत्साम स उद्गीथस्तस्मादप्राणन्ननपानन्नुद्गायति ॥ १.३.४॥

yā vāksarktasmādaprāṇannanapānannṛcamabhivyāharati

yarktatsāma tasmādaprāṇannanapānansāma gāyati

yatsāma sa udgīthastasmādaprāṇannanapānannudgāyati .. 1.3.4..



4. Whatever is vāk [speech] is also the Ṛk [part of the Ṛg Veda]. This is why a person stops breathing in and breathing out when reciting the Ṛk mantras. Whatever is the Ṛk is also the Sāma. This is why one recites the Sāma without breathing in or breathing out. That which is the Sāma is also the udgītha. This is why when one sings the udgītha one stops both breathing in and breathing out.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yā vāk sā ṛk, that which is speech is Ṛk; tasmāt, because [they are one]; aprāṇan anapānan, breathing in and out are suspended; ṛcam, the Ṛg Veda; abhivyāharati, one recites; yā ṛk tat sāma, that which is the Ṛk is also the Sāma; tasmāt, because [they are one and the same]; aprāṇan anapānan sāma gāyati, one suspends breathing in and out when singing the Sāma; yat sāma saḥ udgīthaḥ, that which is the Sāma is the udgītha; tasmāt aprāṇan anapānan udgāyati, because one sings the udgītha by suspending both breathing in and breathing out. Commentary:-The Ṛk is a collection of words, and the Sāma is based on the Ṛk. Again, the Sāma and the udgītha are the same. To recite any of these, or even to speak, you have to resort to vyāna—that is, you must hold your breath.

Translation By Max Müller

4. Speech is Rik, and therefore when a man utters a Rik verse he neither breathes up nor down. Rik is Sâman, and therefore when a man utters a Sâman verse he neither breathes up nor down. Sâman is udgîtha, and therefore when a man sings (the udgîtha, Om) he neither breathes up nor down.


Sloka : 1.3.5

अतो यान्यन्यानि वीर्यवन्ति कर्माणि यथाग्नेर्मन्थनमाजेः

सरणं दृढस्य धनुष आयमनमप्राणन्ननपानꣳस्तानि

करोत्येतस्य हेतोर्व्यानमेवोद्गीथमुपासीत ॥ १.३.५॥

ato yānyanyāni vīryavanti karmāṇi yathāgnermanthanamājeḥ

saraṇaṃ dṛḍhasya dhanuṣa āyamanamaprāṇannanapānagͫstāni

karotyetasya hetorvyānamevodgīthamupāsīta .. 1.3.5..



5. This is why, while doing feats demanding great strength—such as producing a fire by rubbing one stick of wood against another, running up to a target, or bending a stiff bow—a person does not breathe in or breathe out. For this reason, one should worship this holding of breath, called vyāna, as udgītha [Om].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ataḥ, this is why; yāni, those; anyāni, other; vīryavanti, demanding great strength; karmāṇi, feats; yathā, such as; agneḥ manthanam, igniting a fire by rubbing one piece of wood against another; ājeh, a target; saraṇam, running up to; dṛḍhasya dhanuṣaḥ āyamanam, bending a stiff bow; aprāṇan anapānan, without breathing in or breathing out; tāni, all those [feats]; karoti, one accomplishes; etasya hetoḥ, for this reason; vyānam eva, vyāna; udgītham, as udgītha [Om]; upāsīta, one should worship. Commentary:-Whenever you do something that demands much application of strength, you must resort to vyāna. Take, for instance, deeds such as producing fire by grinding one piece of wood against another, or running up to a target, or bending a stiff bow. In doing each of these feats, you have to hold your breath. Even when you speak, you hold your breath. This distinguishes vyāna from other forms of breathing. Vyāna, therefore, deserves special worship, for vyāna is in a class by itself. It gives you strength.

Translation By Max Müller

5. And other works also which require strength, such as the production of fire by rubbing, running a race, stringing a strong bow, are performed without breathing up or down. Therefore let a man meditate on the udgîtha (Om) as vyâna.


Sloka : 1.3.6

अथ खलूद्गीथाक्षराण्युपासीतोद्गीथ इति

प्राण एवोत्प्राणेन ह्युत्तिष्ठति वाग्गीर्वाचो ह

गिर इत्याचक्षतेऽन्नं थमन्ने हीदꣳसर्वꣳस्थितम् ॥ १.३.६॥

atha khalūdgīthākṣarāṇyupāsītodgītha iti

prāṇa evotprāṇena hyuttiṣṭhati vāggīrvāco ha

gira ityācakṣate'nnaṃ thamanne hīdagͫsarvagͫsthitam .. 1.3.6..



6. Now, one should worship the syllables ut, gī and tha separately in the word udgītha. Prāṇa is represented by ut, for prāṇa is responsible for the





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, now; khalu udgīthākṣarāṇi ‘ut-gī-tha’ iti upāsīta, worship the syllables ut, gī, and tha separately in the word udgītha; prāṇaḥ eva ut, prāṇa is this ut; prāṇena hi, because by prāṇa; uttiṣṭhati, arises [everything]; vāk gīḥ, vāk [speech] is gī; vācaḥ ha giraḥ iti ācakṣate, because words are called ‘gira’; annam tham, food is tha; hi idam sarvam, for all this [i.e., this world]; anne sthitam, is supported by food. Commentary:-The word udgītha is comprised of the syllables ut, gī, and tha. It is worthwhile meditating on these syllables, for each one is significant. For instance, ut, in brief, is uttham, rising. It stands for prāṇa, because out of prāṇa everything comes into being. From prāṇa everything ‘rises’; otherwise it goes down. The syllable gī stands for speech, because scholars prefer to use the word gira to mean speech. Similarly, the syllable tha stands for food, for tha means ‘that which supports.’ It is well known that food supports everything. Thus the syllables ut, gī, and tha stand for the whole word udgītha. It is like thinking of the name ‘Ram Misra.’ As you think of the name, you also think of the person who bears that name. Try to think of each syllable in the word udgītha as above.

Translation By Max Müller

6. Let a man meditate on the syllables of the udgîtha, i. e. of the word udgîtha. Ut is breath (prâna), for by means of breath a man rises (uttishthati). Gî is speech, for speeches are called girah. Tha is food, for by means of food all subsists (sthita).


Sloka : 1.3.7

द्यौरेवोदन्तरिक्षं गीः पृथिवी थमादित्य

एवोद्वायुर्गीरग्निस्थꣳ सामवेद एवोद्यजुर्वेदो

गीरृग्वेदस्थं दुग्धेऽस्मै वाग्दोहं यो वाचो

दोहोऽन्नवानन्नादो भवति य एतान्येवं

विद्वानुद्गीथाक्षराण्युपास्त उद्गीथ इति ॥ १.३.७॥

dyaurevodantarikṣaṃ gīḥ pṛthivī thamāditya

evodvāyurgīragnisthagͫ sāmaveda evodyajurvedo

gīrṛgvedasthaṃ dugdhe'smai vāgdohaṃ yo vāco

doho'nnavānannādo bhavati ya etānyevaṃ

vidvānudgīthākṣarāṇyupāsta udgītha iti .. 1.3.7..



7. Heaven is ut, the space between heaven and the earth is gī, and the earth is tha. The sun is ut, air is gī, and fire is tha. The Sāma Veda is ut, the Yajur Veda is gī, and the Ṛg Veda is tha. The scriptures reveal their meaning to the seeker if he knows all this. One who worships ut-gī-tha as above gets plenty of food and also eats plenty of food. [Such a person also gets enlightenment.]





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Dyauḥ, heaven; eva ut, is ut; antarikṣam gīḥ, the space between heaven and earth is gī; pṛthivī tham, the earth is tha; ādityaḥ eva ut, the sun is ut; vāyuḥ gīḥ, air is gī; agniḥ tham, fire is tha; sāma vedaḥ eva ut, the Sāma Veda is ut; yajur vedaḥ gīḥ, the Yajur Veda is gī; ṛg vedaḥ tham, the Ṛg Veda is tha; vāk, the Ṛg Veda and other scriptures; asmai, to him [the spiritual seeker]; doham, the goal [he is seeking]; dugdhe, gives him of itself; yaḥ vācaḥ dohaḥ, the goal is the knowledge of the scriptures; yaḥ evam vidvān, the seeker who knows this; etāni udgīthākṣarāṇi ut + gī + tha iti upāste, [and] worships these syllables of udgītha; annavān, he has plenty of food; annādaḥ bhavati, [and] he enjoys eating that food [i.e., he becomes illumined]. Commentary:-Heaven is said to be ut because it is high above. Space is gī because it envelops the whole world. And the earth is tha because it is the support of all beings. Āditya, the sun, is ut because it is far above everything. Vāyu, air, is gī because it envelops everything. Agni, fire, is tha because it is the common element in every sacrificial rite. The Sāma Veda is said to be ut because it is known even in heaven. The Yajur Veda is gī because the butter used in performing the Yajur Vedic rites is eaten by the gods and goddesses. The Ṛg Veda is tha because it supports the Sāma Veda. What do you gain by worshipping ut-gī-tha? You gradually understand the meaning of the Ṛg Veda and other Vedas. You also have plenty to eat, and you become like ‘a blazing fire’—that is, you become an illumined person.

Translation By Max Müller

7. Ut is heaven, gî the sky, tha the earth. Ut is the sun, gî the air, tha the fire. Ut is the Sâma-veda,, gî the Yagur-veda, tha the Rig-veda [1]. Speech yields the milk, which is the milk of speech itself [2], to him who thus knowing meditates on those syllables of the name of udgîtha, he becomes rich in food and able to eat food.

Footnote:

1. The commentator supplies explanations to all these fanciful etymologies. The heaven is ut, because it is high; the sky is gî, because it gives out all the worlds (giranât); earth is tha, because it is the place (sthâna) of living beings. The sun is ut, because it is high. The wind is gî, because it gives out fire, &c. (giranât); fire is tha, because it is the place (sthâna) of the sacrifice. The Sâma-veda is ut, because it is praised as svarga; the Yagur-veda is gî, because the gods take the oblation offered with a Yagus; the Rig-veda is tha, because the Sâma verses stand in it. All this is very childish, and worse than childish, but it is interesting as a phase of human folly which is not restricted to the Brahmans of India. I take the following passage from an interesting article, 'On the Ogam Beithluisnin and on Scythian Letters,' by Dr. Charles Graves, Bishop of Limerick. 'An Irish antiquary,' he says, 'writing several hundred years ago, proposes to give an account of the origin of the names of the notes in the musical scale. '"It is asked here, according to Saint Augustine, What is chanting, or why is it so called? Answer. From this word cantalena; and cantalena is the same thing as lenis cantus, i. e. a soft, sweet chant to God, and to the Virgin Mary, and to all the Saints. And the reason why the word puinec (puncta) is so called is because the points (or musical notes) ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, hurt the devil and puncture him. And it is thus that these points are to be understood:- viz. When Moses the son of Amram, with his people in their Exodus was crossing the Red Sea, and Pharaoh and his host were following him, this was the chant which Moses had to protect him from Pharaoh and his host--these six points in praise of the Lord:-- '"The first point of these, i. e. ut:- and ut in the Greek is the same as liberat in the Latin; and that is the same as saer in the Gaelic; i.e. O God, said Moses, deliver us from the harm of the devil. "'The second point of them, i.e. re:- and re is the same as saer; i. e. O God, deliver us from everything hurtful and malignant. '"The third point, i.e. mi:- and mi in the Greek is the same as militum in the Latin; and that is the same as ridere (a knight) in the Gaelic; i. e. O God, said Moses, deliver us from those knights who are pursuing us. '"The fourth point, i.e. fa:- and fa in the Greek is the same as famulus in the Latin; and that is the same as mug (slave) in the Gaelic; i. e. O God, said Moses, deliver us from those slaves who are pursuing us. '"The fifth point, i.e. sol:- and sol is the same as grian (sun); and that is the same as righteousness; because righteousness and Christ are not different; i. e. O Christ, said Moses, deliver us. '"The sixth point, i. e. la, is the same as lav; and that is the same as indail (wash); i.e. O God, said Moses, wash away our sins from us. '"And on the singing of that laud Pharaoh and his host were drowned. '"Understand, O man, that in whatever place this laud, i. e. this chant, is sung, the devil is bound by it, and his power is extirpated thence, and the power of God is called in." 'We have been taught that the names of the first six notes in the gamut were suggested by the initial syllables of the first six hemistichs in one of the stanzas of a hymn to St. John:- Ut queant laxis
Resonare fibris
Mira gestorum
Famuli tuorum,
Solve polluti
Labii reatum,
       Sancte Ioannes.' 2. The milk of speech consists in rewards to be obtained by the Rig-veda, &c. Or we may translate, Speech yields its milk to him who is able to milk speech.


Sloka : 1.3.8

अथ खल्वाशीःसमृद्धिरुपसरणानीत्युपासीत

येन साम्ना स्तोष्यन्स्यात्तत्सामोपधावेत् ॥ १.३.८॥

atha khalvāśīḥsamṛddhirupasaraṇānītyupāsīta

yena sāmnā stoṣyansyāttatsāmopadhāvet .. 1.3.8..



8. Now here are instructions about how one attains one’s desired objectives:- Keep meditating on the objectives. Also, pray for the objectives by singing the appropriate Sāma, and remember that the Sāma is the source of the things you are asking for.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha khalu, now; āśīḥ samṛddhiḥ, instructions about how desired objectives can be obtained; upasaraṇāni, the things desired; iti, in this way; upāsīta, one should meditate upon; yena sāmnā, by that Sāma; stoṣyan syāt, one sings; tat sāma upadhāvet, one should meditate upon that Sāma. Commentary:-You sing a particular Sāma for a particular thing you wish to get. Sing it always, and remember that it is the source of what you are wishing for.

Translation By Max Müller

8. Next follows the fulfilment of prayers. Let a man thus meditate on the Upasaranas, i. e. the objects which have to be approached by meditation:- Let him (the Udgâtri) quickly reflect on the Sâman with which he is going to praise;


Sloka : 1.3.9

यस्यामृचि तामृचं यदार्षेयं तमृषिं यां

देवतामभिष्टोष्यन्स्यात्तां देवतामुपधावेत् ॥ १.३.९॥

yasyāmṛci tāmṛcaṃ yadārṣeyaṃ tamṛṣiṃ yāṃ

devatāmabhiṣṭoṣyansyāttāṃ devatāmupadhāvet .. 1.3.9..



9. The Ṛk from which this Sāma is derived, the sage who conceived of this Sāma prayer, and the deity to whom the prayer is addressed—meditate on all of them.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tām ṛcam, that Ṛk; yasyām ṛci, on which Ṛk [the Sāma is based]; tam ṛṣim yat ārṣeyam, that sage who conceived of it; yām devatām abhiṣṭoṣyan syāt, the deity to whom the prayer is addressed; tām devatām, that deity; upadhāvet, one should meditate on. Commentary:-When you recite a Sāma mantra, you should remember the Ṛk mantra from which it is derived, the sage

Translation By Max Müller

9. Let him quickly reflect on the Rik in which that Sâman occurs; on the Rishi (poet) by whom it was seen or composed; on the Devatâ (object) which he is going to praise;


Sloka : 1.3.10

येन च्छन्दसा स्तोष्यन्स्यात्तच्छन्द उपधावेद्येन

स्तोमेन स्तोष्यमाणः स्यात्तꣳस्तोममुपधावेत् ॥ १.३.१०॥

yena cchandasā stoṣyansyāttacchanda upadhāvedyena

stomena stoṣyamāṇaḥ syāttagͫstomamupadhāvet .. 1.3.10..



10. One may use the Gāyatrī or some other hymn when praying, but one should meditate on it. Again, one may use a number of Sāma mantras while praying, but one must meditate on them [along with the deities to whom they are addressed].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yena chandasā, by the Gāyatrī or whatever other hymn; stoṣyan syāt, one is going to pray; tat chandaḥ upadhāvet, one should meditate on that hymn; yena stomena stoṣyamāṇaḥ syāt, the group of Sāmas by which a person is going to pray; tam stomam upadhāvet, one should meditate on those Sāmas [along with the deities to whom they are addressed]. Commentary:-Whether you use the Gāyatrī or some other hymn while praying, you should not forget to meditate on that hymn. In fact, whatever mantras you use, you should meditate on them as well as on the deities to whom they are directed.

Translation By Max Müller

10. On the metre in which he is going to praise; on the tune with which he is going to sing for himself;


Sloka : 1.3.11

यां दिशमभिष्टोष्यन्स्यात्तां दिशमुपधावेत् ॥ १.३.११॥

yāṃ diśamabhiṣṭoṣyansyāttāṃ diśamupadhāvet .. 1.3.11..



11. No matter what direction one may face while praying, one should meditate on that direction [along with the presiding deities of that direction].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yām diśam abhiṣṭoṣyan syāt, whatever direction a person may face while praying; tām diśam upadhāvet, one should worship that direction [and also the deities presiding over that direction]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

11. On the quarter of the world which he is going to praise. Lastly, having approached himself (his name, family, &c.) by meditation, let him sing the hymn of praise, reflecting on his desire, and avoiding all mistakes in pronunciation, &c.


Sloka : 1.3.12

आत्मानमन्तत उपसृत्य स्तुवीत कामं

ध्यायन्नप्रमत्तोऽभ्याशो ह यदस्मै स कामः समृध्येत

यत्कामः स्तुवीतेति यत्कामः स्तुवीतेति ॥ १.३.१२॥

ātmānamantata upasṛtya stuvīta kāmaṃ

dhyāyannapramatto'bhyāśo ha yadasmai sa kāmaḥ samṛdhyeta

yatkāmaḥ stuvīteti yatkāmaḥ stuvīteti .. 1.3.12..



12. Finally, as a person ends his prayer, he should ask for whatever he desires, making sure, however, that his pronunciation is correct. He should also think of himself [including his name, lineage, and caste]. Then whatever desire he has while praying is promptly and surely fulfilled.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Antataḥ, as one ends one’s prayer; kāmam dhyāyan apramattaḥ, one should think of whatever one desires, making sure that the pronunciation of words is correct; ātmānam, oneself; upasṛtya, thinking of [one’s name, lineage, and caste]; stuvīta, praise; yat kāmaḥ, whatever desire one has; stuvīta, while praying; kāmaḥ, that desire; abhyāsaḥ, promptly; ha, surely; asmai, to the person concerned; samṛdhyeta, prosperity goes. [The repetition is for emphasis.] Iti tṛtīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the third section. Commentary:-Here the udgātā (the singer) is told how he should pray. He should first repeat the Sāma songs, and then he should pray for whatever he desires. His prayer should be correct in every detail. And while praying, he should mention his own name, his lineage, and his caste. If these conditions are fulfilled, his prayer will be promptly granted. That this will happen is indicated by the repetition of the statement.

Translation By Max Müller

12. Quickly [1] will the desire be then fulfilled to him, for the sake of which he may have offered his hymn of praise, yea, for which he may have offered his hymn of praise [2].

Footnote:

1. Abhyâso ha yat, lit. depend on it that it will be fulfilled, but always explained by quickly. See Kh. Up. II, 1, 4; III, 19, 4; V, 10, 7. Frequently, but wrongly, written with a dental s. 2. The repetition of the last sentence is always an indication that a chapter is finished. This old division into chapters is of great importance for a proper study of the Upanishads.


Sloka : 1.4.1

॥ इति तृतीयः खण्डः ॥

ओमित्येतदक्षरमुद्गीथमुपासीतोमिति ह्युद्गायति

तस्योपव्याख्यानम् ॥ १.४.१॥

.. iti tṛtīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

omityetadakṣaramudgīthamupāsītomiti hyudgāyati

tasyopavyākhyānam .. 1.4.1..



1. Om is the closest word to Brahman. Recite this Om as if you are worshipping Brahman. [That is, treat this Om as the symbol of Brahman and concentrate on the idea of their oneness.] How you recite this Om is being explained.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Om iti, this Om [is closest to Brahman]; etat akṣaram udgītham upāsīta, recite this syllable as part of your upāsanā [ritual]; hi om iti udgāyati, how you recite this Om; tasya upavyākhyānam, is being explained. Commentary:-This akśara is Brahman, and Om is that Brahman. Akṣara, Brahman, and Om are interchangeable words. As Brahman is abhaya, without fear, and amṛta, immortal, so Om and akṣara are also without fear and immortal.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Let a man meditate on the syllable Om, for the udgîtha is sung beginning with Om. And this is the full account of the syllable Om--


Sloka : 1.4.2

देवा वै मृत्योर्बिभ्यतस्त्रयीं विद्यां प्राविशꣳस्ते

छन्दोभिरच्छादयन्यदेभिरच्छादयꣳस्तच्छन्दसां

छन्दस्त्वम् ॥ १.४.२॥

devā vai mṛtyorbibhyatastrayīṃ vidyāṃ prāviśagͫste

chandobhiracchādayanyadebhiracchādayagͫstacchandasāṃ

chandastvam .. 1.4.2..



2. The gods and goddesses were afraid of death, so they took refuge in the rites and rituals of the three Vedas. They covered themselves, as it were, with mantras. Because they covered themselves with mantras, the mantras came to be known as chandas.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Devāḥ, the gods and goddesses; vai mṛtyoḥ bibhyataḥ, are afraid of death; trayīm vidyām prāviśan, they took refuge in the three Vedas [i.e., they decided to perform Vedic rites and rituals in order to escape death]; te, they; chandobhiḥ acchādayan, covered themselves with the mantras; yat, because; ebhiḥ, Commentary:-In ancient times the gods and goddesses decided to perform the sacrifices mentioned in the three Vedas to save themselves from death. It was as if they took ‘cover’ behind the Vedic mantras. It is from this word ‘cover’ (acchādan) that the mantras have come to be known as chandas.

Translation By Max Müller

2. The Devas, being afraid of death, entered upon (the performance of the sacrifice prescribed in) the threefold knowledge (the three Vedas). They covered themselves with the metrical hymns. Because they covered (khad) themselves with the hymns, therefore the hymns are called khandas.


Sloka : 1.4.3

तानु तत्र मृत्युर्यथा मत्स्यमुदके परिपश्येदेवं

पर्यपश्यदृचि साम्नि यजुषि ।

ते नु विदित्वोर्ध्वा ऋचः साम्नो यजुषः स्वरमेव

प्राविशन् ॥ १.४.३॥

tānu tatra mṛtyuryathā matsyamudake paripaśyedevaṃ

paryapaśyadṛci sāmni yajuṣi .

te nu viditvordhvā ṛcaḥ sāmno yajuṣaḥ svarameva

prāviśan .. 1.4.3..



3. Just as a person can see a fish swimming in shallow water [i.e., the fish is exposed to the risk of being caught], in the same way, Death could see the gods and goddesses when they depended on Vedic rituals [i.e., they were in easy reach of Death]. Realizing this, the gods and goddesses switched over to the recitation of Om.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yathā, just as; udake, in shallow water; matsyam, a fish [swimming]; paripaśyet, a person can see; evam, in the same way; tatra, in those [Vedic rites and rituals]; ṛci sāmni yajuṣi, in the Ṛg, Sāma, and Yajur Vedas; tān, those gods and goddesses; mṛtyuḥ, Death; paryapaśyat, saw [i.e., they could not escape death through Vedic rituals]; te, they [the gods and goddesses]; nu viditvā, having realized [that they were still susceptible to death]; ṛcaḥ sāmnaḥ yajuṣaḥ ūrdhvāḥ, turned away from Ṛk, Sāma, and Yajur rituals; svaram eva prāviśan, took to [reciting] Om. Commentary:-Fish in shallow water are never safe, for people can easily catch them. Similarly, those who depend on karma (i.e., Vedic rituals) are always liable to being caught by death. When people realize this, they stop performing the rites and rituals and concentrate on reciting Om. They know that Om is a symbol of immortality and fearlessness.

Translation By Max Müller

3. Then, as a fisherman might observe a fish in the water, Death observed the Devas in the Rik, Yagus, and Sâman-(sacrifices). And the Devas seeing this, rose from the Rik, Yagus, and Sâman-sacrifices, and entered the Svara [1], i.e. the Om (they meditated on the Om).

Footnote:

1. Cf. I, 3, 2.


Sloka : 1.4.4

यदा वा ऋचमाप्नोत्योमित्येवातिस्वरत्येवꣳसामैवं

यजुरेष उ स्वरो यदेतदक्षरमेतदमृतमभयं तत्प्रविश्य

देवा अमृता अभया अभवन् ॥ १.४.४॥

yadā vā ṛcamāpnotyomityevātisvaratyevagͫsāmaivaṃ

yajureṣa u svaro yadetadakṣarametadamṛtamabhayaṃ tatpraviśya

devā amṛtā abhayā abhavan .. 1.4.4..



4. When people recite the Ṛk, they start with Om, reciting it with great enthusiasm. They do the same when they recite the Sāma and Yajus. This Om is akṣara and also svara. It is a symbol of immortality and fearlessness. When the gods and goddesses took refuge in it, they attained immortality and fearlessness.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yadā vai, whenever; ṛcam āpnoti, a person recites Ṛk mantras; om iti eva atisvarati, that person recites Om with great enthusiasm; evam sāma evam yajuḥ, so also the Yajus and Sāma mantras; eṣaḥ u svaraḥ yat etat akṣaram, this akṣara [Om] is svara; etat amṛtam abhayam, this is immortal and fearless; tat praviśya, having taken shelter in it; devāḥ amṛtāḥ abhayāḥ abhavan, the gods and goddesses became immortal and fearless. Commentary:-Akṣara, Om, and svara are the same. When people recite Vedic mantras, they always start with the akṣara Om. By taking refuge in Om, one attains immortality and fearlessness.

Translation By Max Müller

4. When a man has mastered the Rig-veda, he says quite loud Om; the same, when he has mastered the Sâman and the Yagus. This Svara is the imperishable (syllable), the immortal, free from fear. Because the Devas entered it, therefore they became immortal, and free from fear.


Sloka : 1.4.5

स य एतदेवं विद्वानक्षरं प्रणौत्येतदेवाक्षरꣳ

स्वरममृतमभयं प्रविशति तत्प्रविश्य यदमृता

देवास्तदमृतो भवति ॥ १.४.५॥

sa ya etadevaṃ vidvānakṣaraṃ praṇautyetadevākṣaragͫ

svaramamṛtamabhayaṃ praviśati tatpraviśya yadamṛtā

devāstadamṛto bhavati .. 1.4.5..



5. Even now anyone who knows this Om and worships it thus can attain the fearlessness and immortality of Om, which is akṣara, or svara. By becoming one with Om, a person can attain immortality, just as the gods and goddesses did.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ, one who; evam etat akṣaram vidvān praṇauti, knows this akṣara and respects it as such; etat eva svaram, that known as svara; amṛtam abhayam akṣaram praviśati, becomes one with the immortal and fearless akṣara [Om]; tat, that [akṣara]; praviśya, having become one with [akṣara]; devāḥ yat amṛtāḥ, by which the gods and goddesses became immortal; tat amṛtaḥ bhavati, that person also becomes immortal. Iti caturthaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fourth section. Commentary:-By worshipping svara (Om), the gods and goddesses entered into svara, which means they became one with it. And by becoming one with it, they became fearless and immortal. The same thing may happen to anyone who follows in their footsteps—that is, anyone who worships svara. The transformation is the same as in the case of the gods and goddesses—no more, no less.

Translation By Max Müller

5. He who knowing this loudly pronounces (pranauti) [1]- that syllable, enters the same (imperishable) syllable, the Svara, the immortal, free from fear, and having entered it, becomes immortal, as the Devas are immortal.

Footnote:

1. Pranauti, he lauds, i. e. he meditates on. Comm.


Sloka : 1.5.1

॥ इति चतुर्थः खण्डः ॥

अथ खलु य उद्गीथः स प्रणवो यः प्रणवः स उद्गीथ

इत्यसौ वा आदित्य उद्गीथ एष प्रणव ओमिति

ह्येष स्वरन्नेति ॥ १.५.१॥

.. iti caturthaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha khalu ya udgīthaḥ sa praṇavo yaḥ praṇavaḥ sa udgītha

ityasau vā āditya udgītha eṣa praṇava omiti

hyeṣa svaranneti .. 1.5.1..



1. That which is udgītha is also praṇava [Om]. So also, that which is praṇava is udgītha. That sun is udgītha, and it is also praṇava, because it seems to say Om [or, has the word Om in its mind] when it appears.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yaḥ khalu udgīthaḥ, that which is udgītha; saḥ praṇavaḥ, is praṇava [Om]; yaḥ praṇavaḥ saḥ udgīthaḥ, that which is praṇava is also udgītha; asau vai ādityaḥ udgīthaḥ, that sun is udgītha; eṣaḥ praṇavaḥ, it is also praṇava; hi, for; eṣaḥ, the sun; om iti svaran eti, appears with the word Om in its mind. Commentary:-This is how udgītha is to be worshipped:- According to many scholars of the Ṛg Veda, udgītha is the same as praṇava (Om). What is praṇava to them is udgītha according to the Chāndogya. Similarly, according to many scholars, the sun is udgītha and also praṇava. How can the sun be referred to as udgītha? When the sun appears, it looks as if it is saying Om, or it has Om in its thoughts. According to Śaṅkara, the word svaran may also mean ‘uttering.’

Translation By Max Müller

1. The udgîtha is the pranava [1], the pranava is the udgîtha. And as the udgîtha is the sun [2], So is the pranava, for he (the sun) goes sounding Om.

Footnote:

1. Pranava is the name used chiefly by the followers of the Rig-veda, udgîtha the name used by the followers of the Sâma-veda. Both words are intended for the syllable Om. 2. Cf. Kh. Up. I, 3, 1.


Sloka : 1.5.2

एतमु एवाहमभ्यगासिषं तस्मान्मम त्वमेकोऽसीति

ह कौषीतकिः पुत्रमुवाच रश्मीꣳस्त्वं पर्यावर्तयाद्बहवो

वै ते भविष्यन्तीत्यधिदैवतम् ॥ १.५.२॥

etamu evāhamabhyagāsiṣaṃ tasmānmama tvameko'sīti

ha kauṣītakiḥ putramuvāca raśmīgͫstvaṃ paryāvartayādbahavo

vai te bhaviṣyantītyadhidaivatam .. 1.5.2..



2. The sage Kauṣītaki said to his son:- ‘I worshipped the sun and its rays as one. That is why I had only one son, which is you. If you worship the sun and its rays separately, you will then have many children.’ This is the worship of the forces of nature.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Kauṣītakiḥ putram uvāca, the sage Kauṣītaki said to his son; etam, this [sun with its rays]; eva, as one; aham abhyagāsiṣam, I greeted [welcomed]; tasmāt, because [of my worshipping it as one]; tvam mama ekaḥ asi, you are my only son; tvam raśmīn paryāvartayāt, if you worship the sun and its rays separately; te bahavaḥ vai bhaviṣyanti, you will have many children; iti adhidaivatam, this is the worship of the forces of nature. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. 'Him I sang praises to, therefore art thou my only one,' thus said Kaushîtaki to his son. 'Do thou revolve his rays, then thou wilt have many sons.' So much in reference to the Devas.


Sloka : 1.5.3

अथाध्यात्मं य एवायं मुख्यः

प्राणस्तमुद्गीथमुपासीतोमिति ह्येष स्वरन्नेति ॥ १.५.३॥

athādhyātmaṃ ya evāyaṃ mukhyaḥ

prāṇastamudgīthamupāsītomiti hyeṣa svaranneti .. 1.5.3..



3. Next, this is how worship concerning the physical body is performed:- One should worship the chief prāṇa as udgītha, for it seems to say Om as it makes the organs [of perception and action] function.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, now; adhyātmam, concerning one’s own body; yaḥ eva ayam mukhyaḥ prāṇaḥ, that which is the chief prāṇa [which divides itself into five functions:- prāṇa, apāna, vyāna, udāna, and samāna]; tam udgītham upāsīta, one should worship as udgītha; hi, for; eṣaḥ, this [prāṇa]; om iti svaran, uttering Om; eti, activates [all the organs—of speech, vision, etc.]. Commentary:-As far as the physical body is concerned, the Upaniṣad says to treat the chief prāna as Om. The chief prāṇa is responsible for what the organs of perception (the eyes, ears, nose, etc.) and the organs of action (the hands, feet, speech, etc.) do. It makes them active. Just as some people say Om before they do or say anything, so prāṇa seems to say Om as it makes the organs function. Not that it really says Om, but because the organs cannot act without its support, it is suggested that the chief prāṇa has to give the signal (that is, by saying Om) and then only do the organs start operating.

Translation By Max Müller

3. Now with reference to the body. Let a man meditate on the udgîtha as the breath (in the mouth), for he goes sounding Om [1].

Footnote:

1. The breath in the mouth, or the chief breath, says Om, i. e. gives permission to the five senses to act, just as the sun, by saying Om, gives permission to all living beings to move about.


Sloka : 1.5.4

एतमु एवाहमभ्यगासिषं तस्मान्मम त्वमेकोऽसीति ह

कौषीतकिः पुत्रमुवाच प्राणाꣳस्त्वं

भूमानमभिगायताद्बहवो वै मे भविष्यन्तीति ॥ १.५.४॥

etamu evāhamabhyagāsiṣaṃ tasmānmama tvameko'sīti ha

kauṣītakiḥ putramuvāca prāṇāgͫstvaṃ

bhūmānamabhigāyatādbahavo vai me bhaviṣyantīti .. 1.5.4..



4. The sage Kauṣītaki said to his son:- ‘I worshipped prāṇa as just one entity, and therefore I had only one son. I suggest that you worship prāṇa as one with manifold qualities and with many forms while thinking, “May my children be many”’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Kauṣītakiḥ ha putram uvāca, Kauṣītaki said to his son; aham u etam eva abhyagāsiṣam, I worshipped this [prāṇa] as one; tasmāt, that is why; tvam mama ekaḥ, you are my only son; tvam prāṇān bhūmānam abhigāyatāt, you should worship prāṇa as many [i.e., with manifold qualities and forms]; me bahavaḥ vai bhaviṣyanti iti, thinking, ‘May my children be many.’ Commentary:-The sun and its rays are not separate, but if a person wants more than one child, he or she will have to worship the sun and its rays as separate entities. The same applies to the worship of the chief prāṇa and its subsidiaries (vyāna, udāna, etc.).

Translation By Max Müller

4. 'Him I sang praises to, therefore art thou my only son,' thus said Kaushîtaki to his son. 'Do thou therefore sing praises to the breath as manifold, if thou wishest to have many sons.'


Sloka : 1.5.5

अथ खलु य उद्गीथः स प्रणवो यः प्रणवः

स उद्गीथ इति होतृषदनाद्धैवापि

दुरुद्गीथमनुसमाहरतीत्यनुसमाहरतीति ॥। १.५.५॥

atha khalu ya udgīthaḥ sa praṇavo yaḥ praṇavaḥ

sa udgītha iti hotṛṣadanāddhaivāpi

durudgīthamanusamāharatītyanusamāharatīti ... 1.5.5..



5. For certain, that which is udgītha is praṇava, and that which is praṇava is also udgītha. Should the person performing a sacrifice make mistakes in pronunciation, that can be rectified [when he has the knowledge that udgītha and praṇava are the same].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha khalu, for certain; yaḥ udgīthaḥ saḥ praṇavaḥ, that which is udgītha is praṇava; yaḥ praṇava saḥ udgīthaḥ, that which is praṇava is also udgītha; hotṛṣadanāt api eva ha durudgītam, it is not unlikely that the person performing a sacrifice will err in pronunciation; anusamāharati iti, that can be rectified [the statement is repeated to emphasize its importance]. Iti pañcamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fifth section. Commentary:-It has already been stressed that praṇava and udgītha should be regarded as one. Where the consciousness of this sameness prevails, any mistakes made while reciting the mantras may easily be rectified. The statement is intended to illustrate how it helps to have the knowledge of the sameness of udgītha and praṇava.

Translation By Max Müller

5. He who knows that the udgîtha is the pranava, and the pranava the udgîtha, rectifies from the seat of the Hotri priest any mistake committed by the Udgâtri priest in performing the udgîtha, yea, in performing the udgîtha.


Sloka : 1.6.1

॥ इति पञ्चमः खण्डः ॥

इयमेवर्गग्निः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढ़ꣳ साम

तस्मादृच्यध्यूढꣳसाम गीयत इयमेव

साग्निरमस्तत्साम ॥ १.६.१॥

.. iti pañcamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

iyamevargagniḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūr̤hagͫ sāma

tasmādṛcyadhyūḍhagͫsāma gīyata iyameva

sāgniramastatsāma .. 1.6.1..



1. This earth is like the Ṛg Veda, and fire is like the Sāma Veda. The Sāma is based on the Ṛg Veda, and this is why the Sāṃa is sung based on the Ṛg Veda. The earth is sā and fire is ama. This sā and ama together make Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Iyam, this [earth]; eva ṛk, is like the Ṛg Veda; agniḥ sāma, fire is like the Sāma Veda; tat etat sāma etasyām ṛci adhyūḍham, the Sāma Veda is based on the Ṛg Veda; tasmāt, therefore; ṛci adhyūḍham sāma gīyate, the Sāma Veda is sung based on the Ṛg Veda; iyam eva sā, this [earth] is the sā [of Sāma]; agniḥ amaḥ, fire is ama [of Sāma]; tat sāma, that [if joined together] is Sāma [i.e., sā + ama]. Commentary:-The Upaniṣad says to treat the earth as the Ṛg Veda and fire as the Sāma Veda. But how are they so related? The Sāma is based on the Ṛg Veda, and fire is based on the earth. Because of this relationship between them, they are thought of as identical.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The Rik (veda) is this earth, the Sâman (veda) is fire. This Sâman (fire) rests on that Rik (earth) [1]. Therefore the Sâman is sung as resting on the Rik. Sâ is this earth, ama is fire, and that makes Sâma.

Footnote:

1. The Sâma verses are mostly taken from the Rig-veda.


Sloka : 1.6.2

अन्तरिक्षमेवर्ग्वायुः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढꣳ साम

तस्मादृच्यध्यूढꣳ साम गीयतेऽन्तरिक्षमेव सा

वायुरमस्तत्साम ॥ १.६.२॥

antarikṣamevargvāyuḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍhagͫ sāma

tasmādṛcyadhyūḍhagͫ sāma gīyate'ntarikṣameva sā

vāyuramastatsāma .. 1.6.2..



2. The space between heaven and earth is the Ṛk, and air is the Sāma. This Sāma [called air] is based on the Ṛk [called the space between heaven and earth]. This is why the Sāma is sung based on the Ṛk. The space between heaven and earth is sā, and earth is ama. Together they are Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Antarikṣam, the space between heaven and earth; eva ṛk, is nothing but the Ṛk; vāyuḥ sāma, air is the Sāma; tat etat sāma, this Sāma [called air]; etasyām ṛci adhyūḍham, is based on the Ṛk [called the antarikṣa]; tasmāt, this is why; ṛci adhyūḍham sāma gīyate, the Sāma is sung as based on the Ṛk; antarikṣam eva sā, the space between heaven and earth is sā; vāyuḥ amaḥ, air is ama; tat sāma, that [if joined together] is Sāma. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. The Rik is the sky, the Sâman air. This Sâman (air) rests on that Rik (sky). Therefore the Sâman is sung as resting on the Rik. Sâ is the sky, ama the air, and that makes Sâma.


Sloka : 1.6.3

द्यौरेवर्गादित्यः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढꣳ साम

तस्मादृच्यध्यूढꣳ साम गीयते द्यौरेव

सादित्योऽमस्तत्साम ॥ १.६.३॥

dyaurevargādityaḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍhagͫ sāma

tasmādṛcyadhyūḍhagͫ sāma gīyate dyaureva

sādityo'mastatsāma .. 1.6.3..



3. Heaven is the Ṛk, and the sun is the Sāma. This Sāma [called the sun] is based on the Ṛk [called heaven]. This is why Sāma scholars sing songs based on the Ṛk. Heaven is sā, and the sun is ama. Together they are Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Dyauḥ, the heaven; eva ṛk, is Ṛk; ādityaḥ sāma, the sun is Sāma; tat etat sāma, that Sāma [which is known as the sun]; etasyām ṛci adhyūḍham, is based on the Ṛk [heaven]; tasmāt, that is why; ṛci adhyūḍham sāma [sāmagaiḥ] gīyate, the Sāma scholars sing the Sāma based on the Ṛk; dyauḥ eva sā, heaven is nothing but sā; ādityaḥ amaḥ, the sun is ama; tat sāma, that [if joined together] is Sāma. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. Rik is heaven, Sâman the sun. This Sâman (sun) rests on that Rik (heaven). Therefore the Sâman is sung as resting on the Rik. Sâ is heaven, ama the sun, and that makes Sâma.


Sloka : 1.6.4

नक्षत्रान्येवर्क्चन्द्रमाः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढꣳ साम

तस्मादृच्यध्यूढꣳ साम गीयते नक्षत्राण्येव सा चन्द्रमा

अमस्तत्साम ॥ १.६.४॥

nakṣatrānyevarkcandramāḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍhagͫ sāma

tasmādṛcyadhyūḍhagͫ sāma gīyate nakṣatrāṇyeva sā candramā

amastatsāma .. 1.6.4..



4. The stars are the Ṛk, and the moon is the Sāma. This Sāma [called the moon] is based on the Ṛk [called the stars]. This is why Sāma scholars sing songs based on the Ṛk. The stars are the sā, and the moon is ama. Together they are Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Nakṣatrāṇi era ṛk, the stars together constitute the Ṛk; candramāḥ sāma, the moon is the Sāma; tat etat sāma, that Sāma; etasyām ṛci adhyūḍham, is based on the Ṛk; tasmāt, that is why; ṛci adhyūḍham sāma gīyate, the Sāma scholars sing the Sāma based on the Ṛk; nakṣatrāṇi eva sā, the stars are the sā; candramaḥ amaḥ, the moon is the ama; tat sāma, that [if joined together] is Sāma. Commentary:-The moon is the lord of the stars. This is why it is given the status of the Sāma Veda.

Translation By Max Müller

4. Rik is the stars, Sâman the moon. This Sâman (moon) rests on that Rik (stars). Therefore the Sâman is sung as resting on the Rik. Sâ is the stars, ama the moon, and that makes Sâma.


Sloka : 1.6.5

अथ यदेतदादित्यस्य शुक्लं भाः सैवर्गथ यन्नीलं परः

कृष्णं तत्साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढꣳ साम

तस्मादृच्यध्यूढꣳ साम गीयते ॥ १.६.५॥

atha yadetadādityasya śuklaṃ bhāḥ saivargatha yannīlaṃ paraḥ

kṛṣṇaṃ tatsāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍhagͫ sāma

tasmādṛcyadhyūḍhagͫ sāma gīyate .. 1.6.5..



5. The white glow of the sun is the Ṛk, and its deep blue glow is the Sāma. The black glow called the Sāma is based on the white glow called the Ṛk. That is why the Sāma is sung based on the Ṛk.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat etat, that which is this; ādityasya śuklam, whiteness of the sun; bhāḥ, the glow; sā eva ṛk, that is the Ṛk; atha, next; yat nīlam, that which is blue; paraḥ, deep; kṛṣṇam, black; tat sāma, that is the Sāma; tat etat sāma, this Sāma; etasyām ṛci adhyūḍham, is based on the Ṛk; tasmāt, that is why; ṛci adhyūḍham sāma gīyate, the Sāma is sung based on the Ṛk. Commentary:-The Upaniṣad gives another way of worshipping the udgītha:- The white glow of the sun is compared to the Ṛk. But the sun also has a deep blue or black glow, which the Upaniṣad compares to the Sāma. This deep blue glow is not seen by many, people. Only a few persons who have studied the scriptures and have acquired an enlightened mind can see it.

Translation By Max Müller

5. Rik is the white light of the sun, Sâman the blue exceeding darkness [1] (in the sun). This Sâman (darkness) rests on that Rik (brightness). Therefore the Sâman is sung as resting on the Rik.

Footnote:

1. The darkness which is seen by those who can concentrate their sight on the sun.


Sloka : 1.6.6

अथ यदेवैतदादित्यस्य शुक्लं भाः सैव

साथ यन्नीलं परः कृष्णं तदमस्तत्सामाथ

य एषोऽन्तरादित्ये हिरण्मयः पुरुषो दृश्यते

हिरण्यश्मश्रुर्हिरण्यकेश आप्रणस्वात्सर्व एव

सुवर्णः ॥ १.६.६॥

atha yadevaitadādityasya śuklaṃ bhāḥ saiva

sātha yannīlaṃ paraḥ kṛṣṇaṃ tadamastatsāmātha

ya eṣo'ntarāditye hiraṇmayaḥ puruṣo dṛśyate

hiraṇyaśmaśrurhiraṇyakeśa āpraṇasvātsarva eva

suvarṇaḥ .. 1.6.6..



6. Then, [worship of the effulgent being in the sun]:- The white glow of the sun is sā, and the dark bluish-black glow is ama. These two together make up the word Sāma. There is a deity within the orb of the sun, who is seen by yogīs. His whole body glitters like gold, even to his toe-nails. He has a bright golden beard and bright golden hair.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, then; yat eva etat ādityasya śuklam bhāḥ, that which is this white glow of the sun; sā eva sā, that is the ‘sā’ [of Sāma]; atha yat nīlam paraḥ kṛṣṇam, and that which is the deep black glow; tat amaḥ, that is ‘ama’; tat sāma, [when they are put together] that is Sāma; atha antarāditye, again inside the orb of the sun; yāḥ eṣaḥ hiraṇmayaḥ, there is a bright figure; hiraṇyaśmaśruḥ, bright gold beard; hiraṇyakeśaḥ puruṣaḥ dṛśyate, the person with bright gold hair seen [by the yogīs]; āpraṇakhāt sarva eva suvarṇaḥ, bright gold all over the body, including even his nails. Commentary:-The sun is partly white and partly dark. These colours together make up ‘Sāma.’ The Upaniṣad does not mean to say that the sun is made of gold, and neither is the person in the orb of the sun. This is not to be taken literally. What is meant here is that the person in the sun is brilliant—brilliant in terms of moral and spiritual qualities. The word gold refers to his character and not to the colour of his skin. The word puruṣa means ‘one who covers the whole

Translation By Max Müller

6. Sâ is the white light of the sun, ama the blue exceeding darkness, and that makes Sâma. Now that golden [1] person, who is seen within the sun, with golden beard and golden hair, golden altogether to the very tips of his nails,

Footnote:

1. Bright as gold.


Sloka : 1.6.7

तस्य यथा कप्यासं पुण्डरीकमेवमक्षिणी

तस्योदिति नाम स एष सर्वेभ्यः पाप्मभ्य उदित

उदेति ह वै सर्वेभ्यः पाप्मभ्यो य एवं वेद ॥ १.६.७॥

tasya yathā kapyāsaṃ puṇḍarīkamevamakṣiṇī

tasyoditi nāma sa eṣa sarvebhyaḥ pāpmabhya udita

udeti ha vai sarvebhyaḥ pāpmabhyo ya evaṃ veda .. 1.6.7..



7. His eyes are like lotuses blossomed by the sun. He is called ut because he is above all weakness. He who knows this truth is also above all weakness.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tasya, his; yathā, like; kapyāsam [kapi, which means ‘he who drinks water’ (i.e, the sun) + āsa, which means blossomed], blossomed by the sun; puṇḍarīkam evam, like the lotus; akṣinī the eyes; tasya ut iti nāma, his name is ‘ut’; saḥ eṣaḥ sarvebhyaḥ pāpmabhyaḥ uditaḥ, he is above all weakness; udeti, he rises; ha vai sarvebhyaḥ pāpmabhyaḥ, above all weakness; yaḥ, who; evam veda, knows thus. Commentary:-It has been said that fire rests on the earth, space rests on air, the moon on the stars, and the dark glow of the sun on its white glow. But the Being in the orbit of the sun does not rest on anything He is above all that is evil, above everything. To signify this he is given the name ut (that which is above everything). This ‘ut’ suggests supremacy. It is the kind of supremacy which Vedānta attributes to Brahman. This ‘ut’ and Brahman are the same. Here, Rāmānuja’s interpretation has been followed for the word kāpyāsam. Śaṅkara gives another interpretation.

Translation By Max Müller

7. Whose eyes are like blue lotus's [1], his name is ut, for he has risen (udita) above all evil. He also who knows this, rises above all evil.

Footnote:

1. The colour of the lotus is described by a comparison with the Kapyâsa, the seat of the monkey (kapiprishthânto yena upavisati), It was probably a botanical name.


Sloka : 1.6.8

तस्यर्क्च साम च गेष्णौ

तस्मादुद्गीथस्तस्मात्त्वेवोद्गातैतस्य हि गाता

स एष ये चामुष्मात्पराञ्चो लोकास्तेषां चेष्टे

देवकामानां चेत्यधिदैवतम् ॥ १.६.८॥

tasyarkca sāma ca geṣṇau

tasmādudgīthastasmāttvevodgātaitasya hi gātā

sa eṣa ye cāmuṣmātparāñco lokāsteṣāṃ ceṣṭe

devakāmānāṃ cetyadhidaivatam .. 1.6.8..



8. The Ṛk and the Sāma are his two singers who sing in praise of this god. This is why he is called udgītha, and this is why a singer of the udgītha is called an udgātā. There are worlds above the solar region, but the god in the solar region rules over them [and also supports them]. He also decides the wishes of the gods and goddesses. This is from the standpoint of the gods and goddesses.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tasya, his; ṛk ca sāma ca geṣṇau, the Ṛk and the Sāma are two singers [who sing his praise]; tasmāt, this is why; udgīthaḥ, he is [called] udgītha [the great God in whose praise songs are sung]; tasmāt, this is why; etasya hi gātā, the singers of it; tu eva udgātā, are called udgātā, the musicians; sāḥ eṣaḥ, he; ye ca, who; amuṣmāt parāñcaḥ, high above that [solar region]; teṣām lokāḥ, those worlds; ca iṣṭe, governs [decides]; devakāmānām ca, the desires Commentary:-The word ut suggests supremacy. It is applied to that being who is the overlord of everything and also the source of everything—the earth, the- air, and fire; the Ṛk and Sāma; the gods and goddesses; and even the worlds above the sun. This ‘ut’ rules everything and is therefore identical with Brahman.

Translation By Max Müller

8. Rik and Sâman are his joints, and therefore he is udgîtha. And therefore he who praises him (the ut) is called the Ud-gâtri [1] (the out-singer). He (the golden person, called ut) is lord of the worlds beyond that (sun), and of all the wishes of the Devas (inhabiting those worlds). So much with reference to the Devas.

Footnote:

1. Name of the principal priest of the Sâma-veda.


Sloka : 1.7.1

॥ इति षष्ठः खण्डः ॥

अथाध्यात्मं वागेवर्क्प्राणः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढꣳ

साम तस्मादृच्यध्यूढꣳसाम गीयते।

वागेव सा प्राणोऽमस्तत्साम ॥ १.७.१॥

.. iti ṣaṣṭhaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

athādhyātmaṃ vāgevarkprāṇaḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍhagͫ

sāma tasmādṛcyadhyūḍhagͫsāma gīyate.

vāgeva sā prāṇo'mastatsāma .. 1.7.1..



1. Now an explanation with reference to the body:- Speech is Ṛk, and prāṇa is Sāma. This Sāma [called prāṇa] is based on the Ṛk [called speech]. This is why Sāma scholars sing songs based on the Ṛk. Speech is sā, and prāṇa is ama. Together they are Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha adhyātmam, now what relates to the body; vāk eva ṛk, speech is Ṛk; prāṇaḥ sāma, prāṇa is Sāma; tat etat sāma, this Sāma [called prāṇa]; etasyām ṛci adhyūdham, is based on Ṛk [speech]; tasmāt, this is why; ṛci adhyūḍham sāma gīyate, the Sāma is sung as based on the Ṛk; vāk eva sā, speech is sā; prāṇaḥ amaḥ, prāṇa is ama; tat sāma, that [if joined together] is Sāma. Commentary:-The word prāṇa means both the vital breath and the organ by which we smell. Physically, the organ of speech is below the organ of smell. Similarly, Sāma is known to be based on the Ṛk. In view of their respective positions, Ṛk is equated with speech, and Sāma is equated with prāṇa.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Now with reference to the body. Rik is speech, Sâman breath [1]. This Sâman (breath) rests on that Rik (speech). Therefore the Sâman is sung as resting on the Rik. Sâ is speech, ama is breath, and that makes Sâma.

Footnote:

1. Breath in the nose, sense of smelling. Comm.


Sloka : 1.7.2

चक्षुरेवर्गात्मा साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढꣳसाम

तस्मादृच्यध्यूढꣳसाम गीयते ।

चक्षुरेव सात्मामस्तत्साम ॥ १.७.२॥

cakṣurevargātmā sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍhagͫsāma

tasmādṛcyadhyūḍhagͫsāma gīyate .

cakṣureva sātmāmastatsāma .. 1.7.2..



2. The eyes are like the Ṛg Veda, and the self [i.e., the form seen in the eyes] is like the Sāma, which is based on the Ṛk. This is why the Sāma is sung based on the Ṛk. The eyes are the sā, and the self [the form in the eyes] is the ama. The two together are Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Cakṣuḥ eva ṛk, the eyes are like the Ṛg Veda; ātmā sāma, the self [as seen in the eyes] is the Sāma; tat etat sāma, this Sāma [called the ātmā]; etasyām ṛci adhyūḍham, is based on Ṛk [i.e., on the eyes]; tasmāt, this is why; ṛci adhyūḍham sāma gīyate, the Sāma is sung as based on the Ṛk; cakṣuḥ eva sā, the eyes are sā; ātmā amaḥ, the self [the form reflected in the eyes] is ama; tat sāma, that [if joined together] is Sāma. Commentary:-The ātmā, or self, here means the form which is reflected in the eyes. This is why the Upaniṣad says the eyes are the Ṛg Veda„ and the self is the Sāma Veda.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Rik is the eye, Sâman the self [1]. This Sâman (shadow) rests on that Rik (eye). Therefore the Sâman is sung as resting on the Rik. Sâ is the eye, ama the self, and that makes Sâma.

Footnote:

1. The shadow-self, the likeness or image thrown upon the eye; see Kh. Up. VIII, 9, x.


Sloka : 1.7.3

श्रोत्रमेवर्ङ्मनः साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढꣳसाम

तस्मादृच्यध्यूढꣳसाम गीयते ।

श्रोत्रमेव सा मनोऽमस्तत्साम ॥ १.७.३॥

śrotramevarṅmanaḥ sāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍhagͫsāma

tasmādṛcyadhyūḍhagͫsāma gīyate .

śrotrameva sā mano'mastatsāma .. 1.7.3..



3. The organ of hearing is the Ṛk, and the mind is Sāma. This Sāma [called the mind] is based on the Ṛk [called the organ of hearing]. This is why Sāma scholars sing songs based on the Ṛk. The organ of hearing is sā, and the mind is ama. Together they are Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Śrotram eva ṛk, the organ of hearing is the Ṛg Veda; manaḥ sāma, the mind is the Sāma; tat etat sāma, this Sāma [called the mind]; etasyām ṛci adhyūḍham, is based on the Ṛk [the organ of hearing]; tasmāt, this is why; ṛci adhyūḍham sāma gīyate, the Sāma is sung as based on the Ṛk; śrotram eva sā, the organ of hearing is sā; manaḥ amaḥ, the mind is ama; tat sāma, that [if joined together] is Sāma. Commentary:-The mind is said to be the Sāma because it controls the organ of hearing.

Translation By Max Müller

3. Rik is the ear, Sâman the mind. This Sâman (mind) rests on that Rik (ear). Therefore the Sâman is sung as resting on the Rik. Sâ is the ear, ama the mind, and that makes Sâma.


Sloka : 1.7.4

अथ यदेतदक्ष्णः शुक्लं भाः सैवर्गथ यन्नीलं परः

कृष्णं तत्साम तदेतदेतस्यामृच्यध्यूढꣳसाम

तस्मादृच्यध्यूढꣳसाम गीयते ।

अथ यदेवैतदक्ष्णः शुक्लं भाः सैव साथ यन्नीलं परः

कृष्णं तदमस्तत्साम ॥ १.७.४॥

atha yadetadakṣṇaḥ śuklaṃ bhāḥ saivargatha yannīlaṃ paraḥ

kṛṣṇaṃ tatsāma tadetadetasyāmṛcyadhyūḍhagͫsāma

tasmādṛcyadhyūḍhagͫsāma gīyate .

atha yadevaitadakṣṇaḥ śuklaṃ bhāḥ saiva sātha yannīlaṃ paraḥ

kṛṣṇaṃ tadamastatsāma .. 1.7.4..



4. Further, there is a white glow in the eyes, and this is compared with the Ṛg Veda. Then there is a similar glow which is a deep, dark blue. This is compared to the Sāma Veda. This dark glow is based on the white glow. This is why the Sāma is said to be based on the Ṛk. Sā of Sāma stands for the white glow in the eye, and ama stands for the deep blue glow. These two together are Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, then; akṣṇaḥ yat etat śuklam bhaḥ, that which is the white glow in the eyes; saḥ eva ṛk, that is the Ṛg Veda; atha yat nīlam paraḥ kṛṣṇam, then that which is blue and very dark; tat sāma, that is the Sāma; tat etat sāma, this Sāma; etasyām ṛci adhyūḍham, is based on the Ṛk; tasmāt, this is why; ṛci adhyūḍham sāma gīyate, the Sāma is sung as based on the Ṛk; atha yat eva etat akṣṇaḥ śuklam bhāḥ, then this white glow in the eye; sā eva sā, that is sā; atha yat nīlam paraḥ kṛṣṇam, and that which is blue and very dark; tat amaḥ, that is ama; tat sāma, that [if joined together] is Sāma. Commentary:-The sun is the support of the power of vision, because without the sun we cannot see. Similarly, the deep blue glow, which is identified with the Sāma, is supported by the white glow, which is the Ṛk.

Translation By Max Müller

4. Rik is the white light of the eye, Sâman the blue exceeding darkness. This Sâman (darkness) rests on the Rik (brightness). Therefore the Sâman is sung as resting on the Rik. Sâ is the white light of the eye, ama the blue exceeding darkness, and that makes Sâma.


Sloka : 1.7.5

अथ य एषोऽन्तरक्षिणि पुरुषो दृश्यते सैवर्क्तत्साम

तदुक्थं तद्यजुस्तद्ब्रह्म तस्यैतस्य तदेव रूपं यदमुष्य रूपं

यावमुष्य गेष्णौ तौ गेष्णौ यन्नाम तन्नाम ॥ १.७.५॥

atha ya eṣo'ntarakṣiṇi puruṣo dṛśyate saivarktatsāma

tadukthaṃ tadyajustadbrahma tasyaitasya tadeva rūpaṃ yadamuṣya rūpaṃ

yāvamuṣya geṣṇau tau geṣṇau yannāma tannāma .. 1.7.5..



5. The person seen in the eye is the Ṛk, the Sāma, the uktha [a part of the Sāma], and the Yajus. He is also the three Vedas. The person who is in the sun and the person who is in the eye are the same. The same two singers [i.e., the Ṛk and the Sāma] sing in praise of each of them, and they have the same names.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, now; yaḥ eṣaḥ puruṣaḥ, that person who; antarakṣiṇi, inside the eye; dṛśyate, is seen; saḥ, that person; eva ṛk, is the Ṛk; tat sāma, he is the Sāma; tat uktham, he is the uktha [a part of the Sāma]; tat yajuḥ, he is the Yajus [i.e., mantras ending with svāhā, svadhā, and vaṣaṭ]; tat brahma, he is Brahman [i.e., the three Vedas]; tasya etasya, of this person [seen in the eye]; tat eva rūpam, that same form; yat amuṣya rūpam, of the form of that person [in the sun, having golden hair, etc.]; amuṣya, of that one [in the sun]; yau geṣṇau, two singers [i.e., the Ṛk and the Sāma sing in his praise]; tau geṣṇau, the same two singers [sing in praise of that one]; yat nāma tat nāma, the name of this is the same as the name of that. Commentary:-The Lord who rules the solar region is seen also in the eye. That Lord stands for the Ṛk. He controls the organ of speech and other organs of the body, as well as the earth and other planets. They are all parts of him. The three Vedas—Ṛk, Sāma, and Yajus—are often referred to as Brahman, so Brahman and the Vedas are the same. Brahman includes everything. It is in the sun, in the human body, and in the planets. It is here referred to as the Lord called Hiraṇmaya, the Lord with a golden body, because he is luminous. The words uk and uktha, and also svāhā, svadhā, and vaṣat, are all used in different Vedas in praise of the same Lord who is in the sun (ādhidaivika) as well as in the eye (ādhyātmika).

Translation By Max Müller

5. Now the person who is seen in the eye, he is Rik, he is Sâman, Uktha [1], Yagus, Brahman. The form of that person (in the eye) is the same [2] as the form of the other person (in the sun), the joints of the one (Rik and Sâman) are the joints of the other, the name of the one (ut) is the name of the other.

Footnote:

1. A set of hymns to be recited, whereas the Sâman is sung, and the Yagus muttered. 2. Cf. Kh. Up. I, 6, 6.


Sloka : 1.7.6

स एष ये चैतस्मादर्वाञ्चो लोकास्तेषां चेष्टे मनुष्यकामानां

चेति तद्य इमे वीणायां गायन्त्येतं ते गायन्ति

तस्मात्ते धनसनयः ॥ १.७.६॥

sa eṣa ye caitasmādarvāñco lokāsteṣāṃ ceṣṭe manuṣyakāmānāṃ

ceti tadya ime vīṇāyāṃ gāyantyetaṃ te gāyanti

tasmātte dhanasanayaḥ .. 1.7.6..



6. The person in the eye rules the world below him and also rules the desires of the human mind. Those who sing accompanied by the vīṇā, are, in fact, singing in his honour. This is why such musicians become wealthy.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ eṣaḥ, the person [in the eye]; etasmāt arvāñcaḥ ye ca lokāḥ, those worlds below him; teṣām ca iṣṭe, rules over them; manuṣya-kāmānām ca, as well as all human desires; iti, this marks the limit; tat, therefore; ye ime, those people who; vīṇāyām gāyanti, sing with the vīṇā; te etam gāyanti, they in fact sing in his honour; tasmāt, therefore; te, they [the musicians]; dhanasanayaḥ, become wealthy. Commentary:-That person in the eye is the Lord of the world below and also of the minds of human beings. When people sing accompanied by the vīṇā, that music is dedicated to him. And because they sing in honour of him, they acquire much wealth.

Translation By Max Müller

6. He is lord of the worlds beneath that (the self in the eye), and of all the wishes of men. Therefore all who sing to the vînâ (lyre), sing him, and from him also they obtain wealth.


Sloka : 1.7.7

अथ य एतदेवं विद्वान्साम गायत्युभौ स गायति

सोऽमुनैव स एष चामुष्मात्पराञ्चो

लोकास्ताꣳश्चाप्नोति देवकामाꣳश्च ॥ १.७.७॥

atha ya etadevaṃ vidvānsāma gāyatyubhau sa gāyati

so'munaiva sa eṣa cāmuṣmātparāñco

lokāstāgͫścāpnoti devakāmāgͫśca .. 1.7.7..



7. [This is what a worshipper achieves:-] He who knows the Truth mentioned above [i.e., the Truth about Āditya, the sun], sings the Sāma in honour of both Āditya and the person in the eye. He then becomes one with Āditya. Not only that, he also attains mastery of the planes above Āditya and attains everything the gods and goddesses wish for. [In other words, such a person becomes divine].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha yaḥ, now he who; etat evam vidvān, knows this in this way; sāma gāyati, sings the Sāma; saḥ, he [the musician]; ubhau, to both [to Āditya, the sun, and to the person in the eye]; gāyati, sings; saḥ, he [the musician]; amunā eva, as that [Āditya]; ye ca amuṣmāt, from that [Āditya]; parāñcaḥ, above; lokāḥ, the planes; tām devakāmān, the things the gods and goddesses wish for; ca, also; saḥ eṣaḥ, that musician; āpnoti, attains [i.e., he finds a place in the solar orb, and he becomes divine]. Commentary:-When a person knows the real identity of the deity to whom he is singing the Sāma—that is, when he knows he is singing the Sāma in praise of both Āditya, the sun, and the deity in the eye—what does he gain? He becomes one with Āditya and becomes the master of the worlds above Āditya. He is also entitled to the things that the gods and goddesses desire. He, in fact, becomes divine.

Translation By Max Müller

7. He who knowing this sings a Sâman, sings to both (the adhidaivata and adhyâtma self, the person in the sun and the person in the eye, as one and the same person). He obtains through the one, yea, he obtains the worlds beyond that, and the wishes of the Devas;


Sloka : 1.7.8

अथानेनैव ये चैतस्मादर्वाञ्चो लोकास्ताꣳश्चाप्नोति

मनुष्यकामाꣳश्च तस्मादु हैवंविदुद्गाता ब्रूयात् ॥ १.७.८॥

athānenaiva ye caitasmādarvāñco lokāstāgͫścāpnoti

manuṣyakāmāgͫśca tasmādu haivaṃvidudgātā brūyāt .. 1.7.8..



8. Now, [the same worshipper] also attains, by the grace of the Lord in the eye, all the worlds below that Lord. Again, he attains all that human beings may desire. This is why the singer will ask:-





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, now; anena eva, by this [i.e., by the grace of the Lord in the eye]; ye ca etasmāt arvāñcaḥ lokāḥ, those planes which are below [him—i.e., the person in the eye]; tām ca, those [planes] also; āpnoti manuṣyakāmān ca, he also attains things desired by human beings; tasmāt, this is why; u ha udgātā evamvit, the singer who knows this; brūyāt, will say. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

8. And he obtains through the other the worlds beneath that, and the wishes of men. Therefore an Udgâtri priest who knows this, may say (to the sacrificer for whom he officiates);


Sloka : 1.7.9

कं ते काममागायानीत्येष ह्येव कामागानस्येष्टे य

एवं विद्वान्साम गायति साम गायति ॥ १.७.९॥

kaṃ te kāmamāgāyānītyeṣa hyeva kāmāgānasyeṣṭe ya

evaṃ vidvānsāma gāyati sāma gāyati .. 1.7.9..



9. [A learned udgātā, who sings the Sāma, will ask the person for whose benefit he is singing:-] ‘What shall I ask for on your behalf through my songs?’ He says this [because he knows the Lord in the eye presides over the Sāma and is capable of granting whatever the person wants] and he sings the Sāma, he sings the Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Kam, what; te, for yon; kāmam, desire; āgāyāni iti, shall I sing for; eṣaḥ hi eva, he is the person who; kāmāgānasya iṣṭe, influences the fulfilment of the desires as expressed through songs; yaḥ, the musician [udgātā]; evam, this; vidvān, having known; sāma gāyati sāma gāyati, he sings the Sāma, he sings the Sāma. Iti saptamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the seventh section. Commentary:-The Lord in the eye controls everything—the earth and other worlds, those who live in them, and also the desires of those people. This is the purport of the verse.

Translation By Max Müller

9. 'What wish shall I obtain for you by my songs?' For he who knowing this sings a Sâman is able to obtain wishes through his song, yea, through his song.


Sloka : 1.8.1

॥ इति सप्तमः खण्डः ॥

त्रयो होद्गीथे कुशला बभूवुः शिलकः शालावत्यश्चैकितायनो

दाल्भ्यः प्रवाहणो जैवलिरिति ते होचुरुद्गीथे

वै कुशलाः स्मो हन्तोद्गीथे कथां वदाम इति ॥ १.८.१॥

.. iti saptamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

trayo hodgīthe kuśalā babhūvuḥ śilakaḥ śālāvatyaścaikitāyano

dālbhyaḥ pravāhaṇo jaivaliriti te hocurudgīthe

vai kuśalāḥ smo hantodgīthe kathāṃ vadāma iti .. 1.8.1..



1. In ancient times, these three—Śilaka, the son of Salāvat, Caikitāyana, the son of Cikitāyana of the Dalbha clan, and Pravāhaṇa, the son of Jīvala—were skilled in the art of the udgītha. They said:- ‘We have mastered the art of the udgītha. If you so wish, we can discuss the udgītha’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Trayaḥ ha udgīthe kuśalāḥ bābhūvuḥ, in early days there were three sages skilled in the udgītha; śilakaḥ śālāvatyaḥ, Śilaka, the son of Śalāvat; caikitāyanaḥ dālbhyaḥ, Caikitāyana, the son of Cikitāyana, of the Dalbha clan; pravāhaṇaḥ jaivaliḥ, Pravāhaṇa, the son of Jīvala; iti te ha ūcuḥ, they declared; udgīthe vai kuśalāḥ smaḥ, we have mastered the art of the udgītha; hanta udgīthe kathām vadāmaḥ iti, if you so wish we can discuss the udgītha. Commentary:-Śilaka, Caikitāyana Dālbhyah, and Pravāhaṇa—these three scholars had studied the udgītha very well, and in an assembly of scholars, they offered to discuss the subject, if the others so desired. It was not that they were trying to show off their knowledge. They just wanted the others to know that they were prepared to speak on this subject if the other scholars present so wished.

Translation By Max Müller

1. There were once three men, well-versed in udgîtha [1], Silaka Sâlâvatya, Kaikitâyana, Dâlbhya, and Pravâhana Gaivali. They said:- 'We are well-versed in udgîtha. Let us have a discussion on udgîtha.'

Footnote:

1. Cognisant of the deeper meanings of udgîtha, i. e. Om.


Sloka : 1.8.2

तथेति ह समुपविविशुः स ह प्रावहणो जैवलिरुवाच

भगवन्तावग्रे वदतां ब्राह्मणयोर्वदतोर्वाचꣳ श्रोष्यामीति

॥ १.८.२॥

tatheti ha samupaviviśuḥ sa ha prāvahaṇo jaivaliruvāca

bhagavantāvagre vadatāṃ brāhmaṇayorvadatorvācagͫ śroṣyāmīti

.. 1.8.2..



2. They said, ‘Let it be so,’ and then sat down. Pravāhaṇa, the son of Jīvala, said:- ‘You two may please begin the debate. I would like to listen to the debate between you two brāhmins’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tathā iti, saying, ‘Let it be so’; samupaviviśuḥ, they sat down; saḥ pravāhaṇaḥ jaivaliḥ ha uvāca, Pravāhaṇa, the son of Jīvala, said; bhagavantau agre vadatām, you two respected ones may kindly start the discussion; vadatoḥ brāhmaṇayoḥ vācam śroṣyāmi iti, I will listen to the debate of you two brāhmins. Commentary:-The scholars agreed to the debate, and sat down. Lest this be construed as impertinence, Prince Pravāhaṇa said to the other two that he wanted to hear the two brāhmins debating. The fact that Pravāhaṇa addressed them as brāhmins, shows that he regarded himself as inferior, being a kṣatriya.

Translation By Max Müller

2. They all agreed and sat down. Then Pravâhana Gaivali [1] said:- 'Sirs, do you both speak first, for I wish to hear what two Brâhmanas [2] have to say.

Footnote:

1. He, though not being a Brâhmana, turns out to be the only one who knows the true meaning of udgîtha, i. e. the Highest Brahman. 2. In V, 3, 5, Pravâhana Gaivali is distinctly called a râganyabandhu.


Sloka : 1.8.3

स ह शिलकः शालावत्यश्चैकितायनं दाल्भ्यमुवाच

हन्त त्वा पृच्छानीति पृच्छेति होवाच ॥ १.८.३॥

sa ha śilakaḥ śālāvatyaścaikitāyanaṃ dālbhyamuvāca

hanta tvā pṛcchānīti pṛccheti hovāca .. 1.8.3..



3. Śalāvat’s son Śilaka said to the sage Caikitāyana Dālbhya, ‘If you permit, I would like to ask you a question.’ Dālbhya replied, ‘Yes, ask’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ śilakaḥ śālāvatyaḥ ha caikitāyanam dālbhyam uvāca, Śilaka, the son of Śalāvat, said to Caikitāyana Dālbhya; hanta tvā pṛcchāni iti, if you permit, I would like to ask you this question; pṛccha iti ha uvāca, yes, ask, [replied Dālbhya]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. Then Silaka Sâlâvatya said to Kaikitâyana Dâlbhya:- 'Let me ask you.' 'Ask,' he replied.


Sloka : 1.8.4

का साम्नो गतिरिति स्वर इति होवाच स्वरस्य का

गतिरिति प्राण इति होवाच प्राणस्य का

गतिरित्यन्नमिति होवाचान्नस्य का गतिरित्याप

इति होवाच ॥ १.८.४॥

kā sāmno gatiriti svara iti hovāca svarasya kā

gatiriti prāṇa iti hovāca prāṇasya kā

gatirityannamiti hovācānnasya kā gatirityāpa

iti hovāca .. 1.8.4..



4. Śilaka asked, ‘What is the support of Sāma?’ ‘It is the voice,’ replied Dālbhya. ‘What is the support of the voice?’ ‘The vital breath,’ answered Dālbhya. ‘What is the support of the vital breath?’ asked Śilaka. Dālbhya replied, ‘Food.’ Then Śilaka asked, ‘What is the support of food?’ Dālbhya said, ‘Water’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Sāmnaḥ kā gatiḥ iti, [Śilaka asked,] what is it that supports Sāma [i.e., the udgītha of the Sāma]; svaraḥ iti ha uvāca, [Dālbhya] replied, it is the voice; svarasya kā gatiḥ iti, what is the support of the voice; prāṇaḥ iti ha uvāca, [Dālbhya] said, prāṇa [the vital breath]; prāṇasya kā gatiḥ iti, what is the support of prāṇa [asked Śilaka]; annam iti ha uvāca, [Dālbhya] replied, it is food; annasya kā gatiḥ iti, what is the support of food; āpaḥ iti ha uvāca, [Dālbhya] replied, water. Commentary:-Sāma here means the udgītha, the chanting. Dālbhya was asked what supported the chanting, and he replied, ‘The voice.’ Just as a pot is supported by the material of which it is made, which is earth, similarly, the chanting is supported by the voice. But what supports the voice? The vital breath. And the vital breath is supported by food. Similarly, food is supported by water, because it is from water that food grows.

Translation By Max Müller

4. 'What is the origin of the Sâman?' 'Tone (svara),' he replied. 'What is the origin of tone?' 'Breath,' he replied. 'What is the origin of breath?' 'Food,' he replied. 'What is the origin of food?' 'Water,' he replied.


Sloka : 1.8.5

अपां का गतिरित्यसौ लोक इति होवाचामुष्य लोकस्य

का गतिरिति न स्वर्गं लोकमिति नयेदिति होवाच स्वर्गं

वयं लोकꣳ सामाभिसंस्थापयामः स्वर्गसꣳस्तावꣳहि

सामेति ॥ १.८.५॥

apāṃ kā gatirityasau loka iti hovācāmuṣya lokasya

kā gatiriti na svargaṃ lokamiti nayediti hovāca svargaṃ

vayaṃ lokagͫ sāmābhisaṃsthāpayāmaḥ svargasagͫstāvagͫhi

sāmeti .. 1.8.5..



5. [Śilaka:-] ‘What is the support of water?’ [Dālbhya:-] ‘That world, heaven.’ [Śilaka:-] ‘What is the support of that world?’ [Dālbhya:-] ‘Don’t go beyond that heaven. We know Sāma is in heaven, and this is why Sāma is respected as heaven’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Apām kā gatiḥ iti, what is the support of water; asau lokaḥ, that world [i.e., heaven]; iti ha uvāca, said [Dālbhya]; amuṣya lokasya kā gatiḥ iti, what is the support of that heaven; svargam lokam na atinayet iti ha uvāca, one should not go beyond that heaven, replied [Dālbhya]; svargam lokam, in that heavenly world; vayam sāma abhisaṃsthāpayāmaḥ, we install Sāma; svargasaṃstāvam hi sāma iti, this Sāma is worshipped as heaven. Commentary:-The next question Śilaka asked was about the support of water. To this Dālbhya replied, ‘That world—that is, heaven.’ Rain is said to come from heaven, so that is why heaven is called the support. But what supports heaven? When Śilaka put this question, Dālbhya replied that the question was irrelevant. There is nothing beyond heaven. Heaven is the ultimate. It is the real resort of Sāma. And this is why we say that Sāma is in heaven and why the scriptures show the same respect to heaven as to Sāma.

Translation By Max Müller

5. 'What is the origin of water?' 'That world (heaven),' he replied. 'And what is the origin of that world?'-- He replied:- 'Let no man carry the Sâman beyond the world of svarga (heaven). We place (recognise) the Sâman in the world of svarga, for the Sâman is extolled as svarga (heaven).'


Sloka : 1.8.6

तꣳ ह शिलकः शालावत्यश्चैकितायनं

दाल्भ्यमुवाचाप्रतिष्ठितं वै किल ते दाल्भ्य साम

यस्त्वेतर्हि ब्रूयान्मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति मूर्धा ते

विपतेदिति ॥ १.८.६॥

tagͫ ha śilakaḥ śālāvatyaścaikitāyanaṃ

dālbhyamuvācāpratiṣṭhitaṃ vai kila te dālbhya sāma

yastvetarhi brūyānmūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti mūrdhā te

vipatediti .. 1.8.6..



6. Śilaka Śālāvatya said to Caikitāyana Dālbhya:- ‘O Dālbhya, your Sāma is then without a base. If someone knowledgeable about Sāma would now say [that your statement is wrong, and if he curses you saying,] “Your head will fall [if what you say turns out to be wrong],” your head will really fall’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tam ha śilakaḥ śālāvatyaḥ caikitāyanam dālbhyam uvāca, Śilaka Śālāvatya said to Caikitāyana Dālbhya; vai kila te dālbhya sāma, your Sāma is, O Dālbhya; apratiṣṭhitam, without a base; yaḥ tu etarhi brūyāt, if anyone says now; te mūrdhā vipatiṣyati iti, your head will fall [if your statement about Sāma is found to be wrong]; te mūrdhā vipatet iti, your head will surely fall. Commentary:-Śilaka said to Dālbhya that Sāma cannot have heaven as its support. He then quotes scriptures that what he says is true. He also adds that Dālbhya might be careful not to give the impression that he has any doubt about this. If he does, he will then risk being cursed by people who know the Sāma very well. They may curse him saying that his head will fall. Whether Dālbhya’s head will fall or not is a different matter. If you commit a mistake, you surely have to pay for it. The measure of your punishment, however, is decided by many factors.

Translation By Max Müller

6. Then said Silaka Sâlâvatya to Kaikitâyana Dâlbhya:- 'O Dâlbhya, thy Sâman is not firmly established. And if any one were to say, Your head shall fall off (if you be wrong), surely your head would now fall.'


Sloka : 1.8.7

हन्ताहमेतद्भगवतो वेदानीति विद्धीति होवाचामुष्य

लोकस्य का गतिरित्ययं लोक इति होवाचास्य लोकस्य

का गतिरिति न प्रतिष्ठां लोकमिति नयेदिति होवाच

प्रतिष्ठां वयं लोकꣳ सामाभिसꣳस्थापयामः

प्रतिष्ठासꣳस्तावꣳ हि सामेति ॥ १.८.७॥

hantāhametadbhagavato vedānīti viddhīti hovācāmuṣya

lokasya kā gatirityayaṃ loka iti hovācāsya lokasya

kā gatiriti na pratiṣṭhāṃ lokamiti nayediti hovāca

pratiṣṭhāṃ vayaṃ lokagͫ sāmābhisagͫsthāpayāmaḥ

pratiṣṭhāsagͫstāvagͫ hi sāmeti .. 1.8.7..



7. Dālbhya said, ‘Sir, if you permit, I would like to ask you about this.’ Śilaka replied, ‘Yes, ask.’ Dālbhya then asked, ‘What is the support of that heaven?’ Śilaka said, ‘This earth.’ ‘What supports this earth?’ asked Dālbhya. Śilaka replied:- ‘Don’t think Sāma’s base is beyond this earth. We think Sāma is based on this earth, and we respect it as so’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Hanta, if you permit; aham etat bhagavataḥ vedāni iti, I would like to learn this from you, revered sir [said Dālbhya]; viddhi iti ha uvāca, yes, learn from me, said [Śilaka]; amuṣya lokasya kā gatiḥ iti, what is the support of that world [Dālbhya asked]; ayam lokaḥ iti ha uvāca, this earth, said [Śilaka]; asya lokasya kā gatiḥ iti, what is the support of this earth [Dālbhya asked]; pratiṣṭhām lokam na atinayet iti ha uvāca, [in order to find the support of Sāma] don’t go beyond the earth, replied [Śilaka]; pratiṣṭhām lokam vayam sāma abhisaṃsthāpayāmaḥ, we see Sāma based on this earth; pratiṣṭhāsaṃstāvam hi sāma iti, Sāma is respected because it is based on this earth. Commentary:-Heaven is supported by the various Vedic rites performed on the earth, and this is why the earth is said here to be the support of heaven. To be more precise, however, the gods and goddesses in heaven depend upon what men and women on earth offer them through their Vedic rites. In this sense, the earth is the support of heaven. The earth is the support of everything, and it is also the base of the Sāma. This is why the earth is described as a kind of chariot (rathantara) in the Sāma Veda.

Translation By Max Müller

7. 'Well then, let me know this from you, Sir,' said Dâlbhya. 'Know it,' replied Silaka Sâlâvatya. 'What is the origin of that world (heaven)?' 'This world,' he replied. 'And what is the origin of this world?'-- He replied:- 'Let no man carry the Sâman beyond this world as its rest. We place the Sâman in this world as its rest, for the Sâman is extolled as rest.'


Sloka : 1.8.8

तꣳ ह प्रवाहणो जैवलिरुवाचान्तवद्वै किल ते

शालावत्य साम यस्त्वेतर्हि ब्रूयान्मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति

मूर्धा ते विपतेदिति हन्ताहमेतद्भगवतो वेदानीति

विद्धीति होवाच ॥ १.८.८॥

tagͫ ha pravāhaṇo jaivaliruvācāntavadvai kila te

śālāvatya sāma yastvetarhi brūyānmūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti

mūrdhā te vipatediti hantāhametadbhagavato vedānīti

viddhīti hovāca .. 1.8.8..



8. Pravāhaṇa Jaivali said:- ‘O Śālāvatya, your Sāma is not endless. If someone should now say that your head will fall off, it will fall off.’ Śilaka Śālāvatya then said, ‘O Lord, I want to learn from you [the truth about the Sāma].’ Jaivali replied, ‘Yes, learn from me’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tam ha pravāhaṇaḥ jaivaliḥ uvāca, Pravāhaṇa Jaivali said to him; antavat vai kila te sāma śālāvatya, O Śālāvatya [Śilaka], your Sāma is not without an end; yaḥ tu, if anyone; etarhi, now; brūyāt, says; mūrdhā te vipatiṣyati iti, your head will fall; mūrdhā te vipatet, your head will fall off; hanta aham bhagavataḥ vadāni iti, [Śilaka said,] if you please, O Lord, I would like to learn from you; viddhi iti ha uvāca, yes, learn [from me, Pravāhaṇa replied]. Iti aṣṭamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the eighth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

8. Then said Pravâhana Gaivali to Silaka Sâlâvatya:- 'Your Sâman (the earth), O Sâlâvatya, has an end. And if any one were to say, Your head shall fall off (if you be wrong), surely your head would now fall.' 'Well then, let me know this from you, Sir,' said Sâlâvatya. 'Know it,' replied Gaivali.


Sloka : 1.9.1

॥ इति अष्टमः खण्डः ॥

अस्य लोकस्य का गतिरित्याकाश इति होवाच

सर्वाणि ह वा इमानि भूतान्याकाशादेव समुत्पद्यन्त

आकाशं प्रत्यस्तं यन्त्याकाशो ह्येवैभ्यो ज्यायानकाशः

परायणम् ॥ १.९.१॥

.. iti aṣṭamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

asya lokasya kā gatirityākāśa iti hovāca

sarvāṇi ha vā imāni bhūtānyākāśādeva samutpadyanta

ākāśaṃ pratyastaṃ yantyākāśo hyevaibhyo jyāyānakāśaḥ

parāyaṇam .. 1.9.1..



1. Śilaka Śālāvatya asked Pravāhaṇa, ‘What is the end of this earth?’ Pravāhaṇa said:- ‘Space, for everything that exists arises from space and also goes back into space. Space is superior to everything. Space is the highest goal’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Asya lokasya kā gatiḥ iti, [Śilaka Śālāvatya asked,] what is the end of this earth; ākāśaḥ iti ha uvāca, [Pravāhaṇa] replied, space; sarvāṇi ha vai imāni bhūtānī, all these beings; ākāśāt eva samutpadyante, issue from space; ākāśani prati astam yanti, they disappear into space; ākāśaḥ hi eva ebhyaḥ jyāyān, Space is superior to these; ākāśaḥ parāyaṇam, space is the highest goal. Commentary:-Space is described here as the source of everything. It is the source as well as the end of everything. In short, it is Paramātman, the Cosmic Self. Because space is the biggest thing visible, it can rightly claim to be the symbol of the Paramātman. All the other elements (air, fire, water, and earth) come from space and go back to space. But the scriptures also say that the Cosmic Self is the source and the end of the elements—indeed, of everything.

Translation By Max Müller

1. 'What is the origin of this world?' 'Ether [1], 'he replied. For all these beings take their rise from the ether, and return into the ether. Ether is older than these, ether is their rest.

Footnote:

1. Ether, or we might translate it by space, both being intended, however, as names or symbols of the Highest Brahman. See Vedânta-sûtra I, 1, 22.


Sloka : 1.9.2

स एष परोवरीयानुद्गीथः स एषोऽनन्तः परोवरीयो

हास्य भवति परोवरीयसो ह लोकाञ्जयति

य एतदेवं विद्वान्परोवरीयाꣳसमुद्गीथमुपास्ते ॥ १.९.२॥

sa eṣa parovarīyānudgīthaḥ sa eṣo'nantaḥ parovarīyo

hāsya bhavati parovarīyaso ha lokāñjayati

ya etadevaṃ vidvānparovarīyāgͫsamudgīthamupāste .. 1.9.2..



2. Earlier, mention was made of the udgītha being the best as also endless. He who is aware of this and worships the udgītha as such keeps attaining higher and higher worlds, and he becomes increasingly a better individual.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ udgīthaḥ, that udgītha; parovarīyān [paraḥ + varīyān], the best; eṣaḥ, the Paramātman [i.e., the Supreme Self, earlier referred to as endless]; saḥ eṣaḥ, the udgītha [which is also the Cosmic Self]; anantaḥ, [is] endless; yaḥ, the worshipper; evam, as mentioned earlier; vidvān, having known; etat, this; parovarīyāṃsam udgītham upāste, worships this udgītha knowing it as the best; parovarīyasaḥ lokān jayati, he attains increasingly higher and higher worlds; asya, the life of that worshipper; parovarīyaḥ ha bhavati, also becomes higher and higher. Commentary:-It is important to realize that the udgītha is the Paramātman itself. When we know this we attain the highest—both materially and spiritually.

Translation By Max Müller

2. He is indeed the udgîtha (Om = Brahman), greater than great (parovarîyas), he is without end. He who knowing this meditates on the udgîtha, the greater than great, obtains what is greater than great, he conquers the worlds which are greater than great.


Sloka : 1.9.3

तꣳ हैतमतिधन्वा शौनक उदरशाण्डिल्यायोक्त्वोवाच

यावत्त एनं प्रजायामुद्गीथं वेदिष्यन्ते परोवरीयो

हैभ्यस्तावदस्मिꣳल्लोके जीवनं भविष्यति ॥ १.९.३॥

tagͫ haitamatidhanvā śaunaka udaraśāṇḍilyāyoktvovāca

yāvatta enaṃ prajāyāmudgīthaṃ vediṣyante parovarīyo

haibhyastāvadasmigͫlloke jīvanaṃ bhaviṣyati .. 1.9.3..



3. [In ancient times there was a sage named Atidhanvā, who was the son of Śunaka and who knew the science of udgītha very well.] Once when he was teaching this to his disciple Udaraśāṇḍilya, he declared:- ‘So long as you and your family preserve this knowledge, the quality of life in the world of your family will be higher than that of average people’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Śaunakaḥ, the son of Śunaka; atidhanvā, Atidhanvā [the sage having that name]; tam, of that kind; etam, this [udgītha]; udaraśāṇḍilyāya, to Udaraśāṇḍilya [the disciple having that name]; uktvā, having taught; uvāca, he said; ha yāvat, as long as; te prajāyām, your progeny; enam udgītham vediṣyante, will know this udgītha; tāvat, so long; [tāsām prajān, the life of those progeny]; asmin loke, in this world; jīvanam ebhyaḥ parovarīyaḥ ha bhaviṣyati, will grow better and better in quality judged by the standard of ordinary people. Commentary:-This udgītha is an invaluable asset which can uplift people both materially and spiritually for generations.

Translation By Max Müller

3. Atidhanvan Saunaka, having taught this udgîtha to Udara-sândilya, said:- 'As long as they will know in your family this udgîtha, their life in this world will be greater than great.


Sloka : 1.9.4

तथामुष्मिꣳल्लोके लोक इति स य एतमेवं विद्वानुपास्ते

परोवरीय एव हास्यास्मिꣳल्लोके जीवनं भवति

तथामुष्मिꣳल्लोके लोक इति लोके लोक इति ॥ १.९.४॥

tathāmuṣmigͫlloke loka iti sa ya etamevaṃ vidvānupāste

parovarīya eva hāsyāsmigͫlloke jīvanaṃ bhavati

tathāmuṣmigͫlloke loka iti loke loka iti .. 1.9.4..



4. As in this world, so also in the other world. He who knows the place of the udgītha and worships it accordingly enjoys the best in life in this world, and he enjoys the best in life in the other world also [after death].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tathā, in the same way; amuṣmin loke, in that other world; lokaḥ iti, the place; saḥ yaḥ, he who; etat evam vidvān upāste, knows this and worships [the udgītha] accordingly; parovarīyaḥ eva ha asya asmin loke jīvanam bhavati, his life in this world is the best possible; tathā amuṣmin loke lokaḥ iti loke lokaḥ iti, his life in the other world [i.e., his life after death] is likewise the best, his life in the other world is likewise. Iti navamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the ninth section. Commentary:-The sage Atidhanvā told his disciple Udaraśāṇḍilya about the benefits of worshipping udgītha. He said that the benefits were not only material, but also spiritual. The worshipper is benefitted in this life as well as in his life after death. But the question may be raised, is this still valid today? What was true in earlier times may not be true now. Śaṅkara dispels this doubt. He says that even now people are enjoying the same benefits of worshipping the udgītha (that is, of chanting the Sāma Veda)—especially that part which is addressed to the Supreme Being.

Translation By Max Müller

4. 'And thus also will be their state in the other world.' He who thus knows the udgîtha, and meditates on it thus, his life in this world will be greater than great, and also his state in the other world, yea, in the other world.


Sloka : 1.10.1

॥ इति नवमः खण्डः ॥

मटचीहतेषु कुरुष्वाटिक्या सह जाययोषस्तिर्ह

चाक्रायण इभ्यग्रामे प्रद्राणक उवास ॥ १.१०.१॥

.. iti navamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

maṭacīhateṣu kuruṣvāṭikyā saha jāyayoṣastirha

cākrāyaṇa ibhyagrāme pradrāṇaka uvāsa .. 1.10.1..



1. Once the land of the Kurus was hit by a bad thunderstorm, and a young man living there named Uṣasti, the son of Cakra, was in great distress. He left home accompanied by his child-wife and moved to a prosperous village.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:- Maṭacīhateṣu, destroyed [hateṣu] by a thunderstorm [maṭacin]; kuruṣu, in the land of the Kurus; ātikyā jāyayā saha, with his child-wife; uṣastiḥ, Uṣasti [a young man by that name]; cākrāyaṇaḥ, the son of Cakra; pradrāṇakaiḥ in great misery; ibhyagrāme [ibhyaḥ, prosperous (i.e., where people owned elephants) + grāme, in a village], in a prosperous village; uvāsa, lived. Commentary:- So far, much praise has been given to the udgītha, the purpose being to show the importance of the Sāma Veda. Now, prastāva and pratihāra are being introduced with the same object in view—that is, worship of the Sāma Veda. In order to introduce the subject, however, and to make it easy to understand, a story is given:- At one time the land of the Kurus was hit by a very bad storm, which destroyed all the crops, and the country was in the grip of a famine. The son of Cakra, named Uṣasti, was starving and on the verge of death. He then moved with his child-wife to a prosperous village (that is, it was prosperous because people there owned elephants—ibha). According to Śaṅkara, the word maṭacī means ‘fire from thunder.’ According to the Śabdakalpadruma, it refers to a species of small red birds, and according to Ānandagiri it means ‘locusts.’ Another meaning is ‘hail.’

Translation By Max Müller

1. When the Kurus had been destroyed by (hail) stones [1], Ushasti Kâkrâyana lived as a beggar with his virgin [2] wife at Ibhyagrâma.

Footnote:

1. When they had been killed either by stone weapons, or by a shower of stones, which produced a famine in the land. Comm. 2. Âtikî is not the name of the wife of Ushasti, nor does it mean strong enough to travel. Saṅkara explains it as anupagâtapayodhâridistrîvyañganâ, and Ânandagiri adds, Svairasamkâre 'pi na vyabhikârasaṅketi darsayitum âtikyeti viseshanam. She was so young that she was allowed to run about freely, without exciting any suspicion. Another commentator says, Grihâd bahirgantumarhâ anupagâtapayodharâ.


Sloka : 1.10.2

स हेभ्यं कुल्माषान्खादन्तं बिभिक्षे तꣳ होवाच ।

नेतोऽन्ये विद्यन्ते यच्च ये म इम उपनिहिता इति

॥ १.१०.२॥

sa hebhyaṃ kulmāṣānkhādantaṃ bibhikṣe tagͫ hovāca .

neto'nye vidyante yacca ye ma ima upanihitā iti

.. 1.10.2..



2. Uṣasti saw an elephant-driver eating some pulses of poor quality, and he begged for a share of his food. The elephant-driver replied:- ‘This food in my bowl is all I have to eat. Besides this, I have nothing. [What should I do?]’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ, he [Uṣasti]; kulmāṣān, bad food grains; khādantam, eating; ibhyam, an elephant[-driver]; bibhikṣe, begged; ha tam uvāca, that [elephant-driver] said to him; itaḥ, besides these [pulses]; na anye vidyante, nothing further exists; yat ye ca ime, that which [the pulses]; me, my; upanihitāḥ, thrown [into my eating bowl]; [kim karomi, what should I do]. Commentary:-The food itself was bad, and besides that, it was hardly enough for the elephant-driver, but there was nothing else he could give Uṣasti. By implication, he regretted his inability to help.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Seeing a chief eating beans, he begged of him. The chief said:- 'I have no more, except those which are put away for me here.'


Sloka : 1.10.3

एतेषां मे देहीति होवाच तानस्मै प्रददौ

हन्तानुपानमित्युच्छिष्टं वै मे पीतꣳस्यादिति होवाच

॥ १.१०.३॥

eteṣāṃ me dehīti hovāca tānasmai pradadau

hantānupānamityucchiṣṭaṃ vai me pītagͫsyāditi hovāca

.. 1.10.3..



3. Uṣasti said to the elephant-driver, ‘Please give me some [of the pulses].’ The driver then gave away the pulses and said, ‘Here is some water.’ [But Uṣasti declined it, saying,] ‘That will amount to my drinking unclean water’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ha uvāca, [Uṣasti] said; eteṣām, out of this; me dehi iti, give me [some]; tān, those [pulses]; asmai, to him [i.e., to Uṣasti]; pradadau, gave away; hanta, [the elephant-driver said] here is; anupānam iti, drinking water; iti ha uvāca, [Uṣasti] said; me ucchiṣṭam vai pītam syāt, [if I drink the water you are offering] I would be drinking unclean water [because someone else has drunk from it]. Commentary:-Uṣasti must have been very hungry. Although the elephant-driver said he had no other food than what was in his bowl, Uṣasti begged for that anyway. The driver kindly obliged and then also offered him some water to drink. This, however, Uṣasti declined. He said he would then be drinking unclean (ucchiṣṭa) water—that is, water that someone else had already drunk from. But the driver raised the question:- If Uṣasti could take the unclean (according to him) food, why could he not take the unclean water also?

Translation By Max Müller

3. Ushasti said:- 'Give me to eat of them.' He gave him the beans, and said:- 'There is something to drink also! Then said Ushasti:- 'If I drank of it, I should have drunk what was left by another, and is therefore unclean.'


Sloka : 1.10.4

न स्विदेतेऽप्युच्छिष्टा इति न वा

अजीविष्यमिमानखादन्निति होवाच कामो म

उदपानमिति ॥ १.१०.४॥

na svidete'pyucchiṣṭā iti na vā

ajīviṣyamimānakhādanniti hovāca kāmo ma

udapānamiti .. 1.10.4..



4. The elephant-driver asked, ‘Aren’t the pulses also unclean?’ Uṣasti replied:- ‘I would die if I did not have these grains to eat. As regards drinking water, [it is not that important]. I can get it when I like’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Svit ete api na ucchiṣṭāḥ iti, [the driver said, by the same token] aren’t these [pulses] also unclean; ha uvāca, [Uṣasti] replied; imān, these [pulses]; akhādan, [if I] do not eat; na vai ajīviṣyam iti, I will not survive; udapānam, drinking water [on the other hand]; me kāmaḥ iti, is left to me. Commentary:-Normally a person should not eat or drink, anything unclean (ucchiṣṭa)—that is, something which someone else has already eaten or drunk a part of. But when it is a question of survival, the scriptures condone such eating or drinking. Uṣasti was aware of the injunctions of the scriptures in this respect, and he knew they would permit his eating the unclean pulses, but not his drinking the unclean water. Clean water was easily available, so he would not have died if he refrained from drinking it. The scriptures take much pains to point out when eating or drinking unclean things is permissible. In this connection, the reader’s attention is drawn to sūtra 3.4.28 of the Brahma Sūtras.

Translation By Max Müller

4. The chief said:- 'Were not those beans also left over and therefore unclean?' 'No,' he replied; 'for I should not have lived, if I had not eaten them, but the drinking of water would be mere pleasure [1].'

Footnote:

1. Or, according to the commentator, 'water I can get whenever I like.'


Sloka : 1.10.5

स ह खादित्वातिशेषाञ्जायाया आजहार साग्र एव

सुभिक्षा बभूव तान्प्रतिगृह्य निदधौ ॥ १.१०.५॥

sa ha khāditvātiśeṣāñjāyāyā ājahāra sāgra eva

subhikṣā babhūva tānpratigṛhya nidadhau .. 1.10.5..



5. After eating some of the food, he [Uṣasti] brought back what was left for his wife. The wife, however, had meanwhile obtained good alms. She accepted the food [from her husband] and put it aside [for future use].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ha khāditvā, having eaten; atiśeṣān, whatever was left over; saḥ jāyāyai ājahāra, he [Uṣasti] brought for his wife; sā, she; agre eva subhikṣā babhūva, had already obtained good alms; tān, them [the pulses]; pratigṛhya, she accepted; nidadhau, [and] put them aside. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

5. Having eaten himself, Ushasti gave the remaining beans to his wife. But she, having eaten before, took them and put them away.


Sloka : 1.10.6

स ह प्रातः संजिहान उवाच यद्बतान्नस्य लभेमहि

लभेमहि धनमात्राꣳराजासौ यक्ष्यते स मा

सर्वैरार्त्विज्यैर्वृणीतेति ॥ १.१०.६॥

sa ha prātaḥ saṃjihāna uvāca yadbatānnasya labhemahi

labhemahi dhanamātrāgͫrājāsau yakṣyate sa mā

sarvairārtvijyairvṛṇīteti .. 1.10.6..



6. While leaving bed the next morning, Uṣasti said to his wife:- ‘Oh, if only I could get something to eat, I could then earn some money. The king over there is going to perform a sacrifice, and very likely he would have entrusted to me all the work of a ṛtvik [a priest at a sacrifice]’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ, he [Uṣasti]; prātaḥ, in the morning; sañjihānaḥ, while getting up from bed; ha uvāca, said [to his wife]; yat bata, oh, if only; annasya labhemahi, I could get some food; labhemahi dhanamātrām, I could earn a little money; asau, over there; rājā, the king; yakṣyate, is performing a sacrifice; saḥ, he [the king]; mā, me; sarvaiḥ ārtvijyaiḥ, all the work of a ṛtvik [a priest who sings hymns or otherwise helps with the performance of a sacrifice]; vṛṇīta iti, would have appointed. Commentary:-Uṣasti was a highly qualified ṛtvik, and he hoped the king would appoint him to assist at the sacrifice he was going to perform. If that hope of his materialized, he would then be able to earn some money. The snag was, however, that he was too weak from hunger to do anything. If he could only get something to eat!

Translation By Max Müller

6. Rising the next morning, Ushasti said to her:- 'Alas, if we could only get some food, we might gain a little wealth. The king here is going to offer a sacrifice, he should choose me for all the priestly offices.'


Sloka : 1.10.7

तं जायोवाच हन्त पत इम एव कुल्माषा इति

तान्खादित्वामुं यज्ञं विततमेयाय ॥ १.१०.७॥

taṃ jāyovāca hanta pata ima eva kulmāṣā iti

tānkhāditvāmuṃ yajñaṃ vitatameyāya .. 1.10.7..



7. The wife said to him, ‘O dear husband, here are those pulses you gave me.’ Having eaten the pulses, Uṣasti left for the place where the sacrifice was being held [other priests having already started it].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Jāyā tam uvāca, the wife said to him; hanta pate, O dear husband; ime eva kulmāṣāḥ iti, here are those pulses [you gave me]; tān, them [the pulses]; khāditvā, having eaten; amum vitatam yajñam, that ensuing sacrifice; eyāya, he went. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

7. His wife said to him:- 'Look, here are those beans of yours.' Having eaten them, he went to the sacrifice which was being performed.


Sloka : 1.10.8

तत्रोद्गातॄनास्तावे स्तोष्यमाणानुपोपविवेश

स ह प्रस्तोतारमुवाच ॥ १.१०.८॥

tatrodgātṝnāstāve stoṣyamāṇānupopaviveśa

sa ha prastotāramuvāca .. 1.10.8..



8. There at the sacrifice, he found those [the udgātṛs] who were singing the [Sāma] hymns and took a seat among them. Turning to the one who was singing the prastāva, he asked:-





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tatra, there [at the site of the sacrifice]; āstāve, at the place where hymns were being sung; udgātṛn stosyamāṇān, those who were singing the hymns; upa, near; upaviveśa, he sat; prastotāram, to him who was reciting the prastāva; saḥ ha uvāca, he said. Commentary:-Prastāva, pratihāra, and udgītha—these are some of the Sāma mantras recited during a sacrifice. One who recites the prastāva is called the prastotā, one who recites the pratihāra is called the pratihartā, and one who recites the udgītha is called the udgātā.

Translation By Max Müller

8. He went and sat down on the orchestra near the Udgâtris, who were going to sing their hymns of praise. And he said to the Prastotri (the leader):-


Sloka : 1.10.9

प्रस्तोतर्या देवता प्रस्तावमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वान्प्रस्तोष्यसि

मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति ॥ १.१०.९॥

prastotaryā devatā prastāvamanvāyattā tāṃ cedavidvānprastoṣyasi

mūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti .. 1.10.9..



9. ‘O Prastotā, if you recite the prastāva without knowing anything about the god to whom this hymn relates, your head will fall’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Prastotaḥ, O Prastotā; yā devatā, that god who; prastāvam anvāyattā, underlies this prastāva hymn; tām avidvān, without knowing anything about him; cet, if; prastoṣyasi, you recite the prastāva; te, your; mūrdhā, head; vipatiṣyati iti, will fall. Commentary:-Here the question arises whether or not an ignorant person is permitted to recite the scriptures. According to Śaṅkara, he is permitted, but if he commits errors, he will be liable to punishment. It may not cost him his head, but he may go after death to the world of his ancestors, rather than to the world of the gods. But perhaps he would have gone there anyway because of his other errors. As to the falling of the head, the curse need not be taken literally.

Translation By Max Müller

9. 'Prastotri, if you, without knowing [1] the deity which belongs to the prastâva (the hymns &c. of the Prastotri), are going to sing it, your head will fall off.'

Footnote:

1. The commentator is at great pains to show that a priest may officiate without knowing the secret meanings here assigned to certain parts of the sacrifice, and without running any risk of punishment. Only, if another priest is present, who is initiated, then the uninitiated, taking his place, is in danger of losing his head.


Sloka : 1.10.10

एवमेवोद्गातारमुवाचोद्गातर्या देवतोद्गीथमन्वायत्ता

तां चेदविद्वानुद्गास्यसि मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति ॥ १.१०.१०॥

evamevodgātāramuvācodgātaryā devatodgīthamanvāyattā

tāṃ cedavidvānudgāsyasi mūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti .. 1.10.10..



10. Next Uṣasti said the same thing to the person singing the udgītha:- ‘O Udgātā, if you do not know anything about the god related to the udgītha and yet you sing the udgītha, your head will fall’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Evam eva udgātāram uvāca, he then said the same thing to the udgātā [who sings the udgītha]; udgātaḥ, O Udgātā; yā devatā udgītham anvāyattā, the god who is related to the udgītha; tām avidvān, without knowing anything about him; cet udgāsyasi, if you sing about him; te mūrdhā vipatiṣyati iti, your head will fall. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

10. In the same manner he addressed the Udgâtri:- 'Udgâtri, if you, without knowing the deity which belongs to the udgîtha (the hymns of the Udgâtri), are going to sing it, your head will fall off.'


Sloka : 1.10.11

एवमेव प्रतिहर्तारमुवाच प्रतिहर्तर्या देवता

प्रतिहारमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वान्प्रतिहरिष्यसि मूर्धा ते

विपतिष्यतीति ते ह समारतास्तूष्णीमासांचक्रिरे

॥ १.१०.११॥

evameva pratihartāramuvāca pratihartaryā devatā

pratihāramanvāyattā tāṃ cedavidvānpratihariṣyasi mūrdhā te

vipatiṣyatīti te ha samāratāstūṣṇīmāsāṃcakrire

.. 1.10.11..



11. He again said the same thing to the person singing the pratihāra:- ‘O Pratihartā, if you sing the pratihāra without knowing anything about the deity relating to it, your head will fall.’ At this, they stopped their respective hymns and remained silent.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Evam eva pratihartāram uvāca, he said the same thing to the person who was singing the pratihāra; pratihartaḥ, O Pratihartā; yā devatā pratihāram anvāyattā, that god to whom your pratihāra relates; tām avidvān, without knowing anything about him; cet pratihariṣyasi, if you sing the pratihāra; te mūrdhā vipatiṣyati iti, your head will fall; te, they [the singers]; ha samāratāḥ, stopped; āsāñcakrire tūṣṇīm, [and] remained silent. Iti daśamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the tenth section. Commentary:-When Uṣasti spoke thus to the singers, they all stopped their hymns. They were afraid they would lose their heads because they did not know about the deities

Translation By Max Müller

11. In the same manner he addressed the Pratihartri:- 'Pratihartri, if you, without knowing the deity which belongs to the pratihâra (the hymns of the Pratihartri), are going to sing it, your head will fall off.' They stopped, and sat down in silence.


Sloka : 1.11.1

॥ इति दशमः खण्डः ॥

अथ हैनं यजमान उवाच भगवन्तं वा अहं

विविदिषाणीत्युषस्तिरस्मि चाक्रायण इति होवाच ॥ १.११.१॥

.. iti daśamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha hainaṃ yajamāna uvāca bhagavantaṃ vā ahaṃ

vividiṣāṇītyuṣastirasmi cākrāyaṇa iti hovāca .. 1.11.1..



1. Then the prince performing the sacrifice said, ‘Sir, I would like to know who you are.’ He [Uṣasti] replied, ‘I am Uṣasti, the son of Cakra’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, then; yajamānaḥ, the person performing the sacrifice [the prince]; ha enam uvāca, said to him [to Uṣasti]; bhagavantam vai aham vividiṣāṇi iti, Sir, I want to know who you are; iti ha uvāca, [Uṣasti] replied; uṣastiḥ cākrāyaṇaḥ asmi, I am Uṣasti, the son of Cakra. Commentary:-Uṣasti’s reply suggests that he assumes the prince already knows him by name.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Then the sacrificer said to him:- 'I should like to know who you are, Sir.' He replied:- 'I am Ushasti Kâkrâyana.'


Sloka : 1.11.2

स होवाच भगवन्तं वा अहमेभिः सर्वैरार्त्विज्यैः

पर्यैषिषं भगवतो वा अहमवित्त्यान्यानवृषि ॥ १.११.२॥

sa hovāca bhagavantaṃ vā ahamebhiḥ sarvairārtvijyaiḥ

paryaiṣiṣaṃ bhagavato vā ahamavittyānyānavṛṣi .. 1.11.2..



2. He [the prince] said:- ‘I looked for you, revered sir, to give you all the work of the priests. As I could not find you, I entrusted the work to other [brāhmins]’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ ha uvāca, he [the prince] said; aham, I; bhagavantam, you, revered sir; vai ebhiḥ sarvaiḥ ārtvijyaiḥ, for all the work of the priests; paryaiṣiṣam, looked for; bhagavataḥ, you, sir; avittyā, not being able to locate; aham vai anyān avṛṣi, I chose others. Commentary:-The prince had obviously heard of Uṣasti’s reputation as a versatile scholar, and had wanted to give the responsibility of the sacrifice to him. As he could not find him, however, he had no option but to entrust the work to other brāhmins.

Translation By Max Müller

2. He said:- 'I looked for you, Sir, for all these sacrificial offices, but not finding you [1], I chose others.'

Footnote:

1. Should it be avittvâ, as in I, 2, 9?


Sloka : 1.11.3

भगवाꣳस्त्वेव मे सर्वैरार्त्विज्यैरिति तथेत्यथ

तर्ह्येत एव समतिसृष्टाः स्तुवतां यावत्त्वेभ्यो धनं

दद्यास्तावन्मम दद्या इति तथेति ह यजमान उवाच

॥ १.११.३॥

bhagavāgͫstveva me sarvairārtvijyairiti tathetyatha

tarhyeta eva samatisṛṣṭāḥ stuvatāṃ yāvattvebhyo dhanaṃ

dadyāstāvanmama dadyā iti tatheti ha yajamāna uvāca

.. 1.11.3..



3. [The prince said,] ‘O Lord, please do for me all the work of the priest.’ [Uṣasti replied:-] ‘Let it be so. Now let the priests already engaged by you recite as I instruct. But you will have to pay me as much as you promised to pay these priests.’ ‘It will be so,’ said [the prince].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Bhagavān, O Lord; eva tu, for certain; sarvaiḥ ārtvijyaiḥ me iti, [take on] all the work of the ṛtvik for me; tathā iti, [Uṣasti said] let it be so; atha tarhi, now therefore; ete eva, these [priests already engaged by you]; samatisṛṣṭāḥ, as instructed [by me]; stuvatām, may recite; tu ebhyaḥ yāvat dhanam dadyāḥ, but as much money as you are giving these [priests]; tāvat, that much [money]; mama dadyāḥ iti, you have to give me [also]; yajamānaḥ, the performer of the sacrifice [the prince]; iti ha uvāca, said; tathā, it will be so. Commentary:-Uṣasti did not want the priests who had already been engaged to be dismissed. He only wanted them to follow his instructions about their recitations.

Translation By Max Müller

3. 'But now, Sir, take all the sacrificial offices.' Ushasti said:- 'Very well; but let those, with my permission, perform the hymns of praise. Only as much wealth as you give to them, so much give to me also.' The sacrificer assented.


Sloka : 1.11.4

अथ हैनं प्रस्तोतोपससाद प्रस्तोतर्या देवता

प्रस्तावमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वान्प्रस्तोष्यसि मूर्धा ते

विपतिष्यतीति मा भगवानवोचत्कतमा सा देवतेति

॥ १.११.४॥

atha hainaṃ prastotopasasāda prastotaryā devatā

prastāvamanvāyattā tāṃ cedavidvānprastoṣyasi mūrdhā te

vipatiṣyatīti mā bhagavānavocatkatamā sā devateti

.. 1.11.4..



4. Then the Prastotā came to [Uṣasti and said:-] ‘Revered sir, you told me, “O Prastotā, if you sing the prastāva without knowing anything about the deity to whom the hymn is addressed, your head will fall.” Please tell me who that deity is’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, then; prastotā, the person reciting the prastāva; ha enani upasasāda, came to him [i.e., to Uṣasti, and said]; prastotaḥ yā devatā prastāvam anvāyattā, O Prastotā, that deity to whom the prastāva is related; tām avidvān, without knowing anything about him; cet prastoṣyasi, if you sing [about him]; te mūrdhā vipatiṣyati iti, your head will fall; bhagavān mā avocat, revered sir, you said to me; katamā sā devatā iti, what is that deity? Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

4. Then the Prastotri approached him, saying:- 'Sir, you said to me, "Prastotri, if you, without knowing the deity which belongs to the prastâva, are going to sing it, your head will fall off,"--which then is that deity?'


Sloka : 1.11.5

प्राण इति होवाच सर्वाणि ह वा इमानि भूतानि

प्राणमेवाभिसंविशन्ति प्राणमभ्युज्जिहते सैषा देवता

प्रस्तावमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वान्प्रास्तोष्यो

मूर्धा ते व्यपतिष्यत्तथोक्तस्य मयेति ॥ १.११.५॥

prāṇa iti hovāca sarvāṇi ha vā imāni bhūtāni

prāṇamevābhisaṃviśanti prāṇamabhyujjihate saiṣā devatā

prastāvamanvāyattā tāṃ cedavidvānprāstoṣyo

mūrdhā te vyapatiṣyattathoktasya mayeti .. 1.11.5..



5. Uṣasti said:- ‘It is prāṇa [the vital force]. In prāṇa all things that we see around us [moving or unmoving], disappear [at the time of their destruction. And at the time of their appearance,] they appear from prāṇa. Prāṇa is that deity to whom the prastāva is addressed. If you had sung the hymn not knowing the deity to whom it is addressed, in spite of being warned by me, your head would surely have fallen’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Prāṇa iti ha uvāca, [Uṣasti] said, it is prāṇa [the vital force]; ha vai, for; imāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni, all these beings [moving or unmoving]; prāṇam eva, in prāṇa; abhi, totally; saṃviśanti, disappear [at the time of destruction]; prāṇam abhi ujjihate, [and] out of prāṇa they appear [when they come into existence]; sā eṣā devatā, that [prāṇa] is the deity; prastāvam anvāyattā, the prastāva is addressed to; cet, if; tām, that [deity]; avidvān, from ignorance; prastoṣyaḥ, you had praised; [then] tathā, like that; mayā uktasya, in spite of being warned by me; te mūrdhā vyapatiṣyat iti, your head would surely have fallen. Commentary:-The prastotā had immediately stopped singing and then had approached Uṣasti in a humble manner. This pleased Uṣasti, and he gladly proceeded to teach the brāhmin.

Translation By Max Müller

5. He said:- 'Breath (prâna). For all these beings merge into breath alone, and from breath they arise. This is the deity belonging to the prastâva. If, without knowing that deity, you had sung forth your hymns, your head would have fallen off, after you had been warned by me.'


Sloka : 1.11.6

अथ हैनमुद्गातोपससादोद्गातर्या देवतोद्गीथमन्वायत्ता

तां चेदविद्वानुद्गास्यसि मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति

मा भगवानवोचत्कतमा सा देवतेति ॥ १.११.६॥

atha hainamudgātopasasādodgātaryā devatodgīthamanvāyattā

tāṃ cedavidvānudgāsyasi mūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti

mā bhagavānavocatkatamā sā devateti .. 1.11.6..



6. Then the udgātā came to [Uṣasti and said:-] ‘Revered sir, you told me, “O Udgātā, if you sing the udgītha without knowing anything about the deity to whom the hymn is addressed, your head will fall.” Please tell me who that deity is’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, then; udgātā, the person reciting the udgītha; ha enam upasasāda, came to him [i.e., to Uṣasti, and said]; bhagavān mā avocat, revered sir, you said to me; udgātaḥ yā devatā udgītham anvāyattā, O Udgātā, that deity to whom the udgītha is related; tām avidvān, without knowing anything about him; cet udgāsyasi, if you sing [about him]; te mūrdhā vipatiṣyati iti, your head will fall; katamā sā devatā iti, what is that deity? Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

6. Then the Udgâtri approached him, saying:- 'Sir, you said to me, "Udgâtri, if you, without knowing the deity which belongs to the udgîtha, are going to sing it, your head will fall off,"--which then is that deity?'


Sloka : 1.11.7

आदित्य इति होवाच सर्वाणि ह वा इमानि

भूतान्यादित्यमुच्चैः सन्तं गायन्ति सैषा

देवतोद्गीथमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वानुदगास्यो

मूर्धा ते व्यपतिष्यत्तथोक्तस्य मयेति ॥ १.११.७॥

āditya iti hovāca sarvāṇi ha vā imāni

bhūtānyādityamuccaiḥ santaṃ gāyanti saiṣā

devatodgīthamanvāyattā tāṃ cedavidvānudagāsyo

mūrdhā te vyapatiṣyattathoktasya mayeti .. 1.11.7..



7. Uṣasti said:- ‘It is āditya [the sun], for all these beings pay homage to the sun, which is high above. Āditya is that deity to whom the udgītha is addressed. If you had sung the udgītha not knowing the deity to whom it is addressed, your head would surely have fallen, as I had told you’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ādityaḥ iti ha uvāca, [Uṣasti] said, it is āditya [the sun]; ha vai for; imāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni, all these beings [moving and unmoving]; uccaiḥ santam ādityam gāyanti, sing in praise of āditya, who is high above; sā eṣā devatā, that [āditya] is the deity; udgītham anvāyattā, the udgītha is addressed to; cet, if; tām, that [deity]; avidvān, from ignorance;’ udgāsyaḥ you had sung the udgītha; [then] tathā, like that; mayā uktasya, in spite of being warned by me; te mūrdhā vyapatiṣyat iti, your head would surely have fallen. Commentary:-Earlier, prāṇa was described as the deity of the prastāva. The word prāṇa begins with pra, and prastāva also begins with pra. It is surmised that this is why prāṇa is the deity of the prastāva. By the same token, the udgītha is addressed to āditya, the sun, for āditya is urdhatva, which is ut (high), and udgītha is also ut. Therefore it is reasonable that the deity of the udgītha should be āditya.

Translation By Max Müller

7. He said:- 'The sun (âditya). For all these beings praise the sun when it stands on high. This is the deity belonging to the udgîtha. If, without knowing that deity, you had sung out your hymns, your head would have fallen off, after you had been warned by me.'


Sloka : 1.11.8

अथ हैनं प्रतिहर्तोपससाद प्रतिहर्तर्या देवता

प्रतिहारमन्वायत्ता तां चेदविद्वान्प्रतिहरिष्यसि

मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति मा भगवानवोचत्कतमा

सा देवतेति ॥ १.११.८॥

atha hainaṃ pratihartopasasāda pratihartaryā devatā

pratihāramanvāyattā tāṃ cedavidvānpratihariṣyasi

mūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti mā bhagavānavocatkatamā

sā devateti .. 1.11.8..



8. Next, the pratihartā came to [Uṣasti and said:-] ‘Revered sir, you told me, “O Pratihartā, if you sing the pratihāra without knowing anything about the deity to whom the hymn is addressed, your head will fall.” Please tell me who that deity is’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; pratihartā, the person reciting the pratihāra; ha enam upasasāda, came to him [i.e., to Uṣasti, and said]; bhagavān mā avocat, revered sir, you said to me; pratihartaḥ yā devatā pratihāram anvāyattā, O Pratihartā, that deity to whom the pratihāra is related; tām avidvān, without knowing anything about him; cet pratihariṣyasi, if you sing the pratihāra; te mūrdhā vipatiṣyati iti, your head will fall; katamā sā devatā iti, what is that deity? Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

8. Then the Pratihartri approached him, saying:- 'Sir, you said to me, "Pratihartri, if you, without knowing the deity belonging to the pratihâra, are going to sing it, your head will fall off,"--Which then is that deity?'


Sloka : 1.11.9

अन्नमिति होवाच सर्वाणि ह वा इमानि भूतन्यन्नमेव

प्रतिहरमाणानि जीवन्ति सैषा देवता प्रतिहारमन्वायत्ता

तां चेदविद्वान्प्रत्यहरिष्यो मूर्धा ते व्यपतिष्यत्तथोक्तस्य

मयेति तथोक्तस्य मयेति ॥ १.११.९॥

annamiti hovāca sarvāṇi ha vā imāni bhūtanyannameva

pratiharamāṇāni jīvanti saiṣā devatā pratihāramanvāyattā

tāṃ cedavidvānpratyahariṣyo mūrdhā te vyapatiṣyattathoktasya

mayeti tathoktasya mayeti .. 1.11.9..



9. Uṣasti said:- ‘It is anna [food], for all these beings support themselves by eating food. Anna is that deity to whom the pratihāra is addressed. If you had sung the pratihāra not knowing the deity to whom it is addressed, your head would surely have fallen, as I had told you’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Annam iti ha uvāca, [Uṣasti] said, it is anna [food]; ha vai, for; imāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni, all these beings; annam eva pratiharamāṇāni jīvanti, support themselves by collecting food; sā eṣā devatā, that [food] is the deity; pratihāram anvāyattā, the pratihāra is addressed to; cet, if; tām, that [deity]; avidvān, from ignorance; pratyahariṣyaḥ, you had sung the pratihāra; [then] tathā, like that; mayā uktasya, in spite of being warned by me; te mūrdhā vyapatiṣyat iti, your head would surely have fallen [the repetition is for the sake of emphasis]. Iti ekādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the eleventh section. Commentary:-Every living being has to support itself by collecting food. It involves much effort, but each one has to make that effort. Prati means ‘each and every.’ The deity is pratihāra because each and every being has to ‘collect’ (āharam) food for himself. In short, you worship prāṇa (the vital force) through the prastāva, āditya (the sun) through the udgītha, and anna (food) through the pratihāra. What is the result of this? The result is progress in every way.

Translation By Max Müller

9. He said:- 'Food (anna). For all these beings live when they partake of food. This is the deity belonging to the pratihâra. If, without knowing that deity, you had sung your hymns, your head would have fallen off, after you had been warned by me [1].'

Footnote:

1.


Sloka : 1.12.1

॥ इति एकादशः खण्डः ॥

अथातः शौव उद्गीथस्तद्ध बको दाल्भ्यो ग्लावो वा

मैत्रेयः स्वाध्यायमुद्वव्राज ॥ १.१२.१॥

.. iti ekādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

athātaḥ śauva udgīthastaddha bako dālbhyo glāvo vā

maitreyaḥ svādhyāyamudvavrāja .. 1.12.1..



1. Now, an udgītha [to food] sung by dogs. The story is:- Baka Dālbhya, who was also known as Glāva Maitreya, went one day to a quiet place to study the scriptures [the udgītha].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ataḥ, since then; tat ha, in this connection; śauvaḥ udgīthaḥ, an udgītha [to food] sung by dogs [i.e., sages in the form of dogs]; bakaḥ dālbhyaḥ, Baka, the son of Dalbha; glāvaḥ maitreyaḥ vā, or Glāva, the son of Mitrā; svādhyāyam udvavrāja, went to a quiet place to study the scriptures [i.e., the udgītha]. Commentary:-Sometimes people are driven by hunger to eat ‘unclean’ food. The story of Uṣasti is an example. Here, in this section, a story is told of how some dogs avoid such a situation:- There was a sage who was known as Baka on his father’s side and Glāva on his mother’s side. Wanting to learn an udgītha that would bring him food, he went to a quiet place to study the scriptures.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Now follows the udgîtha of the dogs. Vaka Dâlbhya, or, as he was also called, Glâva Maitreya, went out to repeat the Veda (in a quiet place).


Sloka : 1.12.2

तस्मै श्वा श्वेतः प्रादुर्बभूव तमन्ये श्वान

उपसमेत्योचुरन्नं नो भगवानागायत्वशनायामवा

इति ॥ १.१२.२॥

tasmai śvā śvetaḥ prādurbabhūva tamanye śvāna

upasametyocurannaṃ no bhagavānāgāyatvaśanāyāmavā

iti .. 1.12.2..



2. A white dog appeared before him, as if he wanted to do the sage a favour. Then several other smaller dogs came to the white dog and said:- ‘O Lord, please sing for us. We are hungry and we want some food’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tasmai, [as a favour] to him; śvā, a dog; śvetāḥ, white; prādurbabhūva, appeared; tam, to him [i.e., to the white dog]; anye śvānaḥ, other dogs; upasametya, came; ūcuḥ, [and] said; annam, food; naḥ, for us; bhagavān, O Lord; āgāyatu, please sing; aśanāyāma vai iti, we are hungry [and want to eat]. Commentary:-It would seem that some god or sage was pleased with Baka’s Vedic studies and as a favour, appeared before him as a white dog. Then, as if by coincidence, some other smaller dogs approached the white dog and told him they were very hungry and needed food. They asked the white dog to sing the appropriate Sāma so that they could get some food immediately. Very likely, these small dogs were also sages in disguise. Another explanation is also possible:- The white dog represents prāṇa, and the smaller dogs are the sense organs controlled by prāṇa. Prāṇa is pleased when someone studies the scriptures. And if prāṇa is pleased, the sense organs are able to perceive their respective sense objects well. Like dogs, the sense organs are ‘hungry’ and enjoy perceiving. In order to express their appreciation of the scholar’s efforts, they appear before him as dogs.

Translation By Max Müller

2. A white (dog) appeared before him, and other dogs gathering round him, said to him:- 'Sir, sing and get us food, we are hungry.'


Sloka : 1.12.3

तान्होवाचेहैव मा प्रातरुपसमीयातेति तद्ध बको दाल्भ्यो

ग्लावो वा मैत्रेयः प्रतिपालयांचकार ॥ १.१२.३॥

tānhovācehaiva mā prātarupasamīyāteti taddha bako dālbhyo

glāvo vā maitreyaḥ pratipālayāṃcakāra .. 1.12.3..



3. [The white dog] replied, ‘All of you meet me here tomorrow morning.’ Baka Dālbhya, who was also known as Glāva Maitreya, waited there too [for the white dog].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tān, to them [the other dogs]; ha uvāca, [the white dog] said; iha eva, here; prātaḥ, tomorrow morning; mā upasamīyāta iti, all of you come to me; bakaḥ dālbhyaḥ glāvaḥ maitreyaḥ vā, Baka, the son of Dalbha, who was also known as Glāva, the son of Mitrā; pratipālayāñcakāra, waited [for the white dog]; tat ha, there. Commentary:-The smaller dogs were obviously very hungry, so why didn’t the white dog sing immediately? He asked them to come back in the morning because the morning is the best time to sing the udgītha. In the afternoon the sun turns away from us. He is the one who gives us food, and if he has already begun to turn away, it is too late to ask him to give us anything. Morning is the time when we are face to face with him, and that is why morning is the best time to make a request of him. The sage Baka came early the next morning also and waited for the white dog.

Translation By Max Müller

3. The white dog said to them:- 'Come to me to-morrow morning.' Vaka Dâlbhya, or, as he was also called, Glâva Maitreya, watched.


Sloka : 1.12.4

ते ह यथैवेदं बहिष्पवमानेन स्तोष्यमाणाः सꣳरब्धाः

सर्पन्तीत्येवमाससृपुस्ते ह समुपविश्य

हिं चक्रुः ॥ १.१२.४॥

te ha yathaivedaṃ bahiṣpavamānena stoṣyamāṇāḥ sagͫrabdhāḥ

sarpantītyevamāsasṛpuste ha samupaviśya

hiṃ cakruḥ .. 1.12.4..



4. Just as those who recite the hymn called bahiṣpavamāna move forward while touching each other, so the dogs also did the same. Then, sitting down, they said him.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te ha, they; yathā era, just as; idam, this; bahiṣpavamānena, by the hymn called bahiṣpavamāna; stoṣyamāṇaḥ, while reciting; saṃrabdhāḥ, touching each other; sarpanti, proceed; iti evam āsasṛpuḥ, went about this way; te ha, they; samupaviśya, sitting down; him, the word ‘him’; cakruḥ, uttered. Commentary:-When sages sing the hymn baḥiṣpavamāna, they join their hands together, or otherwise touch each other, and then they move forward. The dogs did likewise. Each took the tail of the one in front in its mouth and started moving. Finally they sat down and uttered the sound him.

Translation By Max Müller

4. The dogs came on, holding together, each dog keeping the tail of the preceding dog in his mouth, as the priests do when they are going to sing praises with the Vahishpavamâna hymn [1]. After they had settled down, they began to say Hiṅ.

Footnote:

1. This alludes to a ceremony where the priests have to walk in procession, each priest holding the gown of the preceding priest.


Sloka : 1.12.5

ओ३मदा३मों३पिबा३मों३ देवो वरुणः

प्रजपतिः सविता२न्नमिहा२हरदन्नपते३ऽन्नमिहा

२हरा२हरो३मिति ॥ १.१२.५॥

o3madā3moṃ3pibā3moṃ3 devo varuṇaḥ

prajapatiḥ savitā2nnamihā2haradannapate3'nnamihā

2harā2haro3miti .. 1.12.5..



5. ‘Om, we will eat. Om, we will drink. Om, Deva [the sun], Varuṇa, Prajāpati, Savitā, bring us food here. O Lord of food [the sun], bring us food here. Bring us food here. Om’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Om adāma, Om, we will eat; om pibāma, Om, we will drink; om devaḥ varuṇaḥ prajāpatiḥ savitā, Om Deva [the shining one], Varuṇa, Prajāpati, Savitā; annam iha āharat, bring food here; annapate annam iha āhara āhara om, O Lord of food, bring food here, bring [food here], Om. Iti dvādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the twelfth section. Commentary:-This verse is also known as the hiṃkāra. The sun is the only thing that shines, so he is called here deva (that which shines). Varuṇa is the deity who gives rain, and Prajāpati protects all beings. Because Āditya, the sun, gives birth to all, he is known as Savitā. It is, in fact, Āditya who at one point gives us light, and at another gives us rain. It is because of him that there is food. This is why we ask him to bring us food (anna). As a mark of special respect, and also urgency, the request is repeated.

Translation By Max Müller

5. 'Om, let us eat! Om, let us drink! Om, may the divine Varuna, Pragâpati, Savitri [1] bring us food! Lord of food, bring hither food, bring it, Om!'

Footnote:

1. The commentator explains Varuna and Pragâpati as epithets of Savitri, or the sun, meaning rain-giver and man-protector.


Sloka : 1.13.1

॥ इति द्वादशः खण्डः ॥

अयं वाव लोको हाउकारः वायुर्हाइकारश्चन्द्रमा

अथकारः । आत्मेहकारोऽग्निरीकारः ॥ १.१३.१॥

.. iti dvādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

ayaṃ vāva loko hāukāraḥ vāyurhāikāraścandramā

athakāraḥ . ātmehakāro'gnirīkāraḥ .. 1.13.1..



1. This planet, the earth, is represented by the syllable hāu, air is represented by the syllable hāi, the moon





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ayam vāva lokaḥ hāukāraḥ, this earth [is known by] the syllable ‘hāu’; vāyuḥ hāikāraḥ, air by the syllable ‘hāi’; candramā athakāraḥ, the moon by the syllable ‘atha’; ātmā ihakāraḥ, the individual self by the syllable ‘iha’; agniḥ īkāraḥ, fire by the syllable ‘ī’. Commentary:-So long the Upaniṣad has shown how Sāma can be worshipped through the udgītha. Now another way of worshipping Sāma is being shown—through stobhas. Stobhas are syllables such as hiṃ, hāu, hāi, and so forth, and they are all from the Sāma Veda. By themselves these syllables have no meaning. They are symbols representing objects, or they are used to fill in gaps in sentences. The idea here is that stobhas like hāu should be applied to the earth, fire, etc. A symbol has to have something in common with the object it represents. The Sāma Veda says, ‘This earth is also called rathantara.’ And in the Sāma, the stobha hāu stands for rathantara. Thus, it is reasonable to say that hāu stands for the earth. The stobha hāi occurs in the Sāma called Vāmadevya. The Vāmadevya Sāma is about the relationship of air with water. This is why vāyu (air) is represented by the symbol hāi. Why is the moon represented by atha? This world is sustained by food (anna), and the moon and food are identical. A stands for anna, and tha stands for stha in sthita, which means ‘sustained.’ A plus tha is atha. Thus, atha can rightly be said to represent the moon. Then the self is said to be iha, which means ‘here’ or ‘this,’ for the self is obvious to everyone. And the stobha ī represents fire, because wherever fire is referred to in the Sāma, the words end with ī. The syllable ī then is rightly used as a symbol of fire, and to meditate on this symbol is to meditate on fire.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The syllable Hâu [1] is this world (the earth), the syllable Hâi [2] the air, the syllable Atha the moon, the syllable Iha the self, the syllable Π[3] is Agni, fire.

Footnote:

1. A stobha syllable used in the Rathantara Sâman. 2. Used in the Vâmadevya Sâman. 3. The Sâman addressed to Agni takes the syllable î as nidhana.


Sloka : 1.13.2

आदित्य ऊकारो निहव एकारो विश्वे देवा

औहोयिकारः प्रजपतिर्हिंकारः प्राणः स्वरोऽन्नं या

वाग्विराट् ॥ १.१३.२॥

āditya ūkāro nihava ekāro viśve devā

auhoyikāraḥ prajapatirhiṃkāraḥ prāṇaḥ svaro'nnaṃ yā

vāgvirāṭ .. 1.13.2..



2. Āditya, the sun, is represented by the stobha ū; nihava, the welcoming hymn, by the stobha e; the Viśvadeva gods by the stobha auhoyi; Prajāpati by the stobha hiṃ; prāṇa by the stobha svara; food by the stobha yā; and Virāṭ by the stobha vāk.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ādityaiḥ Āditya, the sun; ūkāraḥ, [is represented by] the stobha ‘ū’; nihavaiḥ the welcoming address; ekāraḥ, [is represented by] the stobha ‘e’; viśvedevāḥ, the Viśvadevas [i.e., a class of gods]; auhoyi-kāraḥ, [are represented by] the stobha ‘auhoyi’; prajāpatiḥ, Prajāpati [the Lord of all beings]; hiṃkāraḥ, [is represented by] the stobha ‘hiṃ’; prāṇaḥ, prāṇa [the presiding deity of life]; svaraḥ, [is represented by] the stobha ‘svara’; annam, food; yā, [is represented by] the stobha ‘yā’; virāṭ Virāṭ; vāk, [is represented by] the stobha ‘vāk’. Commentary:-Āditya, the sun, is far above in the sky. The letter ū suggests urdhvam, which means ‘above.’ So. in The word nihava means ‘welcome,’ which in Sanskrit is ehi. For this reason e stands for the nihava, the welcoming hymn. The stobha auhoyi stands for the Viśvadevas, the gods, for it occurs in the Sāma in honour of the Viśvadevas. The stobha hiṃ represents Prajāpati. No one knows the meaning of the word hiṃ; similarly, no one knows what Prajāpati, the Lord of all beings, is like. Prāṇa is represented by svara, because svara, the musical scale, is derived from prāṇa (the Lord of life, or the vital breath). Yā represents anna, food, for yāti (going) is possible because of food. The stobha vāk occurs in the Sāma called Vairāja or Virāṭa. Thus vāk stands for Virāṭ.

Translation By Max Müller

2. The syllable Û is the sun, the syllable E is the Nihava or invocation, the syllable Auhoi [1] is the Visve Devas, the syllable Hiṅ is Pragâpati, Svara [2] (tone) is breath (prâna), the syllable Yâ is food, the syllable Vâg [3] is Virâg.

Footnote:

1. The stobha syllables used in the Sâman addressed to the Visve Devas. 2. See Kh. Up. I, 4, 4. 3. The commentator takes vâg as a stobha, as a syllable occurring in hymns addressed to Virâg, and as implying either the deity Virâg or food.


Sloka : 1.13.3

अनिरुक्तस्त्रयोदशः स्तोभः संचरो हुंकारः ॥ १.१३.३॥

aniruktastrayodaśaḥ stobhaḥ saṃcaro huṃkāraḥ .. 1.13.3..



3. The thirteenth stobha huṃ is not clearly defined. Various scholars have defined it in various ways. [Thus, it is up to people to meditate on it as they like.]





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Sañcaraḥ, variously interpreted; aniruktaḥ, not clearly defined; trayodaśaḥ stobhaḥ, the thirteenth stobha; huṅkāraḥ, the syllable ‘huṃ’. Commentary:-Earlier, twelve stobhas were explained along with how they could be used for meditation. Those stobhas are:- hāu, hāi, atha, iha, ī, ū, e, auhoyi, hiṃ, svara, yā, and vāk. Now the thirteenth stobha, huṃ, is being discussed. The Upaniṣad says here, however, that no one knows for certain what huṃ means, so people are free to meditate on it as they please.

Translation By Max Müller

3. The thirteenth stobha syllable, viz. the indistinct syllable Huṅ, is the Undefinable (the Highest Brahman).


Sloka : 1.13.4

दुग्धेऽस्मै वाग्दोहं यो वाचो दोहोऽन्नवानन्नादो भवति

य एतामेवꣳसाम्नामुपनिषदं वेदोपनिषदं वेदेति ॥ १.१३.४॥

dugdhe'smai vāgdohaṃ yo vāco doho'nnavānannādo bhavati

ya etāmevagͫsāmnāmupaniṣadaṃ vedopaniṣadaṃ vedeti .. 1.13.4..



4. To a person who knows the Sāma with its stobhas, as mentioned earlier, the organ of speech gives of its best. Such a person gets plenty of food to eat and can also eat much food.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yaḥ, that person who; etām evam, this as stated earlier; sāmnām, the Sāma with its stobhas; upaniṣadam, the science of it; veda, knows; vācaḥ, of the organ of speech; yaḥ dohaḥ, the essence; doham, [that] essence; vāk, the organ of speech; asmai, to him [who knows]; dugdhe, gives; [saḥ, he]; annavān, rich with food; annādaḥ, a great eater of food; bhavati, becomes. Iti trayodaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the thirteenth section. Iti chāndogya upaniṣadi prathamaḥ adhyāyaḥ, here ends the first chapter of the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. Commentary:-In the previous verses, mention was made of the stobhas. Now the benefit of meditating on them is being described. A person who knows the real import of those stobhas receives the best that the organ of speech has to offer.

Translation By Max Müller

4. Speech yields the milk, which is the milk of speech itself to him who knows this Upanishad (secret doctrine) of the Sâmans in this wise. He becomes rich in food, and able to eat food [1],--yea, able to eat food.

Footnote:

1. wealthy and healthy.


Sloka : 2.1.1

॥ इति त्रयोदशः खण्डः ॥

॥ इति प्रथमोऽध्यायः ॥

॥ द्वितीयोऽध्यायः ॥

समस्तस्य खलु साम्न उपासनꣳ साधु यत्खलु साधु

तत्सामेत्याचक्षते यदसाधु तदसामेति ॥ २.१.१॥

.. iti trayodaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

.. iti prathamo'dhyāyaḥ ..

.. dvitīyo'dhyāyaḥ ..

samastasya khalu sāmna upāsanagͫ sādhu yatkhalu sādhu

tatsāmetyācakṣate yadasādhu tadasāmeti .. 2.1.1..



1. It is good to worship the Sāma with all its parts. All that is good, according to scholars, is called sāma. Similarly, all that is bad is asāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Samastasya khalu sāmnaḥ upāsanam, the worship of the Sāma as a whole [inclusive of all its parts]; sādhu, [is] good; yat khalu sādhu, whatever is good; tat sāma iti ācakṣate, that is called sāma; yat asādhu, whatever is bad; tat asāma iti, that is asāma. Commentary:-Much has been said already about the Sāma and the udgītha. And it has also been said that much good follows from their worship. Similarly, the Upaniṣad has discussed the stobhas and shown their importance. So long, the Sāma has been discussed in parts. Now it will be discussed as a whole. The point of this verse is to emphasize how beautiful it is to worship the Sāma. The Sāma is beautiful and to worship the Sāma is beautiful. The qualifying word used is sādhu. Sādhu means ‘good,’ ‘beautiful,’ ‘chaste,’ ‘elegant,’ and so on. It also means ‘honest,’ ‘morally sound,’ ‘beneficial,’ ‘perfect,’ and ‘above reproach.’ Anything opposed to sādhu is asāma.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Meditation on the whole [1] of the Sâman is good, and people, when anything is good, say it is Sâman; when it is not good, it is not Sâman.

Footnote:

1. Hitherto meditation on certain portions only of the Sâma-veda and the Sâma-sacrifice had been enjoined, and their deeper meaning explained. Now the same is done for the whole of the Sâman.


Sloka : 2.1.2

तदुताप्याहुः साम्नैनमुपागादिति साधुनैनमुपागादित्येव

तदाहुरसाम्नैनमुपागादित्यसाधुनैनमुपगादित्येव

तदाहुः ॥ २.१.२॥

tadutāpyāhuḥ sāmnainamupāgāditi sādhunainamupāgādityeva

tadāhurasāmnainamupāgādityasādhunainamupagādityeva

tadāhuḥ .. 2.1.2..



2. This is why people say, ‘He has succeeded in getting access to that distinguished person by virtue of sāma,’ when they mean he has gone to that distinguished person by honest and legitimate means. Similarly, they say, ‘By virtue of asāma he went to that distinguished person,’ when they mean he got to that person by unethical means.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat uta āhuḥ api, this is why people say; sāmnā, by virtue of sāma; enam, a [high-placed] person; upāgāt iti, someone got access to; sādhunā, [they mean] by good conduct; enam upāgāt iti eva, he got access to him; tat āhuḥ, [similarly] this is what people say; asāmnā, by virtue of asāma; enam upāgāt iti, he got access to him; asādhunā, [when they mean] by bad conduct; enam upāgāt iti eva, he got access to him; tat āhuḥ, this is what people say. Commentary:-The question is:- What is good and what is bad? Suppose you have to meet a very distinguished person who is far above you in status. It is very difficult to meet that person, but without doing anything wrong you are, somehow or other, able to meet him. This is called sādhu—fair, honest, good, beautiful, decent, elegant. The opposite of this is asādhu—bad, ugly, dishonest, condemnable.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Thus they also say, he approached him with Sâman, i. e. becomingly; and he approached him without Sâman, i. e. unbecomingly.


Sloka : 2.1.3

अथोताप्याहुः साम नो बतेति यत्साधु भवति साधु बतेत्येव

तदाहुरसाम नो बतेति यदसाधु भवत्यसाधु बतेत्येव

तदाहुः ॥ २.१.३॥

athotāpyāhuḥ sāma no bateti yatsādhu bhavati sādhu batetyeva

tadāhurasāma no bateti yadasādhu bhavatyasādhu batetyeva

tadāhuḥ .. 2.1.3..



3. Then when something good happens, people say, ‘It is sāma for us,’ when they mean that it is good for them. But when something bad happens, people say, ‘It is asāma for us,’ when they mean that it is bad for them.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha uta api, then also; āhuḥ, [people] say; naḥ bata sāma iti, it is sāma for us; yat sādhu bhavati, that which is good; sādhu bata id eva tat āhuḥ, the words mean that what is good has happened; naḥ bata asāma iti, [similarly, people say] it is asāma for us; yat asādhu bhavati, that which is bad; asādhu bata id eva tat āhuḥ, they mean to say that what is bad has happened. Commentary:-The words sādhu and sāma are synonymous. When people say, ‘We have had something sāma happen,’ they mean that they have had something sādhu happen. Both the words mean the same thing:- good, beautiful, fair, and so on.

Translation By Max Müller

3. And they also say, truly this is Sâman for us, i.e. it is good for us, when it is good; and truly that is not Sâman for us, i. e. it is not good for us, when it is not good.


Sloka : 2.1.4

स य एतदेवं विद्वानसाधु सामेत्युपास्तेऽभ्याशो ह यदेनꣳ

साधवो धर्मा आ च गच्छेयुरुप च नमेयुः ॥ २.१.४॥

sa ya etadevaṃ vidvānasādhu sāmetyupāste'bhyāśo ha yadenagͫ

sādhavo dharmā ā ca gaccheyurupa ca nameyuḥ .. 2.1.4..



4. If a person knows the Sāma as such and worships it with the awareness of the great qualities it possesses, those qualities very soon manifest themselves in him and become a source of happiness.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ, whoever; etat, this [Sāma]; evam vidvān, knows in this way; sādhu sāma iti upāste, [and] worships Sāma as ‘sādhu’; enam, to this worshipper; sādhavaḥ dharmāḥ, the good qualities that are associated with a perfect [sādhu] person; abhyāśaḥ ha, quickly; yat āgaccheyuḥ ca, come; upa ca nameyuḥ, and are a source of satisfaction. Iti prathamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the first section. Commentary:-First and foremost, a person should know the good qualities of the Sāma. But that is not enough. He should also worship the Sāma along with those good qualities. Then those qualities will soon manifest themselves in him, and they will eventually become a great source of satisfaction too.

Translation By Max Müller

4. If any one knowing this meditates on the Sâman as good, depend upon it all good qualities will approach quickly, aye, they will become his own [1].

Footnote:

1. Cf. Kh. Up. III, 19, 4.


Sloka : 2.2.1

॥ इति प्रथमः खण्डः ॥

लोकेषु पञ्चविधꣳ सामोपासीत पृथिवी हिंकारः ।

अग्निः प्रस्तावोऽन्तरिक्षमुद्गीथ आदित्यः प्रतिहारो

द्यौर्निधनमित्यूर्ध्वेषु ॥ २.२.१॥

.. iti prathamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

lokeṣu pañcavidhagͫ sāmopāsīta pṛthivī hiṃkāraḥ .

agniḥ prastāvo'ntarikṣamudgītha ādityaḥ pratihāro

dyaurnidhanamityūrdhveṣu .. 2.2.1..



1. One should worship the Sāma in a fivefold manner, treating the different parts as symbols of the worlds.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Pañcavidham sāma upāsīta, one should worship the Sāma in a fivefold manner; lokeṣu, as the worlds [such as the earth]; hiṃkāraḥ, [for instance, thinking of] the syllable hiṃ; pṛthivī, [as] the earth; prastāvaḥ agniḥ, the prastāva as fire; udgīthaḥ antarikṣam, the udgītha as the sky; pratihāraḥ ādityaḥ, the pratihāra as the sun; nidhanam dyauḥ, the nidhana as heaven; ūrdhveṣu iti, which is up above. Commentary:-What is the meaning of sādhu? It may mean either dharma or Brahman. Both, however, mean the same thing, more or less. Those who worship Sāma should know that they are worshipping either of these two, and that they are worshipping something uplifting, something propitious (sādhu). When a person worships thus, he becomes what he is worshipping. He becomes a new person altogether. He is totally transformed. But where is a person to find the Sāma? This Sāma is everywhere, in everything—in the earth, in fire, in the sky, in the sun, and in heaven. But since you cannot approach all of these, you can worship them through their symbols. In this verse, five symbols have been mentioned, which can be used for worship:- hiṃkāra, prastāva, udgītha, pratihāra, and nidhana. This fivefold worship of Sāma is being recommended here for everyone.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Sâman [1] as the five worlds. The hiṅkâra is, the earth, the prastâva the fire, the udgîtha the sky, the pratihâra the sun, the nidhana heaven; so in an ascending line.

Footnote:

1. The five forms in which the Sâman is used for sacrificial purposes. The Sâman is always to be under-stood as the Good, as Dharma, and as Brahman.


Sloka : 2.2.2

अथावृत्तेषु द्यौर्हिंकार आदित्यः

प्रस्तावोऽन्तरिक्षमुद्गीथोऽग्निः प्रतिहारः पृथिवी

निधनम् ॥ २.२.२॥

athāvṛtteṣu dyaurhiṃkāra ādityaḥ

prastāvo'ntarikṣamudgītho'gniḥ pratihāraḥ pṛthivī

nidhanam .. 2.2.2..



2. Now, the fivefold worship from the highest world to the lowest:- heaven is hiṃkāra, the sun is prastāva, the sky is udgītha, fire is pratihāra, and the earth is nidhana.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; āvṛtteṣu, from the highest [world] to the lowest; dyauḥ hiṃkāraḥ, the heaven is the syllable hiṃ; ādityaḥ prastāvaḥ, the sun is the prastāva; antarikṣam udgīthaḥ, the sky is the udgītha; agniḥ pratihāraḥ, fire is the pratihāra; pṛthivī nidhanam, the earth is nidhana. Commentary:-As Sāma is everywhere, it is also in the five worlds most familiar to us. Starting from the top, these five worlds are dyauḥ (heaven), āditya (the sun), antarikṣa (the sky), agni (fire), and pṛthivī (the earth). To meditate on Sāma in these worlds, then, we can use the five symbols, which are respectively:- hiṃkāra, prastāva, udgītha, pratihāra, and nidhana. When we use the term symbol, we understand that there is always a connection between the symbol and the thing symbolized. In this case, hiṃkāra is the first among the symbols, and heaven is the highest among the worlds. This is why hiṃkāra stands for heaven. Prastāva stands for the sun, for when the sun rises everyone gets ready to work. The word prastāva means ‘getting ready.’ The sky is gagana. It begins with ga, and the word udgītha also contains ga. So udgītha stands for gagana, the sky. Pratihāra stands for fire, because fire makes people ‘scatter’ (pratiharim). The earth is nidhana (extinction), for all things fall from above and finally disappear on the earth.

Translation By Max Müller

2. In a descending line, the hiṅkâra is heaven, the prastâva the sun, the udgîtha the sky, the pratihâra the fire, the nidhana the earth.


Sloka : 2.2.3

कल्पन्ते हास्मै लोका ऊर्ध्वाश्चावृत्ताश्च य एतदेवं

विद्वाꣳल्लोकेषु पञ्चविधं सामोपास्ते ॥ २.२.३॥

kalpante hāsmai lokā ūrdhvāścāvṛttāśca ya etadevaṃ

vidvāgͫllokeṣu pañcavidhaṃ sāmopāste .. 2.2.3..



3. He who worships Sāma with the above knowledge, and worships it in the fivefold manner as described, has all these worlds, from the lowest to the highest and from the highest to the lowest, for his enjoyment.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yaḥ, he who; etaṭ, this [Sāma]; evam, as such [i.e., as good]; vidvān, having known; lokeṣu, the worlds [the earth, etc.]; pañcavidham, fivefold [i.e., using hiṃ and the other four symbols]; sāma upāste, worships the Sāma; ūrdhvāḥ ca, going upwards; āvṛttāḥ ca, and coming downwards; lokāḥ ha asmai kalpante, the worlds are there for him to enjoy. Iti dvitīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the second section. Commentary:-What benefit do you derive from worshipping Sāma in the worlds? The benefit is that you have all the five worlds—from the lowest to the highest and from the highest to the lowest—for your enjoyment. This is because you know Sāma is the essence of everything in these worlds.

Translation By Max Müller

3. The worlds in an ascending and in a descending line belong to him who knowing this meditates on the fivefold Sâman as the worlds [1].

Footnote:

1. The commentator supplies some fanciful reasons why each of the five Sâmans is identified with certain objects. Earth is said to be the hiṅkâra, because both always come first. Agni is prastâva, because sacrifices are praised in the fire (prastûyante). The sky is udgîtha, because it is also called gagana, and both words have the letter g in common. The sun is pratihâra, because everybody wishes the sun to come towards him (prati). Heaven is nidhana, because those who depart from here are placed there (nidhîyante), &c.


Sloka : 2.3.1

॥ इति द्वितीयः खण्डः ॥

वृष्टौ पञ्चविधꣳ सामोपासीत पुरोवातो हिंकारो

मेघो जायते स प्रस्तावो वर्षति स उद्गीथो विद्योतते

स्तनयति स प्रतिहार उद्गृह्णाति तन्निधनम् ॥ २.३.१॥

.. iti dvitīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

vṛṣṭau pañcavidhagͫ sāmopāsīta purovāto hiṃkāro

megho jāyate sa prastāvo varṣati sa udgītho vidyotate

stanayati sa pratihāra udgṛhṇāti tannidhanam .. 2.3.1..



1. One can perform the fivefold Sāma worship during the rain. Think of the wind that comes before the rain as hiṃkāra. The clouds that gather are the prastāva, and the rain that follows is the udgītha. Then, when the lightning flashes and the thunder roars, that is pratihāra.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Vṛṣṭau, in the rain; pañcavidham sāma upāsīta, one can perform the fivefold Sāma worship; purovātaḥ, the wind that starts before the rainfall; hiṃkāraḥ, is hiṃkāra; meghaḥ jāyate, the clouds that gather; saḥ prastāvaḥ, that is the prastāva; varṣati saḥ udgīthaḥ, [when] the rain falls that is the udgītha; vidyotate, [when] the lightning flashes; stanayati, [and] roars; saḥ pratihāra, that is the pratihāra. Commentary:-The syllable hiṃ indicates the beginning of something. When the wind starts blowing hard, we know that it will soon rain, so that is hiṃkāra. Then, when the clouds start gathering, that is the prastāva, for it means that rain is just about to start. Soon the rain follows. That is the udgītha, for the udgītha is always welcome. It is a blessing. The clouds produce lightning, and lightning is accompanied by thunder. That is the pratihāra, for the pratihāra is that which ‘scatters,’ or ‘spreads out,’ or is ‘extensive.’

Translation By Max Müller

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Sâman as rain. The hiṅkâra is wind (that brings the rain); the prastâva is, 'the cloud is come;' the udgîtha is, 'it rains;' the pratihâra, 'it flashes, it thunders;'


Sloka : 2.3.2

वर्षति हास्मै वर्षयति ह य एतदेवं विद्वान्वृष्टौ

पञ्चविधꣳसामोपास्ते ॥ २.३.२॥

varṣati hāsmai varṣayati ha ya etadevaṃ vidvānvṛṣṭau

pañcavidhagͫsāmopāste .. 2.3.2..



2. When the rain stops, that is the nidhana. If a person performs the fivefold Sāma worship, keeping all this in mind, clouds favour him with rain as he likes when the rain is due, and they may do him this favour even when rain is not due.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Udgṛhṇāti tat nidhanam, the end of the rainfall is the nidhana [literally, ‘the end’]; varṣati, it pours; ha asmai, for him [i.e., for the worshipper]; varṣayati, he causes rain to fall; ha yaḥ etat evam vidvān, he who, knowing all this as such; vṛṣṭau, in the rain; pañcavidham sāma upāste, performs the fivefold Sāma worship. Iti tṛtīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the third section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

2. The nidhana is, 'it stops.' There is rain for him, and he brings rain for others who thus knowing meditates on the fivefold Sâman as rain.


Sloka : 2.4.1

॥ इति तृतीयः खण्डः ॥

सर्वास्वप्सु पञ्चविधꣳसामोपासीत मेघो यत्सम्प्लवते

स हिंकारो यद्वर्षति स प्रस्तावो याः प्राच्यः स्यन्दन्ते

स उद्गीथो याः प्रतीच्यः स प्रतिहारः

समुद्रो निधनम् ॥ २.४.१॥

.. iti tṛtīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

sarvāsvapsu pañcavidhagͫsāmopāsīta megho yatsamplavate

sa hiṃkāro yadvarṣati sa prastāvo yāḥ prācyaḥ syandante

sa udgītho yāḥ pratīcyaḥ sa pratihāraḥ

samudro nidhanam .. 2.4.1..



1. One can perform the fivefold Sāma worship in all kinds of water. The coming together of scattered clouds is hiṃkāra. That which pours forth rain is the prastāva. The udgītha is that [river] running eastward, and that which runs westward is the pratihāra. The sea is the nidhana.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Sarvāsu apsu, in all kinds of water; pañcavidham sāma upāsīta, a person should perform the fivefold Sāma worship; meghaḥ yat saṃplavate, the clouds which join together and consolidate; saḥ hiṃkāraḥ, that is hiṃkāra; yat varṣati, that which pours rain; saḥ prastāvaḥ, that is the prastāva; yāḥ prācyaḥ syandante, that [water, or river] which goes eastward; saḥ udgīthaḥ, that is the udgītha; yāḥ pratīcyaḥ, that which goes westward; saḥ pratihāraḥ, that is the pratihāra; samudraḥ nidhanam, the sea is the nidhana. Commentary:-The fivefold Sāma worship can be performed in all forms of water. For instance, when clouds come together to produce rain, that can be thought of as hiṃkāra, because the syllable hiṃ marks the beginning. And when rain starts falling, that is thought of as the prastāva, because the rain is ‘ready’ to scatter in all directions. (This ‘readiness’ is prastāva.) The water, or river, that flows eastward (the Ganges, for instance) is called the udgītha, because both represent excellence. The water flowing westward (pratīcya) is the pratihāra, because of the prefix prāti being common to both. The sea is the nidhana, because when the water flows into the sea it loses its separate identity, which is ‘death’ (nidhana).

Translation By Max Müller

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Sâman in all waters. When the clouds gather, that is the hiṅkâra; when it rains, that is the prastâva that which flows in the east [1], that is the udgîtha that which flows in the west [2], that is the pratihâra the sea is the nidhana.

Footnote:

1. The Ganges, &c. Comm. 2. The Narmadâ, &c. Comm.


Sloka : 2.4.2

न हाप्सु प्रैत्यप्सुमान्भवति य एतदेवं विद्वान्सर्वास्वप्सु

पञ्चविधꣳसामोपास्ते ॥ २.४.२॥

na hāpsu praityapsumānbhavati ya etadevaṃ vidvānsarvāsvapsu

pañcavidhagͫsāmopāste .. 2.4.2..



2. He who performs the fivefold Sāma worship in all forms of water, knowing it thus, will never be drowned in water unless he wishes to be, and he will have as much water as he wants.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yaḥ, he who; evam, as mentioned; etat, this [Sāma]; vidvān, having known; sarvāsu apsu, in all forms of water; pañcavidham sāma upāste, performs the fivefold worship of Sāma; [saḥ, that worshipper]; apsu, in water; na ha praiti, does not die [unless he wants to]; apsumān bhavati, he has much water at his disposal. Iti caturthaḥ khaṇḥaḥ, here ends the fourth section. Commentary:-A person who performs this Sāma worship, taking water as the object of worship, will never be drowned unless he himself seeks his death that way. Also, he may be so lucky about water that he will even get it in a desert.

Translation By Max Müller

2. He does not die in water [1], nay, he is rich in water who knowing this meditates on the fivefold Sâman as all waters.

Footnote:

1. The commentator adds, 'unless he wishes to die in the Ganges.'


Sloka : 2.5.1

॥ इति चतुर्थः खण्डः ॥

ऋतुषु पञ्चविधꣳ सामोपासीत वसन्तो हिंकारः

ग्रीष्मः प्रस्तावो वर्षा उद्गीथः शरत्प्रतिहारो

हेमन्तो निधनम् ॥ २.५.१॥

.. iti caturthaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

ṛtuṣu pañcavidhagͫ sāmopāsīta vasanto hiṃkāraḥ

grīṣmaḥ prastāvo varṣā udgīthaḥ śaratpratihāro

hemanto nidhanam .. 2.5.1..



1. One can apply the same fivefold Sāma worship formula to the seasons. Treat spring as hiṃkāra, summer as the prastāva, the rainy season as the udgītha, autumn as the pratihāra, and winter as the nidhana.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ṛtuṣu, in the seasons [spring, etc.]; pañcavidham sāma upāsīta, one should perform the fivefold Sāma worship; vasantaḥ hiṃkāraḥ, spring is hiṃkāra; grīṣmaḥ prastāvaḥ, summer is the prastāva; varṣāḥ udgīthaḥ, the rainy season is the udgītha; śarat pratihāraḥ, autumn Commentary:-Spring is the first among the seasons, just as hiṃkāra is the first among the Sāma stobhas. Summer is the prastāva, because in summer people ‘get ready’ to harvest. Then, the rainy season is very important for crops, just as the udgītha is important. Autumn is thought of as pratihāra, for that is the time when the old and the sick start being ‘taken away.’ Finally, winter is the nidhana, for that is the time when many people die.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Sâman as the seasons. The hiṅkâra is spring, the prastâva summer (harvest of yava, &c.), the udgîtha the rainy season, the pratihâra autumn, the nidhana winter.


Sloka : 2.5.2

कल्पन्ते हास्मा ऋतव ऋतुमान्भवति य एतदेवं

विद्वानृतुषु पञ्चविधꣳ सामोपास्ते ॥ २.५.२॥

kalpante hāsmā ṛtava ṛtumānbhavati ya etadevaṃ

vidvānṛtuṣu pañcavidhagͫ sāmopāste .. 2.5.2..



2. To the person who knows this principle of the fivefold Sāma worship and applies it to the seasons thus, the seasons become a source of enjoyment, and the best things that each of them has to offer present themselves to him.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yaḥ, he who; etat evam vidvān, having known this [Sāma] as above; ṛtuṣu, in the seasons; pañcavi- dham sāma upāste, performs this fivefold Sāma worship; asmai, to him; ṛtavaḥ kalpante, the seasons come for his enjoyment; ha ṛtumān bhavati, and he also gets the pleasant things of those seasons for his enjoyment. Iti pañcamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fifth section. Commentary:-The change of seasons does not bother such a worshipper. Each of them is pleasant to hiṃ, and the best things that each of them has are easily available to him.

Translation By Max Müller

2. The seasons belong to him, nay, he is always in season (successful) who knowing this meditates on the fivefold Sâman as the seasons.


Sloka : 2.6.1

॥ इति पञ्चमः खण्डः ॥

पशुषु पञ्चविधꣳ सामोपासीताजा हिंकारोऽवयः

प्रस्तावो गाव उद्गीथोऽश्वाः प्रतिहारः

पुरुषो निधनम् ॥ २.६.१॥

.. iti pañcamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

paśuṣu pañcavidhagͫ sāmopāsītājā hiṃkāro'vayaḥ

prastāvo gāva udgītho'śvāḥ pratihāraḥ

puruṣo nidhanam .. 2.6.1..



1. This is how a person can perform the fivefold Sāma worship in animals. Think of goats as hiṃkāra, sheep as the prastāva, cows as the udgītha, horses as the pratihāra, and human beings as the nidhana.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Paśuṣu, in animals; pañcavidham sāma upāsīta, one can perform the fivefold Sāma worship; ajāḥ, goats; hiṃkāraḥ, are the syllable hiṃ; avayaḥ prastāvaḥ, sheep are the prastāva; gāvaḥ udgīthaḥ, cows are the udgītha; aśvāḥ pratihāraḥ, horses are the pratihāra; puruṣaḥ nidhanam, a human being is the nidhana. Commentary:-Goats are the most common of these animals, and they are also the most widely used in sacrifices. This is why they are given the first place as hiṃkāra. Ajā, goats, and avi, sheep, are often seen together, and they are very similar. So also, hiṃkāra and the prastāva are often together. This is why avi, sheep, are said to be the prastāva. Cows are the udgītha because they are superior to other animals, as the udgītha is superior. Then horses ‘carry’ (pratiharaṇa) people, so they are the pratihāra. And as animals ‘depend’ entirely upon human beings, so human beings are their nidhana (here, nidhana means ‘support’).

Translation By Max Müller

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Sâman in animals. The hiṅkâra is goats, the prastâva sheep, the udgîtha cows, the pratihâra horses, the nidhana man.


Sloka : 2.6.2

भवन्ति हास्य पशवः पशुमान्भवति य एतदेवं

विद्वान्पशुषु पञ्चविधꣳ सामोपास्ते ॥ २.६.२॥

bhavanti hāsya paśavaḥ paśumānbhavati ya etadevaṃ

vidvānpaśuṣu pañcavidhagͫ sāmopāste .. 2.6.2..



2. He who performs the fivefold Sāma worship in animals, knowing it in this way, gets many animals for his enjoyment, and he also has a large number of animals as his personal wealth.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yaḥ, he who; etat evam vidvān, having known this [Sāma] in this way; paśuṣu pañcavidham sāma upāste, performs the fivefold Sāma worship in animals; asya paśavaḥ bhavanti ha, he has many animals [for his enjoyment]; paśumān bhavati, he acquires a large number of animals [for his personal wealth]. Iti ṣaṣṭhaḥ khaṇḍaiḥ here ends the sixth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

2. Animals belong to him, nay, he is rich in animals who knowing this meditates on the fivefold Sâman as animals.


Sloka : 2.7.1

॥ इति षष्ठः खण्डः ॥

प्राणेषु पञ्चविधं परोवरीयः सामोपासीत प्राणो

हिंकारो वाक्प्रस्तावश्चक्षुरुद्गीथः श्रोत्रं प्रतिहारो

मनो निधनं परोवरीयाꣳसि वा एतानि ॥ २.७.१॥

.. iti ṣaṣṭhaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

prāṇeṣu pañcavidhaṃ parovarīyaḥ sāmopāsīta prāṇo

hiṃkāro vākprastāvaścakṣurudgīthaḥ śrotraṃ pratihāro

mano nidhanaṃ parovarīyāgͫsi vā etāni .. 2.7.1..



1. One should perform the fivefold worship of Sāma in the organs in an increasingly higher way. The organ of smell is hiṃkāra, the organ of speech is the prastāva, the eyes are the udgītha, the ears are the pratihāra, and the mind is the nidhana. These organs should be worshipped, each with greater respect than the previous one.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Prāṇeṣu pañcavidham sāma upāsīta, one should perform the fivefold worship of Sāma in all forms of prāṇa, the vital breath [or, the organs]; parovarīyaḥ, in an increasingly better way; prāṇaḥ hiṃkāraḥ, prāṇa [or, the organ of smell] is hiṃkāra; vāk prastāvaḥ, the organ of speech is the prastāva; cakṣuḥ udgīthaḥ, the eyes are the udgītha; śrotram pratihāraḥ, the ears are the pratihāra; manaḥ nidhanam, the mind is the nidhana; etāni parovarīyāṃsi vai, all these should be worshipped, each more than the one before. Commentary:-The first prāṇa is the organ of smelling. This may be regarded as hiṃkāra. Then the organ of speech may be regarded as the prastāva, for through speech we propose (prastāva) to do something. The organ of speech is superior to the organ of smelling because we express our thoughts through speech. The eyes are better than the organ of speech, because through the eyes we can express even more than what we can through speech, so the eyes are the udgītha. The ears are the pratihāra, and they are superior to the eyes because the ears can hear more than the eyes can see. The mind is the nidhana, and it is superior to all other organs. Whatever the other organs collect is all stored in the mind. Also the mind can grasp things that no other organ can perceive.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Sâman, which is greater than great, as the prânas (senses). The hiṅkâra is smell [1] (nose), the prastâva speech (tongue), the udgîtha sight (eye), the pratihâra hearing (ear), the nidhana mind. These are one greater than the other.

Footnote:

1. Prâna is explained by ghrâna, smell; possibly ghrâna may have been the original reading. Anyhow, it cannot be the mukhya prâna here, because it is distinctly represented as the lowest sense.


Sloka : 2.7.2

परोवरीयो हास्य भवति परोवरीयसो ह लोकाञ्जयति

य एतदेवं विद्वान्प्राणेषु पञ्चविधं परोवरीयः

सामोपास्त इति तु पञ्चविधस्य ॥ २.७.२॥

parovarīyo hāsya bhavati parovarīyaso ha lokāñjayati

ya etadevaṃ vidvānprāṇeṣu pañcavidhaṃ parovarīyaḥ

sāmopāsta iti tu pañcavidhasya .. 2.7.2..



2. When a person knows the fivefold Sāma worship and performs it in the organs, paying to each of the organs more respect than to the last, his life becomes more and more excellent, and he also attains better and better worlds.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yaḥ, he who; etat evam vidvān, having known this thus; prāṇeṣu, in the organs; pañcavidham sāma upāste, performs the fivefold Sāma worship; parovarīyaḥ, in an increasingly higher order; asya, his [life]; parovarīyaḥ ha bhavati, becomes increasingly more excellent; parovarīyasaḥ ha lokān jāyati, he also attains increasingly higher worlds; iti tu pañcavidhasya, this is the benefit of the fivefold [Sāma worship]. Iti saptamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the seventh section. Commentary:-Here much attention has been given to the fivefold Sāma worship. This is only to prepare the worshipper for the next step, in which he will be asked to perform the sevenfold Sāma worship. It would be quite all right, however, if he bypasses the fivefold worship and goes straight to the sevenfold worship.

Translation By Max Müller

2. What is greater than great belongs to him, nay, he conquers the worlds which are greater than great, who knowing this meditates on the fivefold Sâman, which is greater than great, as the prânas (senses).


Sloka : 2.8.1

॥ इति सप्तमः खण्डः ॥

अथ सप्तविधस्य वाचि सप्तविध्ꣳ सामोपासीत

यत्किंच वाचो हुमिति स हिंकारो यत्प्रेति स प्रस्तावो

यदेति स आदिः ॥ २.८.१॥

.. iti saptamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha saptavidhasya vāci saptavidhgͫ sāmopāsīta

yatkiṃca vāco humiti sa hiṃkāro yatpreti sa prastāvo

yadeti sa ādiḥ .. 2.8.1..



1. Now begins a discussion on the sevenfold Sāma worship. One can perform this sevenfold Sāma worship in speech. Wherever the syllable huṃ occurs in speech, that is hiṃkāra. Similarly, wherever the syllable pra occurs, that is to be taken for the prastāva. And wherever ā occurs, that is ādi [the beginning].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; saptavidhasya, [a discussion] on the sevenfold [Sāma worship]; saptavidham sāma upāsīta, one should perform the sevenfold worship of Sāma; vāci, in speech; yāt kiṃca vācaḥ huṃ iti, in whatever speech occurs the syllable ‘huṃ’; saḥ hiṃkāraḥ, that is the syllable ‘hiṃ’; yat pra iti, where the syllable ‘pra’ occurs; saḥ prastāvaḥ, that is the prastāva; yat ā iti, where ‘ā’ occurs; saḥ ādiḥ, that is to be taken for ādi [the beginning]. Commentary:-The fivefold Sāma worship has been discussed. Now The first meditation is on speech. Sometimes you may come across the sound huṃ in speech. This sound is to be thought of as hiṃkāra, because the letter h is common in both. Then, when you come across the sound pra, that is to be thought of as the prastāva. The sound ā in speech is to be thought of as ādi. But what is ādi? Ādi is that with which you begin something. It is Om, for everything in the Vedas starts with Om.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Next for the sevenfold Sâman. Let a man meditate on the sevenfold Sâman in speech. Whenever there is in speech the syllable huṅ [1], that is hiṅkâra, pra is the prastâva, â is the âdi, the first, i.e. Om,

Footnote:

1. These are again the stobhâksharas, or musical syllables used in the performance of the Sâman hymns; see .


Sloka : 2.8.2

यदुदिति स उद्गीथो यत्प्रतीति स प्रतिहारो

यदुपेति स उपद्रवो यन्नीति तन्निधनम् ॥ २.८.२॥

yaduditi sa udgītho yatpratīti sa pratihāro

yadupeti sa upadravo yannīti tannidhanam .. 2.8.2..



2. Wherever the syllable ut occurs, that is the udgītha. Where there is prati, that is the pratihāra. Where you find upa, that is the upadrava. And where you find ni, that is the nidhana.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yat ut iti, where there is the sound ‘ut’; saḥ udgīthaḥ, that is the udgītha; yat prati iti, where there is the sound ‘prati’; saḥ pratihāraḥ, that is the pratihāra; yat upa iti, where there is the sound ‘upa’; saḥ upadravaḥ, that is the upadrava [upadrava is anything in praise of the Sāma]; yat ni iti, where there is the syllable ‘ni’; tat nidhanam, that is the nidhana. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Ud is the udgîtha, pra the pratihâra, upa the upadrava, ni the nidhana.


Sloka : 2.8.3

दुग्धेऽस्मै वाग्दोहं यो वाचो दोहोऽन्नवानन्नादो भवति

य एतदेवं विद्वान्वाचि सप्तविधꣳ सामोपास्ते ॥ २.८.३॥

dugdhe'smai vāgdohaṃ yo vāco doho'nnavānannādo bhavati

ya etadevaṃ vidvānvāci saptavidhagͫ sāmopāste .. 2.8.3..



3. He who knows Sāma in this way, and performs the sevenfold Sāma worship in speech, gets from speech whatever good things it has to offer. He also gets plenty of food to eat, and he eats that food [and thereby looks radiant in health].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yaḥ, the person who; etat evam vidvān, having known this [about the Sāma]; vāci, in speech; saptavidham sāma upāste, performs the sevenfold Sāma worship; asmai, to him [i.e., to the worshipper]; vāk, speech; doham, milk [i.e., a good, precious gift]; yaḥ vācaḥ dohaḥ, which is the essence of the words; dugdhe, presents; annavān annādaḥ bhavati, he has plenty of food and he eats it [thereby becoming radiant]. Iti aṣṭamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the eighth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

3. Speech yields the milk, which is the milk of speech itself, to him who knowing this meditates on the sevenfold Sâman in speech. He becomes rich in food, and able to eat food.


Sloka : 2.9.1

॥ इति अष्टमः खण्डः ॥

अथ खल्वमुमादित्यꣳसप्तविधꣳ सामोपासीत सर्वदा

समस्तेन साम मां प्रति मां प्रतीति सर्वेण

समस्तेन साम ॥ २.९.१॥

.. iti aṣṭamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha khalvamumādityagͫsaptavidhagͫ sāmopāsīta sarvadā

samastena sāma māṃ prati māṃ pratīti sarveṇa

samastena sāma .. 2.9.1..



1. Next, without fail, worship the sevenfold Sāma in the sun. The sun is the Sāma because it is always the same. Again, the sun makes each of us think, ‘It is looking at me. It is looking at me.’ Because it is the same to all, it is called Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; khalu, for certain; amum ādityam, the sun over there; saptavidham sāma upāsīta, worship as the sevenfold Sāma; sarvadā samaḥ, [the sun is] always the same; tena, therefore; sāma, [the sun is] Sāma; mām prati mām prati, [for instance, ‘It is looking] at me, [it is looking] at me’; iti, in this way [it makes everyone think]; sarveṇa samaḥ, it is the same to all; tena, for this reason; sāma, [the sun is called] Sāma. Commentary:-The question is, how can the sun be identified with the Sāma? The sun is always the same [i.e., sama], for it never changes. This is where the sun and the Sāma are the same. Again, when we look at the sun, we all think it is turned towards us. Similarly, the Sāma is also the same for everyone.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Let a man meditate on the sevenfold Sâman as the sun. The sun is Sâman, because he is always the same (sama); he is Sâman because he is the same, everybody thinking he looks towards me, he looks towards me [1].

Footnote:

1. Cf. Kh. Up. II, 2, 2. Comm.


Sloka : 2.9.2

तस्मिन्निमानि सर्वाणि भूतान्यन्वायत्तानीति

विद्यात्तस्य यत्पुरोदयात्स हिंकारस्तदस्य

पशवोऽन्वायत्तास्तस्मात्ते हिं कुर्वन्ति

हिंकारभाजिनो ह्येतस्य साम्नः ॥ २.९.२॥

tasminnimāni sarvāṇi bhūtānyanvāyattānīti

vidyāttasya yatpurodayātsa hiṃkārastadasya

paśavo'nvāyattāstasmātte hiṃ kurvanti

hiṃkārabhājino hyetasya sāmnaḥ .. 2.9.2..



2. One should know that all beings that exist are dependent on the sun. The sun has a distinctive look before it rises, and that look is its hiṃkāra. The animals, who are dependent on the sun, also have their share in this hiṃkāra. That is why they make the sound hiṃ.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tasmin, on that [i.e., the sun]; imāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni, all these beings; anvāyattāni, are dependent; iti vidyāt, one should know this; tasya, of that [sun]; yat, the way [it looks then]; purodayāt, before it rises; saḥ, that [form]; hiṃkāraḥ, is hiṃkāra; paśavaḥ, the animals; tat asya anvāyattāḥ, are dependent on that [form] of it [i.e., of the sun as Sāma]; tasmāt, this is why; te, they; hiṃ kurvanti, make the sound hiṃ; hiṃkārabhājinaḥ hi etasya sāmnaḥ, they share in the hiṃkāra of the Sāma. Commentary:-As the sun rises, it has a very pleasant and favourable look. This is called hiṃkāra. It is an expression of love and adoration for the Sāma. The animals are devoted to this hiṃkāra, for they also make the sound hiṃ as the sun rises. This is how they pay their tribute to the hiṃkāra of the Sāma.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Let him know that all beings are dependent on him (the sun). What he is before his rising, that is the hiṅkâra. On it animals are dependent. Therefore animals say hiṅ (before sunrise), for they share the hiṅkâra of that Sâman (the sun).


Sloka : 2.9.3

अथ यत्प्रथमोदिते स प्रस्तावस्तदस्य मनुष्या

अन्वायत्तास्तस्मात्ते प्रस्तुतिकामाः प्रशꣳसाकामाः

प्रस्तावभाजिनो ह्येतस्य साम्नः ॥ २.९.३॥

atha yatprathamodite sa prastāvastadasya manuṣyā

anvāyattāstasmātte prastutikāmāḥ praśagͫsākāmāḥ

prastāvabhājino hyetasya sāmnaḥ .. 2.9.3..



3. Next, the form that the sun has shortly after it rises is the prastāva. Human beings are charmed by that form. Because they join in the praise and adoration of the prastāva, they seek adoration and praise for themselves.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Athā, next; yatprathamodite [i.e., prathama + udite], that [form] which [the sun has] when it first rises; saḥ prastāvaḥ, that is the prastāva; manuṣyāḥ, all human beings; tat asya anvāyattāḥ, are charmed by that [form] of it [i.e., of the sun, which is the Sāma]; tasmāt, this is why; te, they; prastutikāmāḥ, wanting praise; praśaṃsākāmāḥ, wanting adoration; prastāvabhājinaḥ hi etasya sāmnaḥ, they join in the prastāva of the Sāma. Commentary:-The beauty that the sun has as it rises in the morning is the Sāma prastāva addressed to the sun god (Āditya). Human beings are under the spell of this beauty. And as they have the habit of praising and adoring the prastāva of the Sāma, they also desire praise and adoration for themselves. Praise means the good words you say about a person in his presence, and adoration means the good thoughts you cherish in your mind about that person.

Translation By Max Müller

3. What he is when first risen, that is the prastâva. On it men are dependent. Therefore men love praise (prastuti) and celebrity, for they share the prastâva of that Sâman.


Sloka : 2.9.4

अथ यत्संगववेलायाꣳ स आदिस्तदस्य वयाꣳस्यन्वायत्तानि

तस्मात्तान्यन्तरिक्षेऽनारम्बणान्यादायात्मानं

परिपतन्त्यादिभाजीनि ह्येतस्य साम्नः ॥ २.९.४॥

atha yatsaṃgavavelāyāgͫ sa ādistadasya vayāgͫsyanvāyattāni

tasmāttānyantarikṣe'nārambaṇānyādāyātmānaṃ

paripatantyādibhājīni hyetasya sāmnaḥ .. 2.9.4..



4. Next, when the sun-rays spread all over a short while after sunrise, that form of the sun is the ādi of the Sāma. This form is connected with the birds. They somehow or other feel they have a safe shelter then, and that is why they are able to fly freely about in the sky without any support. They also behave as if they are joining in the ādi offered to the Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat, that; saṅgavavelāyām, in the morning [i.e., after sunrise, when the sunlight has spread far and wide]; saḥ ādiḥ, that is the ādi [of the Sāma worship]; vayāṃsi, birds; tat asya, that form of the sun [at that time]; anvāyattāni, makes them feel secure; tasmāt, this is why; tāni, they [the birds]; anārambaṇāni, without any support; ātmānam, their own bodies; ādāya, Commentary:-The sight of the sun after sunrise fascinates the birds. The form of the sun at this time is the ādi (or Om) of the Sāma, and the birds feel they are a part of this ādi. They feel secure. Though they have no support, they are able to fly about in the sky freely. It is as if they are joining in the ādi hymn offered to the Sāma. As the birds fly, they depend on their own ‘self’ (ātman). Because the words ātman and ādi have the common ā, the birds feel drawn towards the ādi.

Translation By Max Müller

4. What he is at the time of the saṅgava [1], that is the âdi, the first, the Om. On it birds are dependent. Therefore birds fly about in the sky without support, holding themselves, for they share the âdi [2] (the Om) of that Sâman.

Footnote:

1. When the sun puts forth his rays, and when the cows are together with their calves, i.e. as Rajendralal Mitra says, after the cows have been milked and are allowed by the cowherds to suckle their young. 2. The tertium comparationis is here the â of âdi and the â of âdâya, i. e. holding. The d might have been added.


Sloka : 2.9.5

अथ यत्सम्प्रतिमध्यंदिने स उद्गीथस्तदस्य

देवा अन्वायत्तास्तस्मात्ते सत्तमाः

प्राजापत्यानामुद्गीथभाजिनो ह्येतस्य साम्नः ॥ २.९.५॥

atha yatsampratimadhyaṃdine sa udgīthastadasya

devā anvāyattāstasmātte sattamāḥ

prājāpatyānāmudgīthabhājino hyetasya sāmnaḥ .. 2.9.5..



5. Next, that form of the sun which it has exactly at noon is the udgītha. That form is connected with the gods and goddesses. Therefore, among all of Prajāpati’s children, the gods and goddesses are considered to be the best, because they take part in singing the udgītha of the Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat, that; samprati madhyandine, precisely at noon; saḥ udgīthaḥ, that [form of the sun] is the udgītha; devāḥ, the gods and goddesses; tat asya, that form of the sun [at that time]; anvāyattāni, are part of; tasmāt, therefore; prājāpatyānām, among all of Prajāpati’s children; te, they [the gods and goddesses]; sattamāḥ, are deemed the best; hi, because; etasya sāmnaḥ udgīthabhājinaḥ, they join in the udgītha of the Sāma. Commentary:-At midday the sun is at its brightest, and its form suggests that it is offering an udgītha. The gods and goddesses are devoted to the sun at this time, so they join in the offering of the udgītha. This is why they are the dearest to Prajāpati of all his children.

Translation By Max Müller

5. What he is just at noon, that is the udgîtha. On it the Devas are dependent (because they are brilliant). Therefore they are the best of all the descendants of Pragâpati, for they share the udgîtha of that Sâman.


Sloka : 2.9.6

अथ यदूर्ध्वं मध्यंदिनात्प्रागपराह्णात्स

प्रतिहारस्तदस्य गर्भा अन्वायत्तास्तस्मात्ते

प्रतिहृतानावपद्यन्ते प्रतिहारभाजिनो

ह्येतस्य साम्नः ॥ २.९.६॥

atha yadūrdhvaṃ madhyaṃdinātprāgaparāhṇātsa

pratihārastadasya garbhā anvāyattāstasmātte

pratihṛtānāvapadyante pratihārabhājino

hyetasya sāmnaḥ .. 2.9.6..



6. Next, between the noon and the afternoon, the sight the sun presents is that of the pratihāra. The foetuses in the wombs are attached to this pratihāra. This is why they are held up and do not drop down, and why they are entitled to take part in the pratihāra addressed to the Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat, that; ūrdhvam madhyandināt, after midday; prāk aparāhṇāt, before afternoon; saḥ pratihāra, that is the pratihāra; garbhāḥ, the foetuses in the womb; tat asya, that [form] of [the sun]; anvāyattāḥ are attached to; tasmāt, that is why; te, those [foetuses]; pratihṛtāḥ, are held up; na avapadyante, [and] do not drop down; hi, for that reason; etasya sāmnaḥ pratihārabhājinaḥ, they are entitled to share in the pratihāra of the Sāma. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

6. What he is after midday and before afternoon, that is the pratihâra. On it all germs are dependent. Therefore these, having been conceived (pratihrita), do not fall, for they share the pratihâra of that Sâman.


Sloka : 2.9.7

अथ यदूर्ध्वमपराह्णात्प्रागस्तमयात्स

उपद्रवस्तदस्यारण्या अन्वायत्तास्तस्मात्ते पुरुषं

दृष्ट्वा कक्षꣳश्वभ्रमित्युपद्रवन्त्युपद्रवभाजिनो

ह्येतस्य साम्नः ॥ २.९.७॥

atha yadūrdhvamaparāhṇātprāgastamayātsa

upadravastadasyāraṇyā anvāyattāstasmātte puruṣaṃ

dṛṣṭvā kakṣagͫśvabhramityupadravantyupadravabhājino

hyetasya sāmnaḥ .. 2.9.7..



7. Next, the form that the sun has between the afternoon and sunset is called the upadrava. Wild animals are fond of this form, for when the sun is in that position, the wild animals are able to scurry away into the forest or into their holes if they see a human being. These animals are also able to take part in the upadrava to the Sāma.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat, that; ūrdhvam aparāhṇāt, as the afternoon begins; prāk astamayāt, before sunset; saḥ upadravaḥ, that is the upadrava; āraṇyāḥ, wild animals; tat asya, that [form] of [the sun]; anvāyattāḥ, are attached to; tasmāt, that is why; te, those [wild animals]; puruṣam, a human being; dṛṣṭvā, seeing; kakṣam, into their lair [or, the forest]; śvabhram, a hole; upadravanti, quickly run to; hi, for this reason; etasya sāmnaḥ upadravabhājinaḥ, they join in the upadrava offered to the Sāma. Commentary:-In the later part of the afternoon, the animals are able to find food to sustain themselves, and they can also watch out for human beings. If they see one, they hurry back to the forest or to any place where they feel safe. Their going away in haste (upadruta) suggests that they worship the upadrava (i.e., ‘going back’) of the Sāma.

Translation By Max Müller

7. What he is after the afternoon and before sunset, that is the upadrava. On it the animals of the forest are dependent. Therefore, when they see a man, they run (upadravanti) to the forest as a safe hiding-place, for they share the upadrava of that Sâman.


Sloka : 2.9.8

अथ यत्प्रथमास्तमिते तन्निधनं तदस्य

पितरोऽन्वायत्तास्तस्मात्तान्निदधति निधनभाजिनो

ह्येतस्य साम्न एवं खल्वमुमादित्यꣳ सप्तविधꣳ

सामोपास्ते ॥ २.९.८॥

atha yatprathamāstamite tannidhanaṃ tadasya

pitaro'nvāyattāstasmāttānnidadhati nidhanabhājino

hyetasya sāmna evaṃ khalvamumādityagͫ saptavidhagͫ

sāmopāste .. 2.9.8..



8. Next, the nidhana is the form of the sun as it sets. The ancestors love this form of the sun, and this is why, as the sun sets, offerings are made to them [or, are placed on straws in honour of them at the time the śrāddha rites are performed]. For this reason, the ancestors participate in the nidhana in honour of the Sāma. This is how the sun is offered the sevenfold Sāma worship.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat, that; prathamāstamite [he., prathama + astamite], just as the sun sets; tat nidhanam, that is the nidhana; pitaraḥ, the ancestors; tat asya, that [form] of [the sun]; anvāyattāḥ, are attached to; tasmāt, therefore; tān, them; nidadhati, one places on straws [or, one places offerings to the ancestors on straws while performing special rites in their honour]; hi, for this reason; etasya sāmnaḥ nidhanabhājinaḥ, they participate in the nidhana in honour of the Sāma; khalu amum ādityam saptavidham sāma upāste, this is how the sun is offered the sevenfold Sāma worship. Iti navamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the ninth section. Commentary:-Because the ancestors love the form of the sun as it sets, people honour them at that time of the day by placing offerings to them on straw. And while doing so, they sing the nidhana hymn of the Sāma. If a person performs the sevenfold Sāma worship with the feeling that he is worshipping the sun this way, he becomes one with the sun.

Translation By Max Müller

8. What he is when he first sets, that is the nidhana. On it the fathers are dependent. Therefore they put them [1] down (nidadhati), for they share the nidhana of that Sâman. Thus a man meditates on the sevenfold Sâman as the sun.

Footnote:

1. The cakes for the ancestral spirits, or the spirits themselves.


Sloka : 2.10.1

॥ इति नवमः खण्डः ॥

अथ खल्वात्मसंमितमतिमृत्यु सप्तविधꣳ

सामोपासीत हिंकार इति त्र्यक्षरं प्रस्ताव

इति त्र्यक्षरं तत्समम् ॥ २.१०.१॥

.. iti navamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha khalvātmasaṃmitamatimṛtyu saptavidhagͫ

sāmopāsīta hiṃkāra iti tryakṣaraṃ prastāva

iti tryakṣaraṃ tatsamam .. 2.10.1..



1. After worshipping the Sāma as the sun, one should perform the sevenfold Sāma worship by using words of the same number of syllables. By this one overcomes death. The word hiṃkāra has three syllables; so also,





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next [i.e., after worshipping the sun as the Sāma]; khalu, for certain; ātma-sammitam, with an equal number of parts [i.e., syllables]; atimṛtyu, that which overcomes death; saptavidham sāma upāsīta, one should perform the sevenfold Sāma worship; hiṃkāraḥ, the word hiṃkāra; iti tryakṣaram, is three-syllabled; prastāvaḥ, the word prastāva; iti tryakṣaram, is [also] three-syllabled; tat samam, therefore they [hiṃkāra and prastāva] are equal. Commentary:-Śaṅkara says that the sun divides time into units. It therefore distinguishes between life and death, and it is death itself. Is there any way of overcoming death? Yes, it can be overcome by worshipping the Sāma, and that is why these instructions are being given here.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Next let a man meditate on the sevenfold Sâman which is uniform in itself [1] and leads beyond death. The word hiṅkâra has three syllables, the word prastâva has three syllables:- that is equal (sama).

Footnote:

1. Âtmasammita is explained by the commentator either as having the same number of syllables in the names of the different Sâmans, or as equal to the Highest Self.


Sloka : 2.10.2

आदिरिति द्व्यक्षरं प्रतिहार इति चतुरक्षरं

तत इहैकं तत्समम् ॥ २.१०.२॥

ādiriti dvyakṣaraṃ pratihāra iti caturakṣaraṃ

tata ihaikaṃ tatsamam .. 2.10.2..



2. The word ādi is two-syllabled, and the word pratihāra is four-syllabled. If you take away one syllable from pratihāra and add it to ādi, then they will have the same number of syllables.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ādiḥ iti dvi-akṣaram, the word ādi is two-syllabled; pratihāraḥ iti catuḥ-akṣaram, the word pratihāra is four-syllabled; tataḥ, from that [i.e., from the word pratihāra]; ekam, [take away] one [syllable]; iha, [and add] here [to the word ādi]; tat samam, that makes them equal [both three-syllabled]. Commentary:-Om is the ādi of the sevenfold Sāma. It is ādi (the beginning) because a person begins singing the Sāma with Om.

Translation By Max Müller

2. The word âdi (first, Om) has two syllables, the word pratihâra has four syllables. Taking one syllable from that over, that is equal (sama).


Sloka : 2.10.3

उद्गीथ इति त्र्यक्षरमुपद्रव इति चतुरक्षरं

त्रिभिस्त्रिभिः समं भवत्यक्षरमतिशिष्यते

त्र्यक्षरं तत्समम् ॥ २.१०.३॥

udgītha iti tryakṣaramupadrava iti caturakṣaraṃ

tribhistribhiḥ samaṃ bhavatyakṣaramatiśiṣyate

tryakṣaraṃ tatsamam .. 2.10.3..



3. The word udgītha has three syllables. The word upadrava has four syllables. If they are taken as three-syllabled they are equal. In that case, the syllable va in upadrava becomes superfluous. They are equal so far as their three syllables are concerned.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Udgīthaḥ iti tri-akṣaram, the word udgītha is three-syllabled; upadravaḥ iti cataḥ-akṣaram, the word upadrava is four-syllabled; tribhiḥ tribhiḥ samam bhavati, if they are taken as three-syllabled they become the same; akṣaram atiśiṣyate, one syllable becomes superfluous; tri-akṣaram tat samam, taken as three-syllabled they become identical. Commentary:-The syllable va, if taken away, makes no difference when a person recites the hymn.

Translation By Max Müller

3. The word udgîtha has three syllables, the word upadrava has four syllables. With three and three syllables it should be equal. One syllable being left over, it becomes trisyllabic. Hence it is equal.


Sloka : 2.10.4

निधनमिति त्र्यक्षरं तत्सममेव भवति

तानि ह वा एतानि द्वाविꣳशतिरक्षराणि ॥ २.१०.४॥

nidhanamiti tryakṣaraṃ tatsamameva bhavati

tāni ha vā etāni dvāvigͫśatirakṣarāṇi .. 2.10.4..



4. The word nidhana has three syllables. All words, having three syllables each, are the same [when used in praise of the Sāma]. All these together have twenty-two syllables.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Nidhanam iti tri-akṣaram, the word nidhana is three-syllabled; tat samam eva bhavati, that makes it the same [as the other three-syllabled words forming parts of the Sāma]; tāni ha vai etāni, all these together constitute; dvāviṃśatiḥ akṣarāṇi, twenty-two syllables. Commentary:-There are seven ways of worshipping the Sāma:- through hiṃkāra, prastāva, ādi, pratihāra, udgītha, upadrava, and nidhana. Taken together these words have twenty-two syllables. Taken separately each of them may be treated as three-syllabled and recited accordingly. They are therefore all equal for purposes of the Sāma worship.

Translation By Max Müller

4. The word nidhana has three syllables, therefore it is equal. These make twenty-two syllables.


Sloka : 2.10.5

एकविꣳशत्यादित्यमाप्नोत्येकविꣳशो वा

इतोऽसावादित्यो द्वाविꣳशेन परमादित्याज्जयति

तन्नाकं तद्विशोकम् ॥ २.१०.५॥

ekavigͫśatyādityamāpnotyekavigͫśo vā

ito'sāvādityo dvāvigͫśena paramādityājjayati

tannākaṃ tadviśokam .. 2.10.5..



5. With the help of those twenty-one syllables, one can attain the status of the sun [which is also Death]. The sun occupies the twenty-first place after the things that come between the earth and the sun [those things being the twelve months, the five seasons, and the three worlds]. One can then go beyond the sun if one knows the twenty-second syllable. That world is full of joy and free from all sorrows.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ekaviṃśatyā, by twenty-one [syllables]; ādityam āpnoti, one attains union with the sun [because the sun marks the end of everything, and it is therefore death]; ekaviṃśaḥ vai, [the sun is] the twenty-first [after the twelve months, the five seasons, and the three worlds]; itaḥ, from this [world]; asau ādityaḥ, the sun over there; dvāviṃśena, by [knowing] the twenty-second [syllable]; ādityāt param jayati, one attains the next higher world from the sun; tat nākam, that [place is] joyful; tat viśokaṃ, that [place is] free from all suffering. Commentary:-The Upaniṣad says that if you worship Sāma with these twenty-one syllables, you attain the sun, which is the same as death. But how is the number significant? It is significant because the sun occupies the twenty-first position after the things that intervene between the earth and the sun. According to the Vedas those things are the twelve months, the five seasons, and the three worlds. But if you worship the Sāma with twenty-two syllables, you then go beyond the sun. Where? To a place called Nāka, where there is only happiness and no suffering.

Translation By Max Müller

5. With twenty-one syllables a man reaches the sun (and death), for the sun is the twenty-first [1] from here; with the twenty-second he conquers what is beyond the sun:- that is blessedness, that is freedom from grief

Footnote:

1. There are twelve months, five seasons, three worlds, then follows the sun as the twenty-first. Comm.


Sloka : 2.10.6

आप्नोती हादित्यस्य जयं परो हास्यादित्यजयाज्जयो

भवति य एतदेवं विद्वानात्मसंमितमतिमृत्यु

सप्तविधꣳ सामोपास्ते सामोपास्ते ॥ २.१०.६॥

āpnotī hādityasya jayaṃ paro hāsyādityajayājjayo

bhavati ya etadevaṃ vidvānātmasaṃmitamatimṛtyu

saptavidhagͫ sāmopāste sāmopāste .. 2.10.6..



6. If a person knows all about the Sāma, and performs the sevenfold Sāma worship, treating the Sāma as himself and as something beyond death, he wins the state of the sun and then wins a place even higher than the sun.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Āpnoti ha ādityasya jayam, one wins the state of the sun; paraḥ ha ādityajayāt asya jayaḥ bhavati, one wins a world even higher than the sun; yaḥ, one who; etat evam vidvān, knows this [Sāma] thus; ātmasammitam, as oneself; atimṛtyu saptavidham sāma upāste sāma upāste, performs the deathless sevenfold Sāma worship [the repetition marks the end of the section]. Iti daśamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the tenth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

6. He obtains here the victory over the sun (death), and there is a higher victory than the victory over the sun for him, who knowing this meditates on the sevenfold Sâman as uniform in itself, which leads beyond death, yea, which leads beyond death.


Sloka : 2.11.1

॥ इति दशमः खण्डः ॥

मनो हिंकारो वाक्प्रस्तावश्चक्षुरुद्गीथः श्रोत्रं प्रतिहारः

प्राणो निधनमेतद्गायत्रं प्राणेषु प्रोतम् ॥ २.११.१॥

.. iti daśamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

mano hiṃkāro vākprastāvaścakṣurudgīthaḥ śrotraṃ pratihāraḥ

prāṇo nidhanametadgāyatraṃ prāṇeṣu protam .. 2.11.1..



1. The mind is hiṃkāra, the organ of speech is the prastāva, the eyes are the udgītha, the ears are the pratihāra, and the vital breath [in its fine (five?) forms] is the nidhana. The Gāyatrī prayer is controlled by the vital breath.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Manaḥ hiṃkāraḥ, the mind is the hiṃkāra; vāk prastāvaḥ, the organ of speech is the prastāva; cakṣuḥ udgīthāḥ, the eyes are the udgītha; śrotram pratihāraḥ, the ears are the pratihāra; prāṇaḥ nidhanam, the vital breath is the nidhana; etāt gāyatram, this Gāyatrī prayer; prāṇeṣu protam, is rooted in the vital breath. Commentary:-So long the fivefold and the sevenfold Sāma worships have been discussed, but the names of those worships have not been mentioned. Gāyatra is the first among them. Corresponding to the Gāyatra is the hiṃkāra, with which the worship begins. Similarly, in any act of worship, the mind may be regarded as the hiṃkāra, for it is the mind that must act first before all the other organs. Next to the mind is the organ of speech. A person first thinks and then speaks out his intentions. The organ of speech is therefore the prastāva. The eyes are the udgītha because of their importance. The ears are the pratihāra, for you can ‘turn away from’ things you don’t want to hear. Prāṇa, the vital breath, is the nidhana, for when you have suṣupti, dreamless sleep, all the organs merge into the vital breath. The Gāyatrī is worshipped as the vital breath. This is why the Sāma called Gāyatra is. said to be rooted in the vital breath.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The hiṅkâra is mind, the prastâva speech, the udgîtha sight, the pratihâra hearing, the nidhana breath. That is the Gâyatra Sâman, as interwoven in the (five) prânas [1].

Footnote:

1. Cf. Kh. Up. II, 7, 1, where prâna is explained differently. The Gâyatrî itself is sometimes called prâna.


Sloka : 2.11.2

स एवमेतद्गायत्रं प्राणेषु प्रोतं वेद प्राणी भवति

सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति महान्प्रजया पशुभिर्भवति

महान्कीर्त्या महामनाः स्यात्तद्व्रतम् ॥ २.११.२॥

sa evametadgāyatraṃ prāṇeṣu protaṃ veda prāṇī bhavati

sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati mahānprajayā paśubhirbhavati

mahānkīrtyā mahāmanāḥ syāttadvratam .. 2.11.2..



2. This Gāyatra Sāma is rooted in the prāṇas. He who knows this becomes full of vitality, has a long life, and his life is brilliant. Also, he is fortunate in his children, and he has many domestic animals. He is one of the most famous people. To be noble-minded is the aim of his life.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ, he who; evam, this way; etat gāyatram, this Gāyatra Sāma; prāṇeṣu protam, rooted in the prāṇas; veda, knows; prāṇī, with life; bhavati, is endowed; sarvam āyuḥ, the full span of life; eti, attains; jyok jīvati, a bright [life]; mahān prajayā, great in progeny; paśubhiḥ, [and] animals; bhavati, becomes [rich with]; mahān kīrtyā, with a good reputation; mahāmanāḥ syāt, is noble in character; tat vratam, that is the aim of his life. Iti ekādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the eleventh section. Commentary:-Whoever knows that the Sāma named Gāyatra is based on the prāṇas is truly alive—that is, all his organs are strong and healthy and he is never physically handicapped. The full span of a person’s life is said to be a hundred years. A person who worships the Sāma lives that long. And he lives a wonderful life, able to influence many people. He is respected as one of the greatest people in the world. He has many children and many domestic animals, but his sole aim in life is to have a large heart, without a trace of meanness in his mind.

Translation By Max Müller

2. He who thus knows this Gâyatra interwoven in the prânas, keeps his senses, reaches the full life, he lives long [1], becomes great with children and cattle, great by fame. The rule of him who thus meditates on the Gâyatra is, 'Be not high-minded.'

Footnote:

1. The commentator generally takes gyok in the sense of bright.


Sloka : 2.12.1

॥ इति एकदशः खण्डः ॥

अभिमन्थति स हिंकारो धूमो जायते स प्रस्तावो

ज्वलति स उद्गीथोऽङ्गारा भवन्ति स प्रतिहार

उपशाम्यति तन्निधनꣳ सꣳशाम्यति

तन्निधनमेतद्रथंतरमग्नौ प्रोतम् ॥ २.१२.१॥

.. iti ekadaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

abhimanthati sa hiṃkāro dhūmo jāyate sa prastāvo

jvalati sa udgītho'ṅgārā bhavanti sa pratihāra

upaśāmyati tannidhanagͫ sagͫśāmyati

tannidhanametadrathaṃtaramagnau protam .. 2.12.1..



1. When one rubs two pieces of wood against each other to light a fire, that is the hiṃkāra. When it produces smoke, that is the prastāva. Then when the flame appears, that is the udgītha. The charcoals that result are the pratihāra, and when the fire begins to go out, that is the nidhana. When the flame is completely extinguished, that also is the nidhana. This Sāma called Rathantara is rooted in fire.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Abhimanthati, rubbing [one piece of wood against another to produce fire]; saḥ hiṃkāraḥ, that is the hiṃkāra; dhūmaḥ jāyate, the smoke it produces; saḥ prastāvaḥ, that is the prastāva; jvalati, the flames that appear; saḥ udgīthaḥ, that is the udgītha; aṅgārāḥ bhavanti, the charcoals that result; saḥ pratihāraḥ, that is the pratihāra; upaśāmyati, when the fire begins to go out; tat nidhanam, that is the nidhana; saṃśāmyati, when the fire is completely extinguished; tat nidhanam, that [also] is the nidhana; etat rathantaram, this [Sāma] called Rathantara; agnau protam, is rooted in fire. Commentary:-The rubbing of two pieces of wood together to produce fire is the hiṃkāra, for that is the beginning of the fire. And the smoke that results is the prastāva, for both are likely to continue. When the fire bursts into flame, that is the udgītha, because when there are flames the oblations are offered into them for the gods and goddesses. This is why this part is superior and why the flames are called the udgītha. The charcoals that are formed are called the pratihāra, for the charcoals are collected for future use. Upaśām means the process of subsiding—that is, the fire begins to subside but does not quite go out. Then the word saṃśām means ‘completely extinguished.’ The fire is then dead, so it is like the nidhana (death). The Rathantara Sāma is said to be based on fire, for when fire is being produced by rubbing the two sticks, the Rathantara Sāma is recited.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The hiṅkâra is, he rubs (the fire-stick); the prastâva, smoke rises; the udgîtha, it burns; the pratihâra, there are glowing coals; the nidhana, it goes down; the nidhana, it is gone out. This is the Rathantara Sâman as interwoven in fire [1].

Footnote:

1. The Rathantara is used for the ceremony of producing fire.


Sloka : 2.12.2

स य एवमेतद्रथंतरमग्नौ प्रोतं वेद ब्रह्मवर्चस्यन्नादो

भवति सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति महान्प्रजया

पशुभिर्भवति महान्कीर्त्या न प्रत्यङ्ङग्निमाचामेन्न

निष्ठीवेत्तद्व्रतम् ॥ २.१२.२॥

sa ya evametadrathaṃtaramagnau protaṃ veda brahmavarcasyannādo

bhavati sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati mahānprajayā

paśubhirbhavati mahānkīrtyā na pratyaṅṅagnimācāmenna

niṣṭhīvettadvratam .. 2.12.2..



2. He who knows that this Rathantara Sāma is rooted in fire, acquires the kind of glow that Vedic scholarship produces. He also enjoys eating. He lives the full span of his life, and his life is brilliant. He is well known for his children and for his animal wealth, and he commands great respect in society. His vow is that he will never eat with fire in front of him and he will never spit.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ evam etat rathantaram agnau protam veda, he who knows that this Rathantara Sāma is rooted in fire; brahmavarcasī, acquires the glow that Vedic knowledge gives; annādaḥ bhavati, he enjoys eating food; sarvam āyuḥ eti, he lives the full span of his life; jyok jīvati, he lives a bright life; mahān prajayā paśubhiḥ bhavati, he distinguishes himself by his children and by the animal wealth he acquires; mahān kīrtyā, his reputation spreads far and wide; tat vratam, his principle is; na pratyak agnim ācāmet, never to Commentary:-By his moral character and his scholarship in the Vedas, he acquires a radiance about him. [The underlying thought in these two mantras is that everything a person does is spiritual. This includes even physical experiences.]

Translation By Max Müller

2. He who thus knows this Rathantara interwoven in fire, becomes radiant [1] and strong. He reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great with children and cattle, great by fame. The rule is, 'Do not rinse the mouth or spit before the fire.'

Footnote:

1. Brahmavarkasa is the 'glory of countenance' produced by higher knowledge, an inspired look. Annâda, lit. able to eat, healthy, strong.


Sloka : 2.13.1

॥ इति द्वादशः खण्डः ॥

उपमन्त्रयते स हिंकारो ज्ञपयते स प्रस्तावः

स्त्रिया सह शेते स उद्गीथः प्रति स्त्रीं सह शेते

स प्रतिहारः कालं गच्छति तन्निधनं पारं गच्छति

तन्निधनमेतद्वामदेव्यं मिथुने प्रोतम् ॥ २.१३.१॥

.. iti dvādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

upamantrayate sa hiṃkāro jñapayate sa prastāvaḥ

striyā saha śete sa udgīthaḥ prati strīṃ saha śete

sa pratihāraḥ kālaṃ gacchati tannidhanaṃ pāraṃ gacchati

tannidhanametadvāmadevyaṃ mithune protam .. 2.13.1..



1. A man's beckoning to a woman is the syllable Him; his gratifying her is the Prastava; his lying with her is the Pratihara; his spending time with her is the Nidhana; and the finishing of the sexual act is also the Nidhana. This is the Vamadevya Saman as interwoven in sexual intercourse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Next follows the Vâmadevya as interwoven in generation [1].

Footnote:

1. Upamantrayate sa hiṅkâro, gñapayate sa prastâvah, striyâ saha sete sa udgîthah, pratistrî saha sete sa pratihârah, kâlam gakkhati tan nidhanam, pâram gakkhati tan nidhanam. Etad vâmadevyam mithune protam. 2. Sa ya evam etad vâmadevyam mithune protam veda, mithunî bhavati, mithunân mithunât pragâyate, sarvam âyur eti, gyog gîvati, mahân pragayâ pasubhir bhavati, mahân kîrttyâ. Na kâmkana pariharet tad vratam.


Sloka : 2.13.2

स य एवमेतद्वामदेव्यं मिथुने प्रोतं वेद

मिथुनी भवति मिथुनान्मिथुनात्प्रजायते

सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति महान्प्रजया पशुभिर्भवति

महान्कीर्त्या न कांचन परिहरेत्तद्व्रतम् ॥ २.१३.२॥

sa ya evametadvāmadevyaṃ mithune protaṃ veda

mithunī bhavati mithunānmithunātprajāyate

sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati mahānprajayā paśubhirbhavati

mahānkīrtyā na kāṃcana pariharettadvratam .. 2.13.2..



2. He who thus knows the Vamadevya Saman as interwoven in sexual intercourse does not suffer from the pang of separation and procreates from every intercourse; he reaches the full length of life, lives brightly, becomes great in children and cattle, great in fame. For him the injunction is:- "Do not reject a woman who comes to you seeking intercourse".

Translation By Max Müller

2. Next follows the Vâmadevya as interwoven in generation [1].

Footnote:

1. Upamantrayate sa hiṅkâro, gñapayate sa prastâvah, striyâ saha sete sa udgîthah, pratistrî saha sete sa pratihârah, kâlam gakkhati tan nidhanam, pâram gakkhati tan nidhanam. Etad vâmadevyam mithune protam. 2. Sa ya evam etad vâmadevyam mithune protam veda, mithunî bhavati, mithunân mithunât pragâyate, sarvam âyur eti, gyog gîvati, mahân pragayâ pasubhir bhavati, mahân kîrttyâ. Na kâmkana pariharet tad vratam.


Sloka : 2.14.1

॥ इति त्रयोदशः खण्डः ॥

उद्यन्हिंकार उदितः प्रस्तावो मध्यंदिन उद्गीथोऽपराह्णः

प्रतिहारोऽस्तं यन्निधनमेतद्बृहदादित्ये प्रोतम् ॥ २.१४.१॥

.. iti trayodaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

udyanhiṃkāra uditaḥ prastāvo madhyaṃdina udgītho'parāhṇaḥ

pratihāro'staṃ yannidhanametadbṛhadāditye protam .. 2.14.1..



1. The rising sun is the hiṃkāra, the sun that has already risen is the prastāva, the midday sun is the udgītha, the afternoon sun is the pratihāra, and the setting sun is the nidhana. This Sāma called Bṛhat is based on the sun.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Udyan, the rising sun; hiṃkāraḥ, [is] the hiṃkāra; uditaḥ, the sun that has already risen; prastāvaḥ, [is] the prastāva; madhyandina, the midday sun; udgīthaḥ, [is] the udgītha; aparāhṇaḥ, the afternoon sun; pratihāraḥ, [is] the pratihāra; yat astam, that which is setting; nidhanam, [is] the nidhana; etat bṛhat, Commentary:-The rising sun is the hiṃkāra, for that is the time when we first see the sun. When the sun has risen it is the prastāva, for that is when people start performing their daily religious riteṣ and rituals. The midday sun is the udgītha, because that is the best time of the day. Then the afternoon sun is the pratihāra, because that is the time when cattle are driven back home. And the setting sun is the nidhana, for at night domestic animals are kept confined in their pens. This Bṛhat Sāma is based on the sun, because the sun is its presiding deity.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Rising, the sun is the hiṅkâra, risen, he is the prastâva, at noon he is the udgîtha, in the afternoon he is the pratihâra, setting, he is the nidhana. That is the Brihat Sâman as interwoven in the sun [1].

Footnote:

1. The sun is brihat. The Brihat Sâman is to be looked upon as the sun, or the Brihat has Âditya for its deity.


Sloka : 2.14.2

स य एवमेतद्बृहदादित्ये प्रोतं वेद तेजस्व्यन्नादो

भवति सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति महान्प्रजया

पशुभिर्भवति महान्कीर्त्या तपन्तं न निन्देत्तद्व्रतम्

॥ २.१४.२॥

sa ya evametadbṛhadāditye protaṃ veda tejasvyannādo

bhavati sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati mahānprajayā

paśubhirbhavati mahānkīrtyā tapantaṃ na nindettadvratam

.. 2.14.2..



2. He who knows that the Sāma called Bṛhat is rooted in the sun is spirited and has a great appetite. He lives the full span of his life, has a brilliant career, and is renowned for his children and for his animal wealth. His success in life brings him much fame. The vow he observes is that he will never utter a word against the sun, which gives us heat.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ evam etat bṛhat āditye protam veda, he who knows that the Sāma called Bṛhat is rooted in the sun; tejasvi, is spirited; annādaḥ bhavati, has a great appetite; sarvam āyuḥ etḥ lives the full span of his life; jyok jīvati, has a brilliant life; mahān prajayā paśubhiḥ bhavati, becomes famous for his children and for his animal wealth; mahān kīrtyā, is highly respected; tapantam na nindet, he never uses a bad word against the hot sun; tat vratam, that is his vow. Iti caturdaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fourteenth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

2. He who thus knows the Brihat as interwoven in the sun, becomes refulgent [1] and strong, he reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great with children and cattle, great by fame. His rule is, 'Never complain of the heat of the sun.'

Footnote:

1. The same as brahmavarkasin.


Sloka : 2.15.1

॥ इति चतुर्दशः खण्डः ॥

अभ्राणि सम्प्लवन्ते स हिंकारो मेघो जायते

स प्रस्तावो वर्षति स उद्गीथो विद्योतते स्तनयति

स प्रतिहार उद्गृह्णाति तन्निधनमेतद्वैरूपं पर्जन्ये प्रोतम्

॥ २.१५.१॥

.. iti caturdaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

abhrāṇi samplavante sa hiṃkāro megho jāyate

sa prastāvo varṣati sa udgītho vidyotate stanayati

sa pratihāra udgṛhṇāti tannidhanametadvairūpaṃ parjanye protam

.. 2.15.1..



1. When light clouds consolidate, that is the hiṃkāra. When clouds likely to pour rain collect, that is the prastāva. When the rain begins, that is the udgītha. Then there are flashes of lightning and the roar of thunder. This is the pratihāra. When it all stops, that is the nidhana. This Sāma called Vairūpa is rooted in the clouds.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Abhrāṇi, light clouds [bearing water]; saṃplavante, when they consolidate; saḥ hiṃkāraḥ, that is the hiṃkāra; meghaḥ jāyate, when clouds likely to pour rain appear; saḥ prastāvaḥ, that is the prastāva; varṣati saḥ udgīthaḥ, when it starts raining that is the udgītha; vidyotate, when lightning flashes; stanayati, [and] thunder roars; saḥ pratihāraḥ, that is the pratihāra; ut gṛhṇāti, when everything is over; tat nidhanam, that is the nidhana; etat vairūpam, this [Sāma called] Vairūpa; parjanye protam, is rooted in the clouds. Commentary:-The word abhra means a cloud which bears ap, water. A cloud that pours rain is called megha. The English word ‘cloud’ is actually in Sanskrit parjanya. Abhra, megha, parjanya—these different names all mean cloud, but indicate the cloud in a different state. This is why the cloud is described here as vairūpa, with different forms. It is the sun that produces the cloud, and this is why the Sāma is first worshipped as the sun and then as the cloud.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The mists gather, that is the hiṅkâra; the cloud has risen, that is the prastâva; it rains, that is the udgîtha; it flashes and thunders, that is the pratihâra; it stops, that is the nidhana. That is the Vairûpa Sâman, as interwoven in Parganya, the god of rain.


Sloka : 2.15.2

स य एवमेतद्वैरूपं पर्जन्ये प्रोतं वेद

विरूपाꣳश्च सुरूपꣳश्च पशूनवरुन्धे

सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति महान्प्रजया पशुभिर्भवति

महान्कीर्त्या वर्षन्तं न निन्देत्तद्व्रतम् ॥ २.१५.२॥

sa ya evametadvairūpaṃ parjanye protaṃ veda

virūpāgͫśca surūpagͫśca paśūnavarundhe

sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati mahānprajayā paśubhirbhavati

mahānkīrtyā varṣantaṃ na nindettadvratam .. 2.15.2..



2. He who knows that this Sāma called Vairūpa has its source in the clouds comes to acquire a large variety of animals, and all beautiful animals too. He has a long and brilliant life, and his children and animals are such that he becomes famous for them. His achievements also mark him as a great person.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ evam etat vairūpam parjanye protam veda, he who knows that this [Sāma called] Vairūpa is rooted in the clouds; virūpān ca surūpān ca paśūn avarundhe, he comes to possess a large variety of animals and beautiful animals also; sarvam āyuḥ eti, he lives the full span of his life; jyok jīvati, he has a brilliant life; mahān prajayā paśubhiḥ bhavati, he becomes famous for his children and for his animal wealth; mahān kīrtyā, he is renowned for his achievements; varṣantam na nindet tat vratam, his vow is not to criticize the clouds that pour rain. Iti pañcadaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fifteenth section. Commentary:-It is a characteristic of those who worship the Sāma that they never find fault with others. This is why they do not say anything bad about even the clouds that give rain.

Translation By Max Müller

2. He who thus knows the Vairûpa as interwoven in Parganya, obtains all kinds of cattle (virûpa), he reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great with children and cattle, great by fame. His rule is, 'Never complain of the rain.'


Sloka : 2.16.1

॥ इति पञ्चदशः खण्डः ॥

वसन्तो हिंकारो ग्रीष्मः प्रस्तावो वर्षा उद्गीथः

शरत्प्रतिहारो हेमन्तो निधनमेतद्वैराजमृतुषु प्रोतम्

॥ २.१६.१॥

.. iti pañcadaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

vasanto hiṃkāro grīṣmaḥ prastāvo varṣā udgīthaḥ

śaratpratihāro hemanto nidhanametadvairājamṛtuṣu protam

.. 2.16.1..



1. Spring is the hiṃkāra, summer the prastāva, the rainy season the udgītha, autumn the pratihāra, and winter the nidhana. This Sāma known as Vairāja is rooted in the seasons.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Vasantaḥ hiṃkāraḥ, spring is the hiṃkāra; grīṣmaḥ prastāvaḥ, summer is the prastāva; varṣāḥ udgīthaḥ, the rainy season is the udgītha; śarat pratihāraḥ, autumn is the pratihāra; hemantaḥ nidhanam, winter is the nidhana; etat vairājam, this [Sāma called] Vairāja; ṛtuṣu protam, is rooted in the seasons. Commentary:-The clouds determine the seasons. This is why the Sāma is first worshipped as the clouds and after that as the seasons.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The hiṅkâra is spring, the prastâva summer, the udgîtha the rainy season, the pratihâra autumn, the nidhana winter. That is the Vairâga Sâman, as interwoven in the seasons.


Sloka : 2.16.2

स य एवमेतद्वैराजमृतुषु प्रोतं वेद विराजति

प्रजया पशुभिर्ब्रह्मवर्चसेन सर्वमायुरेति

ज्योग्जीवति महान्प्रजया पशुभिर्भवति

महान्कीर्त्यर्तून्न निन्देत्तद्व्रतम् ॥ २.१६.२॥

sa ya evametadvairājamṛtuṣu protaṃ veda virājati

prajayā paśubhirbrahmavarcasena sarvamāyureti

jyogjīvati mahānprajayā paśubhirbhavati

mahānkīrtyartūnna nindettadvratam .. 2.16.2..



2. He who knows that the Sāma called Vairāja is rooted in the seasons is surrounded by his children and animals and has a radiance about him which is born of Vedic scholarship. He lives a long and brilliant life, and he is considered great for his children and for his animals. He is also highly respected for his great deeds. He follows the vow of never criticizing the seasons.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ evani etat vairājam ṛtuṣu protam veda, he who knows that this [Sāma called] Vairāja is rooted in the seasons; virājati, he lives; prajayā paśubhiḥ, surrounded by his children and animals; brahmavarcasena, he has the kind of radiance that is born of Vedic scholarship; sarvam āyuḥ eti, he lives the full span of his life; jyok jīvati, he lives a brilliant life; mahān prajayā paśubhiḥ bhavati, he is known to be great for his children and animals; mahān kīrtyā, he is famous for his deeds; ṛtūn na nindet tat vratam, his vow is that he will never criticize the seasons. Iti ṣoḍhśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the sixteenth section. Commentary:-The person who knows that the Vairāja Sāma is rooted in the seasons becomes like the seasons himself. Each season has a beauty of its own. Similarly, this person has within him the beauty and grandeur of the good things he possesses, such as his wealth, good children, scholarship, and character. The rules of the Sāma forbid him from saying anything bad about the seasons, and he follows this.

Translation By Max Müller

2. He who thus knows the Vairâga, as interwoven in the seasons, shines (virâgati) through children, cattle, and glory of countenance. He reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great with children and cattle, great by fame. His rule is, 'Never complain of the seasons.'


Sloka : 2.17.1

॥ इति षोडशः खण्डः ॥

पृथिवी हिंकारोऽन्तरिक्षं प्रस्तावो द्यौरुद्गीथो

दिशः प्रतिहारः समुद्रो निधनमेताः शक्वर्यो

लोकेषु प्रोताः ॥ २.१७.१॥

.. iti ṣoḍaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

pṛthivī hiṃkāro'ntarikṣaṃ prastāvo dyaurudgītho

diśaḥ pratihāraḥ samudro nidhanametāḥ śakvaryo

lokeṣu protāḥ .. 2.17.1..



1. The earth is the hiṃkāra, the space between the earth and heaven is the prastāva, heaven is the udgītha, the quarters are the pratihāra, and the ocean is the nidhana. The Sāma known as Śakvarī is rooted in the earth and other worlds.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Pṛthivī hiṃkāraḥ, the earth is the hiṃkāra; antarikṣam prastāvaḥ, the space between the earth and heaven is the prastāva; dyauḥ udgīthaḥ, heaven is the udgītha; diśaḥ pratihāraḥ, the quarters are the pratihāra; samudraḥ nidhanam, the ocean is the nidhana; etāḥ śakvaryaḥ lokeṣu protāḥ, these [the Sāma called] Śakvarī are rooted in the earth and other worlds. Commentary:-If the seasons come and go, as they ought to, then things on the earth and the other worlds remain in balance. This is why the Sāma is first worshipped as the seasons and then as the worlds. But the question is:- Sāma is singular. Why then has a plural word, śakvarī, been used here for the Sāma? Doesn’t it imply that there are many Sāmas? No, the Sāma is always one and the same. There are not many Sāmas. The word śakvarī has a plural form, but it stands for the singular Sāma. Śaṅkara gives the example of the word revatī, which is similarly always used in the plural.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The hiṅkâra is the earth, the prastâva the sky, the udgîtha heaven, the pratihâra the regions, the nidhana the sea. These are the Sakvarî Sâmans, as interwoven in the worlds [1].

Footnote:

1. The Sakvarîs are sung with the Mahânâmnîs. These are said to be water, and the worlds are said to rest on water.


Sloka : 2.17.2

स य एवमेताः शक्वर्यो लोकेषु प्रोता वेद लोकी भवति

सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति महान्प्रजया पशुभिर्भवति

महान्कीर्त्या लोकान्न निन्देत्तद्व्रतम् ॥ २.१७.२॥

sa ya evametāḥ śakvaryo lokeṣu protā veda lokī bhavati

sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati mahānprajayā paśubhirbhavati

mahānkīrtyā lokānna nindettadvratam .. 2.17.2..



2. He who knows that the Sāma known as Śakvarī is located in the worlds goes to the best world. He also has a long and brilliant life and is well known for his children and for his animal wealth. He is considered to be a great person because of his great deeds. He takes a vow that he will never criticize the worlds.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ evam etāḥ śakvaryaḥ lokeṣu protāḥ veda, he who knows that these [i.e., the Sāma] known as Śakvarī are rooted in the worlds; lokī bhavati, goes to the best world; sarvam āyuḥ eti, lives the full span of his life; jyok jīvati, has a brilliant life; mahān prajayā paśubhiḥ bhavati, is well known for his children and for his animal wealth; mahān kīrtyā, is well known for his great deeds; lokān na nindet tat vratam, his vow is that he will never criticize the worlds. Iti saptadaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the seventeenth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

2. He who thus knows the Sakvarîs, as interwoven in the worlds, becomes possessed of the worlds, he reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great with children and cattle, great by fame. His rule is, 'Never complain of the worlds.'


Sloka : 2.18.1

॥ इति सप्तदशः खण्डः ॥

अजा हिंकारोऽवयः प्रस्तावो गाव उद्गीथोऽश्वाः प्रतिहारः

पुरुषो निधनमेता रेवत्यः पशुषु प्रोताः ॥ २.१८.१॥

.. iti saptadaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

ajā hiṃkāro'vayaḥ prastāvo gāva udgītho'śvāḥ pratihāraḥ

puruṣo nidhanametā revatyaḥ paśuṣu protāḥ .. 2.18.1..



1. Goats are the hiṃkāra, sheep are the prastāva, cows represent the udgītha, horses are the pratihāra, and a human being is the nidhana. The Sāma called Revatī is established in animals.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ajāḥ hiṃkāraḥ, goats are the hiṃkāra; avayaḥ prastāvaḥ, sheep are the prastāva; gāvaḥ udgītha, cows are the udgītha; aśvāḥ pratihāraḥ, horses are the pratihāra; puruṣaḥ nidhanam, a human being is the nidhana; etāḥ revatyaḥ paśuṣu protāḥ, these [i.e., the Sāma known as] Revatī are established in animals. Commentary:-Animals are useful to all the worlds. That is why, after worshipping the Sāma as the worlds, the worship as animals is suggested. As in the previous section in which the word śakvarī is always used in the plural (as śakvaryaḥ), here also, the word revatī is always used in the plural (revatyaḥ).

Translation By Max Müller

1. The hiṅkâra is goats, the prastâva sheep, the udgîtha cows, the pratihâra horses, the nidhana man. These are the Revatî Sâmans, as interwoven in animals.


Sloka : 2.18.2

स य एवमेता रेवत्यः पशुषु प्रोता वेद

पशुमान्भवति सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति

महान्प्रजया पशुभिर्भवति महान्कीर्त्या

पशून्न निन्देत्तद्व्रतम् ॥ २.१८.२॥

sa ya evametā revatyaḥ paśuṣu protā veda

paśumānbhavati sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati

mahānprajayā paśubhirbhavati mahānkīrtyā

paśūnna nindettadvratam .. 2.18.2..



2. He who knows that the Sāma called Revatī is rooted in animals acquires many animals. He has a long and brilliant life and becomes well known for his children and for his animal wealth. He also becomes a truly great person for his great deeds. His vow is that he will never say anything bad about animals.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ evam etaḥ revatyaḥ protāḥ veda, he who knows that these [i.e., the Sāma] called Revatī are rooted in animals; paśumān bhavati, comes to possess many animals; sarvam āyuḥ eti, lives the full span of his life; jyok jīvati, has a brilliant life; mahān prajayā paśubhiḥ bhavati, becomes a highly respected person because of his children and also his animal wealth; mahān kīrtyā, becomes a truly great person for his great deeds; paśūn na nindet tat vratam, he observes the vow of never saying anything bad about animals. Iti aṣṭādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the eighteenth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

2. He who thus knows these Revatîs, as interwoven in animals, becomes rich in animals [1], he reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great with children and cattle, great by fame. His rule is, 'Never complain of animals.'

Footnote:

1. Revat means rich.


Sloka : 2.19.1

॥ इति अष्टादशः खण्डः ॥

लोम हिंकारस्त्वक्प्रस्तावो माꣳसमुद्गीथोस्थि

प्रतिहारो मज्जा निधनमेतद्यज्ञायज्ञीयमङ्गेषु

प्रोतम् ॥ २.१९.१॥

.. iti aṣṭādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

loma hiṃkārastvakprastāvo māgͫsamudgīthosthi

pratihāro majjā nidhanametadyajñāyajñīyamaṅgeṣu

protam .. 2.19.1..



1. Hair is the hiṃkāra, skin is the prastāva, flesh is the udgītha, bone is the pratihāra, and marrow is the nidhana. The Sāma called Yajñāyajñīya is spread all over the limbs of the body.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Loma hiṃkāraḥ, hair is the hiṃkāra; tvak prastāvaḥ, skin is the prastāva; māṃsam udgīthaḥ, flesh is the udgītha; asthi pratihāraḥ, bone is the pratihāra; majjā nidhanam, marrow is the nidhana; etat yajñāyajñīyam, this [Sāma called] Yajñāyajñīya; aṅgeṣu protam, is spread all over the limbs of the body. Commentary:-We get much nourishment from animals to sustain our bodies. That is why, in the previous section, the Sāma has been worshipped in the animals, and now it is being worshipped in the various parts of the body. Hair is on top of the body, so it is given first place—the place given to the hiṃkāra when the Sāma is recited. Next to the hair is the skin. Similarly, next to the hiṃkāra is the prastāva. The flesh is the udgītha, for both are the most important part. Then the bones are the pratihāra, because after a body is cremated there will still be pieces of bone left, and these are ‘collected’ by the relatives. The marrow is the nidhana, for that is the end of everything.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The hiṅkâra is hair, the prastâva skin, the udgîtha flesh, the pratihâra bone, the nidhana marrow. That is the Yagñâyagñîya Sâman, as interwoven in the members of the body.


Sloka : 2.19.2

स य एवमेतद्यज्ञायज्ञीयमङ्गेषु प्रोतं वेदाङ्गी भवति

नाङ्गेन विहूर्छति सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति

महान्प्रजया पशुभिर्भवति महान्कीर्त्या संवत्सरं

मज्ज्ञो नाश्नीयात्तद्व्रतं मज्ज्ञो

नाश्नीयादिति वा ॥ २.१९.२॥

sa ya evametadyajñāyajñīyamaṅgeṣu protaṃ vedāṅgī bhavati

nāṅgena vihūrchati sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati

mahānprajayā paśubhirbhavati mahānkīrtyā saṃvatsaraṃ

majjño nāśnīyāttadvrataṃ majjño

nāśnīyāditi vā .. 2.19.2..



2. He who knows that the Sāma known as Yajñāyajñīya is located in different parts of the body becomes possessed of a firm body and none of his organs has any defect. He has a long and brilliant life; and he becomes great because of his children and his animal wealth. He also becomes famous for his great deeds. His vow is that he will not eat meat for one whole year, or he will not eat it at all.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ evam etat yajñāyajñīyam aṅgeṣu protam veda, he who knows that this Sāma called Yajñāyajñīya is located in the different parts of the body; aṅgī bhavati, has a firm body; na aṅgena vihūrchati, has no defect in his limbs or organs; sarvam āyuḥ eti, he lives the full span of his life; jyok jīvati, he has a brilliant life; mahān prajayā paśubhiḥ bhavati, he becomes great in respect of his children and his animal wealth; mahān kīrtyā, he becomes great because of his great deeds; saṃvatsaram, for one whole year; majjñaḥ, meat; na aśnīyāt, will not eat; majjñaḥ na aśnīyāt iti vā, or will not eat meat at all; tat vratam, this is his vow. Iti ekonaviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the nineteenth section. Commentary:-‘A firm body’ means a good, sound body with none of its organs or limbs defective. Even his nails and his hair will be normal. The word majjña, meat, is in the plural here. This implies that both fish and meat should be avoided.

Translation By Max Müller

2. He who thus knows the Yagñâyagñîya, as interwoven in the members of the body, becomes possessed of strong limbs, he is not crippled in any limb, he reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great with children and cattle, great by fame. His rule is, 'Do not eat marrow for a year,' or 'Do not eat marrow at all.'


Sloka : 2.20.1

॥ इति एकोनविंशः खण्डः ॥

अग्निर्हिंकारो वायुः प्रस्ताव आदित्य उद्गीथो

नक्षत्राणि प्रतिहारश्चन्द्रमा निधनमेतद्राजनं

देवतासु प्रोतम् ॥ २.२०.१॥

.. iti ekonaviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

agnirhiṃkāro vāyuḥ prastāva āditya udgītho

nakṣatrāṇi pratihāraścandramā nidhanametadrājanaṃ

devatāsu protam .. 2.20.1..



1. Fire is the hiṃkāra, air is the prastāva, the sun is the udgītha, the stars are the pratihāra, and the moon is the nidhana. This Sāma known as Rājana is rooted in the gods and goddesses.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Agniḥ hiṃkāraḥ, fire is the hiṃkāra; vāyuḥ prastāvaḥ, air is the prastāva; ādityaḥ udgīthaḥ, the sun is the udgītha; nakṣatrāṇi pratihāraḥ, the stars are the pratihāra; candramāḥ nidhanam, the moon is the nidhana; etat rājanam, this [Sāma called] Rājana; devatāsu protam, is rooted in the gods and goddesses. Commentary:-In the previous section the Sāma was worshipped in the parts of the body. Now it is being worshipped in the deities—that is, in the forces of nature. Fire is the first among the forces of nature, so it is the hiṃkāra. Next to the hiṃkāra is the prastāva. Air is called the prastāva because it comes next after fire, and it is also infinite. The sun is the udgītha, for just as the udgītha is the best among the Sāma songs, so also the sun is the best among the forces of nature. The stars lie scattered, and as we locate them it seems that we are ‘collecting’ (pratihāra) them. That is why the stars are said to be the pratihāra. The moon is said to be the nidhana, because active people go to Candraloka, the world of the moon, after death. The Sāma called Rājana is rooted in the gods and goddesses, for the deities are by nature luminous (rājana).

Translation By Max Müller

1. The hiṅkâra is fire, the prastâva air, the udgîtha the sun, the pratihâra the stars, the nidhana the moon. That is the Râgana Sâman, as interwoven in the deities.


Sloka : 2.20.2

स य एवमेतद्राजनं देवतासु प्रोतं वेदैतासामेव

देवतानाꣳसलोकताꣳसर्ष्टिताꣳसायुज्यं गच्छति

सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति महान्प्रजया पशुभिर्भवति

महान्कीर्त्या ब्राह्मणान्न निन्देत्तद्व्रतम् ॥ २.२०.२॥

sa ya evametadrājanaṃ devatāsu protaṃ vedaitāsāmeva

devatānāgͫsalokatāgͫsarṣṭitāgͫsāyujyaṃ gacchati

sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati mahānprajayā paśubhirbhavati

mahānkīrtyā brāhmaṇānna nindettadvratam .. 2.20.2..



2. He who knows that the Sāma known as Rājana is established in the gods and goddesses shares the same worlds with these gods and goddesses, has the same rights and privileges with them, or has the same form. He also has a long and brilliant life. And he becomes great by virtue of his children and his animal wealth, and also by virtue of his great deeds. His vow is that he will never speak ill of the brāhmins.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ evam etat rājanam devatāsu protam veda, he who knows that this Sāma known as Rājana is established in the gods and goddesses [such as Agni (fire), Vāyu (air), etc.]; etāsām eva devatānām salokatām gacchati, he shares with those gods and goddesses the same worlds; sārṣṭitām, the same rights and privileges; [vā] sāyujyam, [or] the same form; sarvam āyuḥ eti, he lives the full span of his life; jyok jīvati, he has a brilliant life; mahān prajayā paśubhiḥ bhavati, he becomes great by virtue of his children and also his animal wealth; mahān kīrtyā, he is great by his great deeds; brāhmaṇān na nindet tat vratam, it is his vow that he will not speak ill of the brāhmins. Iti viṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the twentieth section. Commentary:-What does a person gain from worshipping the Sāma in such a way? He gets the right to live with the gods and goddesses in the same world, or to share the same rights and privileges with them, or to have the same form. It is not that he would get all these things. He would get any one of them. The scriptures say that the brāhmins themselves are the gods and goddesses. Obviously then one should not say anything derogatory about the brāhmins. Section Twenty-One

Translation By Max Müller

2. He who thus knows the Râgana, as interwoven in the deities, obtains the same world, the same happiness, the same company as the gods, he reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great with children and cattle, great by fame. His rule is, 'Do not speak evil of the Brâhmanas.'


Sloka : 2.21.1

॥ इति विंशः खण्डः ॥

त्रयी विद्या हिंकारस्त्रय इमे लोकाः स

प्रस्तावोऽग्निर्वायुरादित्यः स उद्गीथो नक्षत्राणि

वयाꣳसि मरीचयः स प्रतिहारः सर्पा गन्धर्वाः

पितरस्तन्निधनमेतत्साम सर्वस्मिन्प्रोतम् ॥ २.२१.१॥

.. iti viṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

trayī vidyā hiṃkārastraya ime lokāḥ sa

prastāvo'gnirvāyurādityaḥ sa udgītho nakṣatrāṇi

vayāgͫsi marīcayaḥ sa pratihāraḥ sarpā gandharvāḥ

pitarastannidhanametatsāma sarvasminprotam .. 2.21.1..



1. The three vidyās [the Ṛk, the Yajuḥ, and the Sāma] are together the hiṃkāra; these three worlds [the earth, the space between the earth and heaven, and heaven] are together the prastāva; fire, air, and the sun are together the udgītha; the stars, the birds, and the rays are together the pratihāra; serpents, gandharvas, and the ancestors are together the nidhana. This Sāma resides in everything.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Trayī vidyā hiṃkāraḥ, the three Vedas [the Ṛk, the Yajuḥ, and the Sāma] are the hiṃkāra; trayaḥ ime lokāḥ, these three worlds [bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ]; saḥ prastāvaḥ, [together] that is the prastāva; agniḥ vāyuḥ ādityaḥ, fire, air, and the sun; saḥ udgīthaḥ, [together] that is the udgītha; nakṣatrāṇi vayāṃsi marīcayaḥ, the stars, the birds, and the rays; saḥ pratihāraḥ, [together] that is the pratihāra; sarpaḥ gandharvāḥ pitaraḥ, serpents, gandharvas [celestial musicians], and the ancestors; tat nidhanam, [together] that is the nidhana; etat sāma sarvasmin protam, this Sāma rests in everything. Commentary:-According to the scriptures the Ṛg Veda comes from fire, the Yajur Veda comes from air, and the Sāma Veda comes from the sun. In the previous section the worship of the Sāma as fire, air, etc., was discussed. Now the worship of the Sāma as the three Vedas is taken up. Knowledge of the three Vedas may be regarded as the hiṃkāra, for you have to use the hiṃkāra before you start doing any worship. After the hiṃkāra comes the prastāva. Similarly, after the three Vedas come the three worlds, so they are said to be the prastāva. Fire, air, and the sun are like the udgītha, for among all things they are of a higher order. The stars, the birds, and the rays come and go, so they are like the pratihāra. The serpents, the gandharvas, and The word Sāma does not refer to any specific Sāma. It refers to anything bearing that name. The word is meant according to the context, just as oblations are offered according to the deities for whom they are meant.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The hiṅkâra is the threefold knowledge, the prastâva these three worlds, the udgîtha Agni (fire), Vâyu (air), and Âditya (sun), the pratihâra the stars, the birds, and the rays, the nidhana the serpents, Gandharvas, and fathers. That is the Sâman, as interwoven in everything.


Sloka : 2.21.2

स य एवमेतत्साम सर्वस्मिन्प्रोतं वेद सर्वꣳ ह

भवति ॥ २.२१.२॥

sa ya evametatsāma sarvasminprotaṃ veda sarvagͫ ha

bhavati .. 2.21.2..



2. He who knows that this Sāma is in everything becomes one with everything [or, becomes the Lord of everything].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ evam etat sāma sarvasmin protam veda, he who knows that this Sāma resides in everything; sarvam ha bhavati, he becomes everything. Commentary:-This is an example of how far the benefit of the knowledge of the Sāma can extend:- If you know that the Sāma is everywhere and in everything, you become the supreme Lord of everything.

Translation By Max Müller

2. He who thus knows this Sâman, as interwoven in everything, he becomes everything.


Sloka : 2.21.3

तदेष श्लोको यानि पञ्चधा त्रीणी त्रीणि

तेभ्यो न ज्यायः परमन्यदस्ति ॥ २.२१.३॥

tadeṣa śloko yāni pañcadhā trīṇī trīṇi

tebhyo na jyāyaḥ paramanyadasti .. 2.21.3..



3. Here is a verse in this connection:- There are five parts of Sāma, and each of these is divided into three parts. There is nothing higher than these [fifteen forms of Sāma].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat eṣaḥ ślokaḥ, here is a verse on the subject; yāni pañcadhā, that [Sāma] which is divided into five parts [hiṃkāra, prastāva, udgītha, pratihāra, and nidhana]; trīṇi trīṇi, each again divided into three parts [such as hiṃkāra representing the three Vedas]; tebhyaḥ jyāyaḥ param anyat na asti, there is nothing higher than these. Commentary:-So long we have discussed the five forms of the Sāma:- hiṃkāra, prastāva, udgītha, pratihāra, and nidhana. In the present verse the Upaniṣad says that each of these five can be divided further into three:- hiṃkāra as the Ṛk, the Yajuḥ, and the Sāma; prastāva as the earth, the intermediate space (between the earth and heaven), and heaven; udgītha as fire, air, and the sun; pratihāra as the stars, the birds, and the rays; and nidhana as the snakes, the celestial musicians, and the ancestors. It is Sāma which is manifest in all of these fifteen

Translation By Max Müller

3. And thus it is said in the following verse:- There are the fivefold three (the three kinds of sacrificial knowledge, the three worlds &c. in their fivefold form, i. e. as identified with the hiṅkâra, the prastâva, &c.), and the other forms of the Sâman. Greater than these there is nothing else besides.'


Sloka : 2.21.4

यस्तद्वेद स वेद सर्वꣳ सर्वा दिशो बलिमस्मै हरन्ति

सर्वमस्मीत्युपासित तद्व्रतं तद्व्रतम् ॥ २.२१.४॥

yastadveda sa veda sarvagͫ sarvā diśo balimasmai haranti

sarvamasmītyupāsita tadvrataṃ tadvratam .. 2.21.4..



4. He who knows Sāma knows everything, and gifts come to him from all quarters. His vow will be to constantly say to himself, ‘I am one with all’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yaḥ tat veda, he who knows that [Sāma]; saḥ veda sarvam, he knows all; sarvāḥ diśaḥ, all the quarters; balim, gifts; asmai, for him; haranti, bring; sarvam asmi, I am all; iti upāsīta, this is how he will meditate; tat vratam tat vratam, this is his vow, this is his vow. Iti ekaviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the twenty-first section. Commentary:-Sāma is the inmost being of all, and he who knows it as such becomes like Sāma—that is, he becomes the inmost being of all, and he knows everything. People come from everywhere with gifts to show him their respect. ‘I am Sāma, the inmost being of all’—this is how Sāma is to be worshipped. One should constantly repeat this to oneself. In fact, it should be treated as a vow. Section Twenty-Two

Translation By Max Müller

4. He who knows this, knows everything. All regions offer him gifts. His rule is, 'Let him meditate (on the Sâman), knowing that he is. everything, yea, that he is everything [1].'

Footnote:

1. Here ends the Sâmopâsana.


Sloka : 2.22.1

॥ इति एकविंशः खण्डः ॥

विनर्दि साम्नो वृणे पशव्यमित्यग्नेरुद्गीथोऽनिरुक्तः

प्रजापतेर्निरुक्तः सोमस्य मृदु श्लक्ष्णं वायोः

श्लक्ष्णं बलवदिन्द्रस्य क्रौञ्चं बृहस्पतेरपध्वान्तं

वरुणस्य तान्सर्वानेवोपसेवेत वारुणं त्वेव वर्जयेत् ॥ २.२२.१॥

.. iti ekaviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

vinardi sāmno vṛṇe paśavyamityagnerudgītho'niruktaḥ

prajāpaterniruktaḥ somasya mṛdu ślakṣṇaṃ vāyoḥ

ślakṣṇaṃ balavadindrasya krauñcaṃ bṛhaspaterapadhvāntaṃ

varuṇasya tānsarvānevopaseveta vāruṇaṃ tveva varjayet .. 2.22.1..



1. The vinardi voice for singing the Sāma is good for animals, and Agni, the god of fire, is its presiding deity. I bear this in mind and pray that I may have this voice. The god Prajāpati presides over the udgītha sung in the anirukta [unclear] voice. The one having Soma as its presiding deity is nirukta [clear]. That of Vāyu, the god of air, is soft and pleasant, and Indra’s is strong. That which has Bṛhaspati as its presiding deity is like the voice of the krauñca bird, and that of Varuṇa is like the sound of a broken metal pot. Cultivate all of these, but avoid the one of Varuṇa.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Vinardi, the voice called vinardi, which is deep, like that of a bull; sāmnaḥ, for [singing] the Sāma; vṛṇe iti, I pray for; paśavyam, good for animals; agneḥ, of the god of fire; udgītha aniruktaḥ, the udgītha sung in the anirukta voice, which is not very distinct; prajāpateḥ, of Prajāpati, the Lord of all; niruktaḥ, the voice called nirukta, which is clear; somasya, of the god Soma; mṛdu ślakṣṇam, the voice called ślakṣṇa that is soft and soothing; vāyoḥ, of the god Vāyu, air; ślakṣṇam balavat, the voice called ślakṣṇa that is soothing yet powerful; indrasya, of Indra; krauñcam, the voice called krauñca, which is like that of the krauñca bird; bṛhaspateḥ, of Bṛhaspati; apadhvāntam, the voice called apadhvānta, which sounds like a broken metal pot; varuṇasya, of the god Varuṇa; tān sarvān era upaseveta, practise on all of them; tu eva vāruṇam, except that of Varuṇa; varjayet, one should avoid. Commentary:-When you sing the udgītha, be careful that you sing it in the right voice. The voice is important because it determines the benefit you derive from your singing. For instance, there is a type of voice that sounds like that of a bull. Agni, fire, is the presiding deity of this voice. If you sing the udgītha in this type of voice, it means you are singing for the good of the animals and you are also praying that you may have that kind of voice. Similarly, there is a type of voice called anirukta, which has Prajāpati as its presiding deity. Prajāpati, the Lord of all beings, has no form of his own. Similarly, he does not have a distinct voice. This is why it is called anirukta, indistinct. The voice of Soma, the moon, is nirukta, clear; that of Indra is powerful; and that of Bṛhaspati sounds like a krauñca, a bird similar to a crane. Varuṇa’s voice is the worst. It is like the sound of a broken brass vessel. All these voices can be used except that of Varuṇa.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The udgîtha, of which a poet said, I choose the deep sounding note of the Sâman as good for cattle, belongs to Agni; the indefinite note belongs to Pragâpati, the definite note to Soma, the soft and smooth note to Vâyu, the smooth and strong note to Indra, the heron-like note to Brihaspati, the dull note to Varuna. Let a man cultivate all of these, avoiding, however, that of Varuna.


Sloka : 2.22.2

अमृतत्वं देवेभ्य आगायानीत्यागायेत्स्वधां

पितृभ्य आशां मनुष्येभ्यस्तृणोदकं पशुभ्यः

स्वर्गं लोकं यजमानायान्नमात्मन आगायानीत्येतानि

मनसा ध्यायन्नप्रमत्तः स्तुवीत ॥ २.२२.२॥

amṛtatvaṃ devebhya āgāyānītyāgāyetsvadhāṃ

pitṛbhya āśāṃ manuṣyebhyastṛṇodakaṃ paśubhyaḥ

svargaṃ lokaṃ yajamānāyānnamātmana āgāyānītyetāni

manasā dhyāyannapramattaḥ stuvīta .. 2.22.2..



2. One should sing with the resolve:- ‘By singing I will get immortality for the gods and goddesses, food offerings for the ancestors, hope for humanity, food and water for the animals, heaven for those who perform sacrifices, and food for myself. All this I will get by singing.’ Thinking thus, one should sing without raising the voice too much [or, without being too excited].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Āgāyet, one should sing [with the resolve]; amṛtatvam devebhyaḥ āgāyāni iti, I will get immortality for the gods and goddesses by singing; svadhām, offerings; pitṛbhyaḥ, for the ancestors; āśām manuṣyebhyaḥ, hope for humanity; tṛṇodakam paśubhyaḥ, food and water for the animals; svargam lokam, heavenly worlds; yajamānāya, for those who perform sacrifices; annam ātmane, food for myself; āgāyāni iti, I shall win by singing thus; etāni, all these; manasā dhyāyan, thinking mentally; apramattaḥ, without raising the voice too much; stuvīta, one should sing. Commentary:-When you sing the Sāma, you should keep in mind the things you are singing for—such as immortality for the gods and goddesses, etc. But you must also take care that when you sing, your pronunciation and accents are correct, and that you do not miss any syllables.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Let a man sing [1], wishing to obtain by his song immortality for the Devas. 'May I obtain by my song oblations (svadhâ) for the fathers, hope for men, fodder and water for animals, heaven for the sacrificer, food for myself,' thus reflecting on these in his mind, let a man (Udgâtri priest) sing praises, without making mistakes in pronunciation, &c.

Footnote:

1. It would be better if the first ity âgâyet could be left out. The commentator ignores these words.


Sloka : 2.22.3

सर्वे स्वरा इन्द्रस्यात्मानः सर्व ऊष्माणः

प्रजापतेरात्मानः सर्वे स्पर्शा मृत्योरात्मानस्तं

यदि स्वरेषूपालभेतेन्द्रꣳशरणं प्रपन्नोऽभूवं

स त्वा प्रति वक्ष्यतीत्येनं ब्रूयात् ॥ २.२२.३॥

sarve svarā indrasyātmānaḥ sarva ūṣmāṇaḥ

prajāpaterātmānaḥ sarve sparśā mṛtyorātmānastaṃ

yadi svareṣūpālabhetendragͫśaraṇaṃ prapanno'bhūvaṃ

sa tvā prati vakṣyatītyenaṃ brūyāt .. 2.22.3..



3. All the vowels are like Indra’s body with its various parts. The sibilants [śa, ṣa, etc.] are like Prajāpati’s body with its various parts. The consonants, starting with ka, are the body and limbs of Death. If someone finds fault with the way the udgātā pronounces the vowels, he may say to that person:- ‘As I began singing, I took refuge in Indra [i.e., I sought Indra’s blessings]. Ask him and he will give you the right answer [to your criticism].’





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Sarve svarāḥ, all the vowels; indrasya ātmānaḥ, are like the body [with its limbs] of Indra; sarve ūṣmāṇaḥ, all the sibilants; prajāpateḥ ātmānaḥ, are like the body [with its limbs] of Prajāpati; sarve sparśāḥ, all the consonants, starting with ka; mṛtyoḥ ātmānaḥ, are like the body [with all its limbs] of Death; yadi upālabheta, if anyone criticizes; tam, him [the udgātā, who is singing the Sāma]; svareṣu, regarding his pronunciation of the vowels; indram śaraṇam prapannaḥ abhūvam, [the udgātā will then say:-] I took refuge in Indra [when I started singing the vowels]; saḥ, he [Indra]; tvā prativakṣyati iti, will give you the right reply; enam brūyāt, say to him. Commentary:-The vowels are said to be Indra’s body, for when you start doing something, including even a recitation, you have to feel strong enough to do the job fully and correctly. And in order that you may feel that you have the requisite strength, you pray for Indra’s blessings, and you feel that he is transmitting his strength to you. You feel that the vowels you are using are his body, the sibilants are the body of Prajāpati, and the consonants are the body of Death. Then if anyone criticizes your pronunciation of the vowels, you can tell him to ask Indra for the reason

Translation By Max Müller

3. All vowels (svara) belong to Indra, all sibilants (ûshman) to Pragâpati, all consonants (sparsa) to Mrityu (death). If somebody should reprove him for his vowels, let him say, 'I went to Indra as my refuge (when pronouncing my vowels):- he will answer thee.'


Sloka : 2.22.4

अथ यद्येनमूष्मसूपालभेत प्रजापतिꣳशरणं

प्रपन्नोऽभूवं स त्वा प्रति पेक्ष्यतीत्येनं

ब्रूयादथ यद्येनꣳ स्पर्शेषूपालभेत मृत्युꣳ शरणं

प्रपन्नोऽभूवं स त्वा प्रति धक्ष्यतीत्येनं ब्रूयात्

॥ २.२२.४॥

atha yadyenamūṣmasūpālabheta prajāpatigͫśaraṇaṃ

prapanno'bhūvaṃ sa tvā prati pekṣyatītyenaṃ

brūyādatha yadyenagͫ sparśeṣūpālabheta mṛtyugͫ śaraṇaṃ

prapanno'bhūvaṃ sa tvā prati dhakṣyatītyenaṃ brūyāt

.. 2.22.4..



4. Then, if someone finds fault with his pronunciation of the sibilants, the singer will say to him:- ‘When I started singing I sought Prajāpati’s blessings. He will therefore crush you.’ Then, if someone finds fault with his pronunciation of the consonants, the singer will say to him:- ‘I sought Death’s protection while singing. He will therefore burn you to ashes’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, then; yadi enam ūṣmasu upālabheta, if a person criticizes him for his pronunciation of the sibilants; prajāpatim śaraṇam prapanṇaḥ abhūvam, I took refuge in Prajāpati [when I started singing]; saḥ, he [Prajāpati]; tvā pratipekṣati iti, will crush you; enam brūyāt, he will say to him; atha, then; yadi enam sparśeṣu upālabheta, if someone criticizes him for his pronunciation of the consonants; mṛtyum śaraṇam prapannaḥ abhūvam, I took refuge in Death [when I started singing]; saḥ, he [Death]; tvā pratidhakṣyati iti, will burn you to ashes; enam brūyāt, he will say to him. Commentary:-If you are reciting a hymn, seek Prajāpati’s protection concerning the sibilants. Then, even if you err, he will protect you. Similarly, you should seek Death’s protection concerning the consonants. He will protect you from harm for any mistakes you might make. In fact, those who find fault with you will themselves be punished, for by criticizing your singing, they are insulting Prajāpati or Death.

Translation By Max Müller

4. And if somebody should reprove him for his sibilants, let him say, 'I went to Pragâpati as my refuge:- he will smash thee.' And if somebody should reprove him for his consonants, let him say, 'I went to Mrityu as my refuge:- he will reduce thee to ashes.'


Sloka : 2.22.5

सर्वे स्वरा घोषवन्तो बलवन्तो वक्तव्या इन्द्रे बलं

ददानीति सर्व ऊष्माणोऽग्रस्ता अनिरस्ता विवृता

वक्तव्याः प्रजापतेरात्मानं परिददानीति सर्वे स्पर्शा

लेशेनानभिनिहिता वक्तव्या मृत्योरात्मानं

परिहराणीति ॥ २.२२.५॥

sarve svarā ghoṣavanto balavanto vaktavyā indre balaṃ

dadānīti sarva ūṣmāṇo'grastā anirastā vivṛtā

vaktavyāḥ prajāpaterātmānaṃ paridadānīti sarve sparśā

leśenānabhinihitā vaktavyā mṛtyorātmānaṃ

pariharāṇīti .. 2.22.5..



5. Each vowel should be articulated clearly and powerfully, [and while doing so, you should think,] ‘I will give some of my strength to Indra.’ The sibilants also should be uttered fully and distinctly, without sounding as if you are swallowing part of them or spitting them out. [While uttering them, you should think,] ‘I surrender myself to Prajāpati.’ Then each of the consonants also should be uttered separately and clearly, [and while doing so, you should think,] ‘I will save myself from death’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Sarve svarāḥ, all the vowels; ghoṣavantaḥ balavantaḥ, clearly and powerfully; vaktavyāḥ, articulated; indre balam dadāni iti, [say to yourself] I have to give strength to Indra [as if you are stronger than Indra and can afford to give him some of your strength]; sarve ūṣmāṇaḥ, all the sibilants; agrastaḥ, clearly uttered [i.e., no part of the letter left within the mouth, as if you are swallowing it]; anirastāḥ, not uttering the letter as if you are throwing it out of your mouth; vivṛtāḥ vaktavyāḥ, clearly expressed; prajāpateḥ ātmānam paridadāni iti, I surrender myself to Prajāpati; sarve sparśāḥ leśena anabhinihitāḥ vaktavyāḥ, each of the consonants should be uttered separately and distinctly; mṛtyoḥ ātmānam pariharāṇi iti, [while thinking] I save myself from Death. Iti dvāviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the twenty-second section. Commentary:-It is important that when we recite a hymn, we recite the vowels, consonants, and the sibilants clearly and loudly. Care has to be taken that no two letters get mixed up, or that any part of a letter remains inside the mouth or seems to be spat out. Here it is said that the vowels are to be pronounced powerfully and that you should pray to Indra while singing, offering him some of your strength. This suggests that you feel very strong, as if you are stronger than Indra. You should also try to surrender yourself to Prajāpati while singing. You will then attain immortality. Section Twenty-Three

Translation By Max Müller

5. All vowels are to be pronounced with voice (ghosha) and strength (bala), so that the Udgâtri may give strength to Indra. All sibilants are to be pronounced, neither as if swallowed (agrasta) [1], nor as if thrown out (nirasta) [2], but well opened [3] (vivrita), so that the Udgâtri may give himself to Pragâpati. All consonants are to be pronounced slowly, and without crowding them together [4], so that the Udgâtri may withdraw himself from Mrityu.

Footnote:

1. Grâsa, according to the Rig-veda-prâtisâkhya 766, is the stiffening of the root of the tongue in pronunciation. 2. Nirâsa, according to the Rig-veda-prâtisâkhya 760, is the withdrawing of the active from the passive organ in pronunciation. 3. The opening, vivrita, may mean two things, either the opening of the vocal chords (kha), which imparts to the ûshmans their surd character (Rig. Prât. 709), or the opening of the organs of pronunciation (karana), which for the ûshmans is asprishtam sthitam (Rig. Prât. 719), or vivrita (Ath. Prât. I, 31; Taitt. Prât. 5). 4. Anabhinihita, for thus the commentaries give the reading, is explained by anabhinikshipta. On the real abhinidhâna, see Rig. Prât. 393. The translation does not follow the commentary. The genitive pragâpateh is governed by paridadâni.


Sloka : 2.23.1

॥ इति द्वाविंशः खण्डः ॥

त्रयो धर्मस्कन्धा यज्ञोऽध्ययनं दानमिति प्रथमस्तप

एव द्वितीयो ब्रह्मचार्याचार्यकुलवासी

तृतीयोऽत्यन्तमात्मानमाचार्यकुलेऽवसादयन्सर्व

एते पुण्यलोका भवन्ति ब्रह्मसꣳस्थोऽमृतत्वमेति ॥ २.२३.१॥

.. iti dvāviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

trayo dharmaskandhā yajño'dhyayanaṃ dānamiti prathamastapa

eva dvitīyo brahmacāryācāryakulavāsī

tṛtīyo'tyantamātmānamācāryakule'vasādayansarva

ete puṇyalokā bhavanti brahmasagͫstho'mṛtatvameti .. 2.23.1..



1. There are three divisions of religion:- The first comprises sacrifices, study, and charity; the second consists of austerities, such as fasting; and the third is the life of celibacy and living with the teacher in his house till death. People devoted to these three divisions of religion go to heaven after death. But one who is devoted to Brahman attains immortality.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Trayaḥ dharmaskandhaḥ, three divisions of religion; yajñaḥ adhyayanam dānam iti prathamaḥ, the first [division comprises] sacrifices, study, and charity; tapaḥ eva dvitīyaḥ, the second is austerities; tṛtīyaḥ, the third; brahmacārī ācāryakulavāsī atyantam ātmānam ācāryakule avasādayan, the life of celibacy and living with the teacher in his house till death; sarve ete, all these; puṇyalokāḥ bhavanti, attain heavenly worlds; brahmasaṃsthaḥ, [but] one devoted to Brahman; amṛtatvam eti, attains immortality. Commentary:-You may practise religion in three ways:- First, by performing sacrifices, studying the scriptures, and giving in charity; second, by performing austerities; and third, by observing celibacy and living with the teacher till death. All these are good, but they only lead to heaven. If you want immortality (that is, liberation), you have to devote yourself to realizing Brahman. There are certain words in our language that clearly distinguish one thing from another. For instance, barley is a particular type of grain. If you see the word ‘grain,’ it could mean wheat or rice or barley. But if you see the word ‘barley,’ you know exactly what is referred to. Similarly, the words brahmaniṣṭhā, or brahmasaṃstha, refer to a certain type of person whose only concern in life is to realize Brahman. This type of person may be of any age, any class, any caste, or any station of life. What distinguishes this type of person from any other is his or her total commitment to Brahman.

Translation By Max Müller

1. There are three branches of the law. Sacrifice, study, and charity are the first [1],

Footnote:

1. Not the first in rank or succession, but only in enumerating the three branches of the law. This first branch corresponds to the second stage, the âsrama of the householder. Austerity is meant for the Vânaprastha, the third âsrama, while the third is intended for the Brahmakârin, the student, only that the naishthika or perpetual Brahmakârin here takes the place of the ordinary student. The Brahmasamstha would represent the fourth âsrama, that of the Sannyâsin or parivrâg, who has ceased to perform any works, even the tapas or austerities of the Vânaprastha.


Sloka : 2.23.2

प्रजापतिर्लोकानभ्यतपत्तेभ्योऽभितप्तेभ्यस्त्रयी विद्या

सम्प्रास्रवत्तामभ्यतपत्तस्या अभितप्ताया एतान्यक्षराणि

सम्प्रास्र्वन्त भूर्भुवः स्वरिति ॥ २.२३.२॥

prajāpatirlokānabhyatapattebhyo'bhitaptebhyastrayī vidyā

samprāsravattāmabhyatapattasyā abhitaptāyā etānyakṣarāṇi

samprāsrvanta bhūrbhuvaḥ svariti .. 2.23.2..



2. Prajāpati [i.e., Virāṭ] thought about the worlds [he would have]. Out of his thinking, the three Vedas took shape. He then began to think about the Vedas. As a result of this thinking, the Vedas gave birth to the three vyāhṛtis:- bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, and svaḥ.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Prajāpatiḥ lokān abhyatapat, Prajāpati meditated on the worlds; tebhyaḥ abhitaptebhyaḥ, from [the worlds] which he meditated on; trayī vidyā samprāsravat, emerged the three Vedas; tām abhyatapat, [Prajāpati] meditated on them [the three Vedas]; tasyāḥ abhitaptāyāḥ, out of [the Vedas] which he meditated upon; etāni akṣarāṇi, these akṣaras [syllables]; samprāsravanta, emerged; bhūḥ bhuvaḥ svaḥ, bhūh, bhuvaḥ, and svaḥ; iti, that is all. Commentary:-How can you attain liberation? You can attain it when you surrender everything for its sake. To make this clear, the story of how the world came into being is narrated:- God (or Virāṭ, or Kaśyapa) created this world by practising austerities. What kind of austerities? He simply planned the creation in his mind. This planning, this mental exercise, is enough austerity for him. And as thinking is doing for him, whatever he thinks immediately comes into being. The worlds emerge from within him. The first to manifest, however, were the three Vedas:- Ṛk, Yajuḥ, and Sāma. When these emerged, the Creator thought about them, and from the Vedas came the three vyāhṛtis (lit., utterances):- bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, and svaḥ. Then from these came Om, the symbol of Brahman. If we concentrate on Om, we attain Brahman. But we have to surrender everything for the sake of Brahman. This is the conclusion to be drawn from this story. Even the Creator has to concentrate on what he is going to create, and he has to surrender everything else.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Austerity the second, and to dwell as a Brahmakârin in the house of a tutor, always mortifying the body in the house of a tutor, is the third. All these obtain the worlds of the blessed; but the Brahmasamstha alone (he who is firmly grounded in Brahman) obtains immortality.


Sloka : 2.23.3

तान्यभ्यतपत्तेभ्योऽभितप्तेभ्य ॐकारः

सम्प्रास्रवत्तद्यथा शङ्कुना सर्वाणि पर्णानि

संतृण्णान्येवमोंकारेण सर्वा वाक्संतृण्णोंकार एवेदꣳ

सर्वमोंकार एवेदꣳ सर्वम् ॥ २.२३.३॥

tānyabhyatapattebhyo'bhitaptebhya oṃkāraḥ

samprāsravattadyathā śaṅkunā sarvāṇi parṇāni

saṃtṛṇṇānyevamoṃkāreṇa sarvā vāksaṃtṛṇṇoṃkāra evedagͫ

sarvamoṃkāra evedagͫ sarvam .. 2.23.3..



3. [Prajāpati then] meditated on those three vyāhṛtis [bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, and svaḥ]. Out of the vyāhṛtis, which he thought about, emerged Oṃkāra. Just as a network of ribs is spread all over a leaf, similarly, Oṃkāra permeates every form of speech [or, everything]. All this is Oṃkāra. All this is Oṃkāra.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tāni abhyatapat, he thought about those [vyāhṛtis]; tebhyaḥ abhitaptebhyaḥ, out of those which he thought about; oṃkāra samprāsravat, the syllable Om emerged; tat yathā, just as; śaṅkunā, by the ribs [of a leaf]; sarvāṇi parṇāni saṃtṛṇṇāni, all parts of the leaf are held together; evam, similarly; oṃkāreṇa sarvā vāk saṃtṛṇṇā, Oṃkāra permeates every form of speech; oṃkāraḥ eva idam sarvam oṃkāraḥ eva idam sarvam, all this is Oṃkāra, all this is Oṃkāra [the repetition is for emphasis]. Iti trayoviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the twenty-third section. Commentary:-Om is the essence of everything. Because Prajāpati meditated to create the three worlds, Om manifested itself. Om, in fact, is the support of everything. Section Twenty-Four

Translation By Max Müller

3. Pragâpati brooded on the worlds. From them, thus brooded on, the threefold knowledge (sacrifice) issued forth. He brooded on it, and from it, thus brooded on, issued the three syllables, Bhûh, Bhuvah, Svah.


Sloka : 2.24.1

॥ इति त्रयोविंशः खण्डः ॥

ब्रह्मवादिनो वदन्ति यद्वसूनां प्रातः सवनꣳ रुद्राणां

माध्यंदिनꣳ सवनमादित्यानां च विश्वेषां च

देवानां तृतीयसवनम् ॥ २.२४.१॥

.. iti trayoviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

brahmavādino vadanti yadvasūnāṃ prātaḥ savanagͫ rudrāṇāṃ

mādhyaṃdinagͫ savanamādityānāṃ ca viśveṣāṃ ca

devānāṃ tṛtīyasavanam .. 2.24.1..



1. Those who believe in Brahman say:- The morning savana is for the Vasus, the midday savana is for the Rudras, and the third, the evening savana, is for the Ādityas and the Viśvadevas [i.e., all the gods and goddesses].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Brahmavādinaḥ, those who believe in Brahman; vadanti, say; yat vasūnām prātaḥsavanam, the morning savana [i.e., the time when the soma juice is extracted from the soma creeper for the sacrifice] is meant for the eight Vasus; mādhyandinam savanam rudrāṇām, the noon savana is meant for the eleven Rudras; tṛtīya savanam, the third [i.e., the evening] savana; ādityānām ca viśveṣām devānām, is meant for the twelve Ādityas and the Viśvadevas. Commentary:-‘The morning savana belongs to the eight Vasus.’ This means that the Vasus control the earth. In the same way, since the midday savana belongs to the eleven Rudras, they control the interspace—the space between the earth and heaven. And as the evening savana belongs to the twelve Ādityas and the Viśvadevas, that means they control heaven. It follows then that there is no world left for the performer of the sacrifice.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The teachers of Brahman (Veda) declare, as the Prâtah-savana (morning-oblation) belongs to the Vasus, the Mâdhyandina-savana (noon-libation) to the Rudras, the third Savana (evening-libation) to the Âdityas and the Visve Devas,


Sloka : 2.24.2

क्व तर्हि यजमानस्य लोक इति स यस्तं न विद्यात्कथं

कुर्यादथ विद्वान्कुर्यात् ॥ २.२४.२॥

kva tarhi yajamānasya loka iti sa yastaṃ na vidyātkathaṃ

kuryādatha vidvānkuryāt .. 2.24.2..



2. Where then is the place for the yajamāna [one who performs a sacrifice]? How can he who does not know that place perform a sacrifice? He who knows can perform a sacrifice.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Kva tarhi yajamānasya lokaḥ iti, where then is the place for one who performs a sacrifice; saḥ yaḥ, he who; tam, that [place for the yajamāna]; na vidyāt, does not know; katham, how [can he]; kuryāt, perform [a sacrifice]; atha vidvān kuryāt, one who knows can [of course] perform [a sacrifice]. Commentary:-When a person performs a sacrifice, he does so in order that he may attain a certain world for himself. But if the three worlds—bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, and svaḥ—are already occupied by the Vasus and other gods, where is the place left for the sacrificer? In such a situation he would hardly have any inclination to perform a sacrifice, or even to sing attendant hymns such as the Sāma, or to. engage in rituals connected with a sacrifice. Ignorance on the part of a person is no bar to his performing a sacrifice. Rather, this verse is intended to praise knowledge. If a person knows how to recite the Sāma, that is a great help. It should be clearly understood, however, that though the Sāma or Oṃkāra is recited while a sacrifice is being performed, the

Translation By Max Müller

2. Where then is the world of the sacrificer? He who does not know this, how can he perform the sacrifice? He only who knows, should perform it [1].

Footnote:

1. The commentator is always very anxious to explain that though it is better that a priest should know the hidden meaning of the sacrificial acts which he has to perform, yet there is nothing to prevent a priest, who has not yet arrived at this stage of knowledge, from performing his duties.


Sloka : 2.24.3

पुरा प्रातरनुवाकस्योपाकरणाज्जघनेन

गार्हपत्यस्योदाङ्मुख उपविश्य स वासवꣳ

सामाभिगायति ॥ २.२४.३॥

purā prātaranuvākasyopākaraṇājjaghanena

gārhapatyasyodāṅmukha upaviśya sa vāsavagͫ

sāmābhigāyati .. 2.24.3..



3. Before starting the morning chant, the sacrificer sits behind the Gārhapatya fire facing north and sings the Sāma about the Vasus.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Prātaḥ anuvākasya upākaraṇāt purā, before beginning the morning chant; jaghanena, behind; gārhapatyasya, the Gārhapatya fire; udaṅmukhaḥ, facing north; upaviśya, sits; saḥ, he [the sacrificed; vāsavam, about the Vasus; sāma abhigāyati, sings the Sāma. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. Before the beginning of the Prâtaranuvâka, (matin-chant), the sacrificer, sitting down behind the household altar (gârhapatya), and looking towards the north, sings the Sâman, addressed to the Vasus:-


Sloka : 2.24.4

लो३कद्वारमपावा३र्णू ३३ पश्येम त्वा वयꣳ

रा ३३३३३ हु ३ म् आ ३३ ज्या ३ यो ३ आ ३२१११

इति ॥ २.२४.४॥

lo3kadvāramapāvā3rṇū 33 paśyema tvā vayagͫ

rā 33333 hu 3 m ā 33 jyā 3 yo 3 ā 32111

iti .. 2.24.4..



4. O Fire, please open the door for us—that is, make the path clear—so that we may see you for obtaining full control of the earth.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Lokadvāram apāvṛṇu, [O Fire,] please open the door of the world [i.e., make the path clear]; vayam Commentary:-The additional syllables in the verse have no special meaning. They merely serve to make the Sāma complete.

Translation By Max Müller

4. 'Open the door of the world (the earth), let us see thee, that we may rule (on earth).'


Sloka : 2.24.5

अथ जुहोति नमोऽग्नये पृथिवीक्षिते लोकक्षिते

लोकं मे यजमानाय विन्दैष वै यजमानस्य लोक

एतास्मि ॥ २.२४.५॥

atha juhoti namo'gnaye pṛthivīkṣite lokakṣite

lokaṃ me yajamānāya vindaiṣa vai yajamānasya loka

etāsmi .. 2.24.5..



5. Then the sacrificer begins the offerings [with this mantra]:- ‘O Agni, you are in this world. I salute you. Please acquire the right world for me, who am performing a sacrifice. I am ready to go to a world appropriate for one who performs sacrifices’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha juhoti, now the sacrificer begins the offerings; pṛthivīkṣite, living on the earth; lokakṣite, living in the loka [world]; agnaye namaḥ, salutations to fire; yajamānāya me, for me, the sacrificer; lokam vinda, acquire the right world; eṣaḥ vai yajamānasya lokaḥ etā asmi, I am going to this world fit for a sacrificer. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

5. Then he sacrifices, saying:- 'Adoration to Agni, who dwells on the earth, who dwells in the world! Obtain that world for me, the sacrificer! That is the world for the sacrificer!'


Sloka : 2.24.6

अत्र यजमानः परस्तादायुषः स्वाहापजहि

परिघमित्युक्त्वोत्तिष्ठति तस्मै वसवः प्रातःसवनꣳ

सम्प्रयच्छन्ति ॥ २.२४.६॥

atra yajamānaḥ parastādāyuṣaḥ svāhāpajahi

parighamityuktvottiṣṭhati tasmai vasavaḥ prātaḥsavanagͫ

samprayacchanti .. 2.24.6..



6. ‘I, the yajamāna, have run the full course of my life in this world.’ With these words, he will say, ‘Svāhā,’ [and offer his oblation]. Then he will rise, saying, ‘Please unbolt the door to the world for which I am destined.’ The Vasus then give him the ownership of the earth, which is the result of the savana performed in the morning.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atra, here [in this world]; yajamānaḥ parastāt āyuṣaḥ, I, the sacrificer, have lived the full course of life; svāhā, [with these words, he will say] svāhā; parigham, the bolt [of the gateway to the world]; apajahi, remove; iti uktvā, saying this; uttiṣṭhati, he rises; vasavaḥ, the Vasus [to whom the morning savana is offered]; tasmai, to him [the sacrificer]; prātaḥsavanam samprayacchanti, give away the morning savana [i.e., give away this earth]. Commentary:-The yajamāna (the sacrificer) keeps performing his sacrifices till he feels that it is time for him to die. He then offers his last oblation, saying, ‘Svāhā.’ Getting up, he says he is going to the world for which he is destined and demands that the door to that world be unbolted. The Vasus own the earth by virtue of the morning savana (that is, extracting the soma juice and having a morning wash with it). They are pleased with the yajamāna for his performance of the rituals, so they surrender the ownership of the earth to him.

Translation By Max Müller

6. 'I (the sacrificer) shall go thither, when this life is over. Take this! (he says, in offering the libation.) Cast back the bolt!' Having said this, he rises. For him the Vasus fulfil the morning-oblation.


Sloka : 2.24.7

पुरा माध्यंदिनस्य

सवनस्योपाकरणाज्जघनेनाग्नीध्रीयस्योदङ्मुख

उपविश्य स रौद्रꣳसामाभिगायति ॥ २.२४.७॥

purā mādhyaṃdinasya

savanasyopākaraṇājjaghanenāgnīdhrīyasyodaṅmukha

upaviśya sa raudragͫsāmābhigāyati .. 2.24.7..



7. Before starting the midday savana, the yajamāna sits behind the Dakṣiṇāgni fire, facing north. He then sings the Sāma addressed to the Rudras.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ, he [the yajamāna]; upākaraṇāt purā, before beginning; mādhyandinasya savanasya, the midday savana; āgnīdhrīyasya jaghanena, behind the Dakṣiṇāgni fire; udaṅmukhaḥ, facing north; upaviśya, sitting; raudram sāma abhigāyati, sings the Sāma to the Rudras. Commentary:-Earlier, the way the yajamāna conquers the earth was shown. Now how the mid-region can be won is described. After sitting behind the Dakṣiṇāgni fire, facing north, he starts singing the Sāma addressed to the Rudras. He continues doing this with the idea of attaining union with Virāṭ.

Translation By Max Müller

7. Before the beginning of the Mâdhyandina-savana, the noon-oblation, the sacrificer, sitting down behind the Âgnidhrîya altar, and looking towards the north, sings the Sâman, addressed to the Rudras:-


Sloka : 2.24.8

लो३कद्वारमपावा३र्णू३३ पश्येम त्वा वयं

वैरा३३३३३ हु३म् आ३३ज्या ३यो३आ३२१११इति

॥ २.२४.८॥

lo3kadvāramapāvā3rṇū33 paśyema tvā vayaṃ

vairā33333 hu3m ā33jyā 3yo3ā32111iti

.. 2.24.8..



8. O Fire, please open the door for us—that is, make the path clear—so that we may see you for obtaining full control of the world of Virāṭ.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Lokadvāram apāvṛṇu, [O Fire,] please open the door of the world [i.e., make the path clear]; vayam vairājyāya, so we may gain control of the world of Virāṭ; tvā paśyema, [and for that purpose] may see you. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

8. 'Open the door of the world (the sky), let us see thee, that we may rule wide (in the sky).'


Sloka : 2.24.9

अथ जुहोति नमो वायवेऽन्तरिक्षक्षिते लोकक्षिते

लोकं मे यजमानाय विन्दैष वै यजमानस्य लोक

एतास्मि ॥ २.२४.९॥

atha juhoti namo vāyave'ntarikṣakṣite lokakṣite

lokaṃ me yajamānāya vindaiṣa vai yajamānasya loka

etāsmi .. 2.24.9..



9. Then the sacrificer begins the offerings [with this mantra]:- ‘O Vāyu, you are in the mid-region. I salute you. Please acquire the right world for me, who am performing a sacrifice. I am ready to go to a world appropriate for one who performs sacrifices’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha juhoti, now the sacrificer begins the offerings; antarikṣakṣite, living in the mid-region; lokakṣite, living in the loka [world]; vāyave namaḥ, salutations to Vāyu [air]; yajamānāya me, for me, the sacrificer; lokam vinda, acquire the right world; eṣaḥ vai Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

9. Then he sacrifices, saying:- 'Adoration to Vâyu (air), who dwells in the sky, who dwells in the world. Obtain that world for me, the sacrificer! That is the world for the sacrificer!'


Sloka : 2.24.10

अत्र यजमानः परस्तादायुषः स्वाहापजहि

परिघमित्युक्त्वोत्तिष्ठति तस्मै रुद्रा

माध्यंदिनꣳसवनꣳसम्प्रयच्छन्ति ॥ २.२४.१०॥

atra yajamānaḥ parastādāyuṣaḥ svāhāpajahi

parighamityuktvottiṣṭhati tasmai rudrā

mādhyaṃdinagͫsavanagͫsamprayacchanti .. 2.24.10..



10. ‘I, the yajamāna, have run the full course of my life in this world.’ With these words, he will say, ‘Svāhā,’ [and offer his oblation]. Then he will rise, saying, ‘Please unbolt the door to the world for which I am destined.’ The Rudras then give him the ownership of the mid-region, which is the result of the savana performed at midday.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atra, here [in this world]; yajamānaḥ parastāt āyuṣaḥ, I, the sacrificer, have lived the full course of life; svāhā, [with these words, he will say] svāhā; parigham, the bolt [of the gateway to the world]; apajahi, remove; iti uktvā, saying this; uttiṣṭhati, he rises; rudrāḥ, the Rudras [to whom the midday savana is offered]; tasmai, to him [the sacrificer]; mādhyandinam savanam samprayacchanti, give away the midday savana [i.e., give away the mid-region]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

10. 'I (the sacrificer) shall go thither, when this life is over. Take this! Cast back the bolt!' Having said this, he rises. For him the Rudras fulfil the noon-oblation.


Sloka : 2.24.11

पुरा तृतीयसवनस्योपाकरणाज्जघनेनाहवनीयस्योदङ्मुख

उपविश्य स आदित्यꣳस वैश्वदेवꣳ सामाभिगायति

॥ २.२४.११॥

purā tṛtīyasavanasyopākaraṇājjaghanenāhavanīyasyodaṅmukha

upaviśya sa ādityagͫsa vaiśvadevagͫ sāmābhigāyati

.. 2.24.11..



11. Before starting the third [i.e., the evening] savana, the yajamāna sits behind the Āhavanīya fire, facing the north. He then sings the Sāma addressed to the Ādityas and the Viśvadevas.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ, he [the yajamāna]; upākaraṇāt purā, before beginning; tṛtīyasavanasya, the third savana; āhavanīyasya jaghanena, behind the Āhavanīya fire; udaṅmukhaḥ, facing north; upaviśya, sitting; saḥ ādityam vaiśvadevam sāma abhigāyati, he sings the Sāma to the Ādityas and the Viśvadevas. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

11. Before the beginning of the third oblation, the sacrificer, sitting down behind the Âhavanîya altar, and looking towards the north, sings the Sâman, addressed to the Âdityas and Visve Devas:-


Sloka : 2.24.12

लो३कद्वारमपावा३र्णू३३पश्येम त्वा वयꣳ स्वारा

३३३३३ हु३म् आ३३ ज्या३ यो३आ ३२१११ इति

॥ २.२४.१२॥

lo3kadvāramapāvā3rṇū33paśyema tvā vayagͫ svārā

33333 hu3m ā33 jyā3 yo3ā 32111 iti

.. 2.24.12..



12. [Addressing the Ādityas:-] ‘O Fire, please open the door to the world [i.e., heaven] for us so that we may see you for attaining sovereignty’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Lokadvāram apāvṛṇu, [O Fire,] please open the door of the world [of heaven]; vayam svārājyāya, so we may attain sovereignty; tvā paśyema, [and for that purpose] may see you. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

12. 'Open the door of the world (the heaven), let us see thee, that we may rule supreme (in heaven).' This is addressed to the Âdityas.


Sloka : 2.24.13

आदित्यमथ वैश्वदेवं लो३कद्वारमपावा३र्णू३३ पश्येम

त्वा वयꣳसाम्रा३३३३३ हु३म् आ३३ ज्या३यो३आ ३२१११

इति ॥ २.२४.१३॥

ādityamatha vaiśvadevaṃ lo3kadvāramapāvā3rṇū33 paśyema

tvā vayagͫsāmrā33333 hu3m ā33 jyā3yo3ā 32111

iti .. 2.24.13..



13. The earlier verse was addressed to the Ādityas. Now, addressing the Viśvadevas, [the yajamāna says,] ‘O Fire, please open the door to the world [i.e., heaven] for us so that we may see you for attaining sovereignty’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ādityam, that was addressed to the Ādityas; atha, next; vaiśvadevam, to the Viśvadevas; lokadvāram apāvṛṇu, [O Fire,] please open the door of the world [of heaven]; vayam sāmrājyāya, so we may attain sovereignty; tvā paśyema, [and for that purpose] may see you. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

13. Next the Sâman addressed to the Visve Devas:- 'Open the door of the world (heaven), let us see thee, that we may rule supreme (in heaven).'


Sloka : 2.24.14

अथ जुहोति नम आदित्येभ्यश्च विश्वेभ्यश्च देवेभ्यो

दिविक्षिद्भ्यो लोकक्षिद्भ्यो लोकं मे यजमानाय

विन्दत ॥ २.२४.१४॥

atha juhoti nama ādityebhyaśca viśvebhyaśca devebhyo

divikṣidbhyo lokakṣidbhyo lokaṃ me yajamānāya

vindata .. 2.24.14..



14. Then the sacrificer begins the offerings [with this mantra]:- ‘Salutations to those who are in heaven and other worlds, to the Ādityas and the Viśvadevas. May I acquire the yajamāna’s world’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha juhoti, then the sacrificer begins the offerings; namaḥ ādityebhyaḥ ca viśvebhyaḥ ca devebhyaḥ, salutations to the Ādityas and the Viśvadevas; divikṣidbhyaḥ, to those living in heaven; lokakṣidbhyaḥ, to those living in the worlds; lokam me yajamānāya vindata, help me, the yajamāna, acquire the right world. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

14. Then he sacrifices, saying:- 'Adoration to the Âdityas and to the Visve Devas, who dwell in heaven, who dwell in the world. Obtain that world for me, the sacrificer!'


Sloka : 2.24.15

एष वै यजमानस्य लोक एतास्म्यत्र यजमानः

परस्तादायुषः स्वाहापहत परिघमित्युक्त्वोत्तिष्ठति

॥ २.२४.१५॥

eṣa vai yajamānasya loka etāsmyatra yajamānaḥ

parastādāyuṣaḥ svāhāpahata parighamityuktvottiṣṭhati

.. 2.24.15..



15. ‘I am ready to go to a world appropriate for one who performs sacrifices. I will live in this world after my death.’ Saying ‘Svāhā,’ he completes the sacrifice. Then he rises, praying, ‘May the bolt be removed’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Eṣaḥ vai yajamānasya loke etā asmi, I am ready to go to a world appropriate for one who performs sacrifices; atra yajamānaḥ parastāt āyuṣaḥ, I, the yajamāna, will live here after my death; svāhā, [saying] Svāhā [he completes the sacrifice]; uttiṣṭhati, he rises; iti uktvā, saying this; apahata parigham, may the bolt be removed. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

15. 'That is the world for the sacrificer! I (the sacrificer) shall go thither, when this life is over. Take this! Cast back the bolt!' Having said this, he rises.


Sloka : 2.24.16

तस्मा आदित्याश्च विश्वे च देवास्तृतीयसवनꣳ

सम्प्रयच्छन्त्येष ह वै यज्ञस्य मात्रां वेद य एवं वेद

य एवं वेद ॥ २.२४.१६॥

tasmā ādityāśca viśve ca devāstṛtīyasavanagͫ

samprayacchantyeṣa ha vai yajñasya mātrāṃ veda ya evaṃ veda

ya evaṃ veda .. 2.24.16..



16. The Ādityas and the Viśvadevas then present to him, the sacrifices, the result of the third savana. He who knows this knows the true purport of the sacrifice.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tasmai, to him; ādityāḥ ca viśve devāḥ ca, the Ādityas and the Viśvadevas; tṛtīya savanam sampra- yacchanti, present the result of the third savana; yaḥ evam veda, he who knows this; eṣaḥ ha vai yajñasya mātrām veda, he knows the true purport of the sacrifice. Iti caturviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the twenty-fourth section. Iti chāndogyopaniṣadi dvitīyaḥ adhyāyaḥ, here ends the second chapter of the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

16. For him the Âdityas and the Visve Devas fulfil the third oblation. He who knows this, knows the full measure of the sacrifice, yea, he knows it.


Sloka : 3.1.1

॥ इति चतुर्विंशः खण्डः ॥

॥ इति द्वितीयोऽध्यायः ॥

॥ तृतीयोऽध्यायः ॥

असौ वा आदित्यो देवमधु तस्य द्यौरेव

तिरश्चीनवꣳशोऽन्तरिक्षमपूपो मरीचयः पुत्राः ॥ ३.१.१॥

.. iti caturviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

.. iti dvitīyo'dhyāyaḥ ..

.. tṛtīyo'dhyāyaḥ ..

asau vā ādityo devamadhu tasya dyaureva

tiraścīnavagͫśo'ntarikṣamapūpo marīcayaḥ putrāḥ .. 3.1.1..



1. The sun over there is honey to the gods. Heaven is the crossbeam, the mid-region is the beehive, and the rays are the eggs.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Asau vai ādityaḥ devamadhu, the sun over there is the honey of the gods; tasya dyauḥ eva tiraścinavaṃśaḥ, heaven is its crossbeam [that supports it]; antarikṣam apūpaḥ, the mid-region is the beehive; marīcayaḥ putrāḥ, the rays are the eggs. Commentary:-This section begins the praise of the sun. The sun represents the sum total of the good work done by human beings. This is why the sun is like honey to the gods and why they love it. Heaven is said to be the crossbeam. It supports the mid-region, which is the beehive. The sun-rays attract water from the earth, and the water-drops in these rays are like the eggs of the bees.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The sun is indeed the honey [1] of the Devas. The heaven is the cross-beam (from which) the sky (hangs as) a hive, and the bright vapours are the eggs of the bees [2].

Footnote:

1. Everybody delights in the sun, as the highest reward of all sacrifices. 2. I am not certain whether this passage is rightly translated. Rajendralal Mitra speaks of an arched bamboo, whence the atmosphere hangs pendant like a hive, in which the vapours are the eggs. Apûpa means a cake, and may mean a hive. In order to understand the simile, we ought to have a clearer idea of the construction of the ancient bee-hive.


Sloka : 3.1.2

तस्य ये प्राञ्चो रश्मयस्ता एवास्य प्राच्यो मधुनाड्यः ।

ऋच एव मधुकृत ऋग्वेद एव पुष्पं ता अमृता

आपस्ता वा एता ऋचः ॥ ३.१.२॥

tasya ye prāñco raśmayastā evāsya prācyo madhunāḍyaḥ .

ṛca eva madhukṛta ṛgveda eva puṣpaṃ tā amṛtā

āpastā vā etā ṛcaḥ .. 3.1.2..



2. The rays of the sun in the east are the eastern honey-cells [of the beehive]. The Ṛk mantras are the bees, and the Ṛg Veda is the flower. The water [from the sacrifice, such as the soma juice and other things] is the nectar [of the flower]. These Ṛk mantras—





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tasya, of that [sun]; ye, those which are; prāñcaḥ raśmayaḥ, the rays in the east; tāḥ eva, they all; asya prācyaḥ madhunāḍyaḥ, are its eastern honey-cells; ṛcaḥ eva madhukṛtaḥ, the Ṛk mantras are the bees; ṛgvedaḥ eva puṣpam, the Ṛg Veda is the flower; tāḥ āpaḥ amṛtāḥ, the water [of the soma and other things offered as oblations] is the nectar; tāḥ vai etāḥ ṛcaḥ, these Ṛks— Commentary:-The first rays of the sun seen in the east are like the honey cells of a beehive. In these cells are the bees, which are compared to the Ṛk mantras. The sun in the morning is red, like honey. The Ṛk mantras are called bees because bees produce honey, and the Ṛg Veda is called the flower because that is where the bees get the nectar to make the honey. Here, the term Ṛg Veda does not mean words. It means work—that is, the rituals prescribed in the Veda. It is the result of the rituals that is described as honey. Just as the bees collect the juice from the flowers and change it into honey, so the Ṛks seem to collect from the sacrificial fire the liquid, consisting of the soma juice, butter, etc., from the oblations. This is called nectar because after the ingredients have been in the fire, they are transformed into the sweetest and purest thing possible. The result of the sacrificial ritual is the nectar (amṛta), because it leads to immortality. The word amṛta means both ‘nectar’ and ‘immortality.’

Translation By Max Müller

2. The eastern rays of the sun are the honey-cells in front. The Rik verses are the bees, the Rig-veda (sacrifice) is the flower, the water (of the sacrificial libations) is the nectar (of the flower).


Sloka : 3.1.3

एतमृग्वेदमभ्यतपꣳस्तस्याभितप्तस्य यशस्तेज

इन्द्रियं वीर्यमन्नाद्यꣳरसोऽजायत ॥ ३.१.३॥

etamṛgvedamabhyatapagͫstasyābhitaptasya yaśasteja

indriyaṃ vīryamannādyagͫraso'jāyata .. 3.1.3..



3.—stimulated this Ṛg Veda. Out of that Ṛg Veda so stimulated came fame, vitality, the power of the organs, energy, and the essence of food.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Etam ṛgvedam, this Ṛg Veda; abhyatapan, stimulated; tasya abhitaptasya, from that [Ṛg Veda] so stimulated; yaśaḥ, fame; tejaḥ, vitality; indriyam, the power of the organs; vīryam, energy; annādyam rasaḥ, the essence of food; ajāyata, grew. Commentary:-Earlier the Ṛk mantras were described as the bees and the Ṛg Veda as the flower, and so on. What then is produced from all this? Fame in the worlds, the beauty that comes from strength, the power of the organs, the strength and vigour which give the gods and goddesses supremacy, and so on. The essence of all this comes from the sacrifices performed according to the Ṛg Veda.

Translation By Max Müller

3. Those very Rik verses then (as bees) brooded over the Rig-veda sacrifice (the flower); and from it, thus brooded on, sprang as its (nectar) essence, fame, glory of countenance, vigour, strength, and health [1].

Footnote:

1. Annâdya, explained as food, but more likely meaning power to eat, appetite, health. See III, 13, 1.


Sloka : 3.1.4

तद्व्यक्षरत्तदादित्यमभितोऽश्रयत्तद्वा

एतद्यदेतदादित्यस्य रोहितꣳरूपम् ॥ ३.१.४॥

tadvyakṣarattadādityamabhito'śrayattadvā

etadyadetadādityasya rohitagͫrūpam .. 3.1.4..



4. All this [fame, etc.] spread out to the sun and took shelter there. It is this that accounts for the red look of the sun.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat, that [fame, etc.]; vyakṣarat, spread out; tat, it; ādityam abhitaḥ, towards [in] the sun; aśrayat, took shelter; tat vai etat, it is this; yat etat, which is that; rohitam rūpam, red look; ādityasya, of the sun. Iti prathamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the first section. Commentary:-The idea here is to praise good work done according to the scriptures. Such work gives people name and fame, strength, vigour, good health, and so on. And with these qualities a person can attain supremacy in the world. These qualities all collect around the sun in the morning, and this is why the sun looks red at that time. Name and fame, strength, etc., are there waiting for those who do virtuous work. This verse is to encourage people to do such work.

Translation By Max Müller

4. That (essence) flowed forth and went towards the sun [1]. And that forms what we call the red (rohita) light of the rising sun.

Footnote:

1. The commentator explains:- The Rik verses, on becoming part of the ceremonial, perform the sacrifice. The sacrifice (the flower), when surrounded by the Rik verses (bees), yields its essence, the nectar. That essence consists in all the rewards to be obtained through sacrifice, and as these rewards are to be enjoyed in the next world and in the sun, therefore that essence or nectar is said to ascend to the sun.


Sloka : 3.2.1

॥ इति प्रथमः खण्डः ॥

अथ येऽस्य दक्षिणा रश्मयस्ता एवास्य दक्षिणा

मधुनाड्यो यजूꣳष्येव मधुकृतो यजुर्वेद एव पुष्पं

ता अमृत आपः ॥ ३.२.१॥

.. iti prathamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha ye'sya dakṣiṇā raśmayastā evāsya dakṣiṇā

madhunāḍyo yajūgͫṣyeva madhukṛto yajurveda eva puṣpaṃ

tā amṛta āpaḥ .. 3.2.1..



1. Then the rays of the sun in the south are the southern honey-cells [of the beehive]. The Yajuh mantras are the bees, and the Yajur Veda is the flower. The water [from the sacrifice, such as the soma juice and other things] is nectar [of the flower].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, then; ye, that which; asya, of it [the sun]; dakṣiṇāḥ raśmayaḥ, the rays in the south; tāḥ eva, they all; asya dakṣiṇāḥ madhunādyaḥ, are its southern honey-cells; yajūṃṣi eva madhukṛtaḥ, the Yajuḥ mantras are the bees; yajurvedaḥ eva puṣpam, the Yajur Veda is the flower; tāḥ āpaḥ amṛtāḥ, the water [of the soma and other things offered as oblations] is the nectar. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The southern rays of the sun are the honey-cells on the right. The Yagus verses are the bees, the Yagur-veda sacrifice is the flower, the water (of the sacrificial libations) is the nectar (of the flower).


Sloka : 3.2.2

तानि वा एतानि यजूꣳष्येतं

यजुर्वेदमभ्यतपꣳस्तस्याभितप्तस्य यशस्तेज इन्द्रियं

वीर्यमन्नाद्यꣳरसोजायत ॥ ३.२.२॥

tāni vā etāni yajūgͫṣyetaṃ

yajurvedamabhyatapagͫstasyābhitaptasya yaśasteja indriyaṃ

vīryamannādyagͫrasojāyata .. 3.2.2..



2. Those Yajuḥ mantras stimulated the Yajur Veda. Out of that Yajur Veda so stimulated came fame, vitality, the power of the organs, energy, and the essence of food.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tāni vai etāni, all these; yajūṃṣi, Yajuḥ mantras; etam yajurvedam, this Yajur Veda; abhyatapan, stimulated; tasya abhitaptasya, from that [Yajur Veda] so stimulated; yaśaḥ, fame; tejaḥ, vitality; indriyam, the power of the organs; vīryam, energy; annādyam rasaḥ, the essence of food; ajāyata, grew. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Those very Yagus verses (as bees) brooded over the Yagur-veda sacrifice (the flower); and from it, thus brooded on, sprang as its (nectar) essence, fame, glory of countenance, vigour, strength, and health.


Sloka : 3.2.3

तद्व्यक्षरत्तदादित्यमभितोऽश्रयत्तद्वा

एतद्यदेतदादित्यस्य शुक्लꣳ रूपम् ॥ ३.२.३॥

tadvyakṣarattadādityamabhito'śrayattadvā

etadyadetadādityasya śuklagͫ rūpam .. 3.2.3..



3. All this [fame, etc.] spread out to the sun and took shelter there. It is this that accounts for the white look of the sun.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat, that [fame, etc.]; vyakṣarat, spread out; tat, it; ādityam abhitaḥ, towards [in] the sun; aśrayat, took shelter; tat vai etat, it is this; yat etat, which is that; śuklam rūpam, white look; ādityasya, of the sun. Iti dvitīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the second section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

3. That flowed forth and went towards the sun. And that forms what we call the white (sukla) light of the sun.


Sloka : 3.3.1

॥ इति द्वितीयः खण्डः ॥

अथ येऽस्य प्रत्यञ्चो रश्मयस्ता एवास्य प्रतीच्यो

मधुनाड्यः सामान्येव मधुकृतः सामवेद एव पुष्पं

ता अमृता आपः ॥ ३.३.१॥

.. iti dvitīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha ye'sya pratyañco raśmayastā evāsya pratīcyo

madhunāḍyaḥ sāmānyeva madhukṛtaḥ sāmaveda eva puṣpaṃ

tā amṛtā āpaḥ .. 3.3.1..



1. Then the rays of the sun in the west are the western honey-cells [of the beehive]. The Sāma mantras are the bees, and the Sāma Veda is the flower. The water [from the sacrifice, such as the soma juice and other things] is the nectar [of the flower].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, then; ye, that which; asya, of it [the sun]; pratyañcaḥ raśmayaḥ, the rays in the west; tāḥ eva, they all; asya pratīcyaḥ madhunāḍyaḥ, are its western honey-cells; sāmāni eva madhukṛtaḥ, the Sāma mantras are the bees; sāmavedaḥ eva puṣpam, the Sāma Veda Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The western rays of the sun are the honey-cells behind. The Sâman verses are the bees, the Sâma-veda sacrifice is the flower, the water is the nectar.


Sloka : 3.3.2

तानि वा एतानि सामान्येतꣳ

सामवेदमभ्यतपꣳस्तस्याभितप्तस्य यशस्तेज इन्द्रियं

वीर्यमन्नाद्यꣳरसोऽजायत ॥ ३.३.२॥

tāni vā etāni sāmānyetagͫ

sāmavedamabhyatapagͫstasyābhitaptasya yaśasteja indriyaṃ

vīryamannādyagͫraso'jāyata .. 3.3.2..



2. Those Sāma mantras stimulated the Sāma Veda. Out of that Sāma Veda so stimulated came fame, vitality, the power of the organs, energy, and the essence of food.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tāni vai etāni, these very; sāmāni, Sāma mantras; etam sāmavedam, this Sāma Veda; abhyatapan, stimulated; tasya abhitaptasya, from that [Sāma Veda] so stimulated; yaśaḥ, fame; tejaḥ, vitality; indriyam, the power of the organs; vīryam, energy; annādyam rasaḥ, the essence of food; ajāyata, grew. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Those very Sâman verses (as bees) brooded over the Sâma-veda sacrifice; and from it, thus brooded on, sprang as its (nectar) essence, fame, glory of countenance, vigour, strength, and health.


Sloka : 3.3.3

तद्व्यक्षरत्तदादित्यमभितोऽश्रयत्तद्वा

एतद्यदेतदादित्यस्य कृष्णꣳरूपम् ॥ ३.३.३॥

tadvyakṣarattadādityamabhito'śrayattadvā

etadyadetadādityasya kṛṣṇagͫrūpam .. 3.3.3..



3. All this [fame, etc.] spread out to the sun and took shelter there. It is this that gives rise to the black spots in the sun.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat, that [fame, etc.]; vyakṣarat, spread out; tat, it; ādityam abhitaḥ, towards [in] the sun; aśrayat, took shelter; tat vai etat, it is this; yat etat, which is that; kṛṣṇam rūpam, black look; ādityasya, of the sun. Iti tṛtīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the third section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

3. That flowed forth and went towards the sun. And that forms what we call the dark (krishna) light of the sun.


Sloka : 3.4.1

॥ इति तृतीयः खण्डः ॥

अथ येऽस्योदञ्चो रश्मयस्ता एवास्योदीच्यो

मधुनाड्योऽथर्वाङ्गिरस एव मधुकृत

इतिहासपुराणं पुष्पं ता अमृता आपः ॥ ३.४.१॥

.. iti tṛtīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha ye'syodañco raśmayastā evāsyodīcyo

madhunāḍyo'tharvāṅgirasa eva madhukṛta

itihāsapurāṇaṃ puṣpaṃ tā amṛtā āpaḥ .. 3.4.1..



1. Then the northern rays of the sun are the northern honey-cells [of the beehive]. The mantras envisioned by the sages Atharvā and Aṅgirā are the bees, and the Itihāsas and Purāṇas [i.e., history and legends] are the flower. The water [from the sacrifice, such as the soma juice and other things] is the nectar [of the flower].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, then; ye, that which; asya, of it [the sun]; udañcaḥ raśmayaḥ, the rays in the north; tāḥ eva, they all; asya udīcyaḥ madhunāḍyaḥ, are its northern honey-cells; atharvāṅgirasaḥ eva madhukṛtaḥ, the mantras envisioned by Atharvā and Aṅgirā are the bees; itihāsapurāṇam eva puṣpam, history and legends are the flower; tāḥ āpaḥ amṛtāḥ, the water [of the soma and other things offered as oblations] is the nectar. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The northern rays of the sun are the honey-cells on the left. The (hymns of the) Atharvâṅgiras are the bees, the Itihâsa-purân[1] (the reading of the old stories) is the flower, the water is the nectar.

Footnote:

1. As there is no Atharva-veda sacrifice, properly so called, we have corresponding to the Atharva-veda hymns the so-called fifth Veda, the Itihâsa-purâna. This may mean the collection of legends and traditions, or the old book of traditions. At all events it is taken as one Purâna, not as many. These ancient stories were repeated at the Asvamedha sacrifice during the so-called Pariplava nights. Many of them have been preserved in the Brâhmanas; others, in a more modern form, in the Mahâbhârata. See Weber, Indische Studien, I, , note.


Sloka : 3.4.2

ते वा एतेऽथर्वाङ्गिरस एतदितिहासपूराणमभ्यतपꣳ

स्तस्याभितप्तस्य यशस्तेज इन्द्रियां

वीर्यमन्नाद्यꣳरसोऽजायत ॥ ३.४.२॥

te vā ete'tharvāṅgirasa etaditihāsapūrāṇamabhyatapagͫ

stasyābhitaptasya yaśasteja indriyāṃ

vīryamannādyagͫraso'jāyata .. 3.4.2..



2. Those Atharvā-Aṅgirasā mantras stimulated the Itihāsas and Purāṇas [i.e., the history and the legends]. Out of that so stimulated emerged fame, vitality, the power of the organs, energy, and the essence of food.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te vai ete, these very; atharvāṅgirasaḥ, mantras of Atharvā and Aṅgirā; etat itihāsapurāṇam, the Itihāsas and Purāṇas; abhyatapan, stimulated; tasya abhitap- tasya, from that so stimulated; yaśaḥ, fame; tejaḥ, vitality; indriyam, the power of the organs; vīryam, energy; annādyam rasaḥ, the essence of food; ajāyata, grew. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Those very hymns of the Atharvâṅgiras (as bees) brooded over the Itihâsa-purâna; and from it, thus brooded on, sprang as its (nectar) essence, fame, glory of countenance, vigour, strength, and health.


Sloka : 3.4.3

तद्व्यक्षरत्तदादित्यमभितोऽश्रयत्तद्वा

एतद्यदेतदादित्यस्य परं कृष्णꣳरूपम् ॥ ३.४.३॥

tadvyakṣarattadādityamabhito'śrayattadvā

etadyadetadādityasya paraṃ kṛṣṇagͫrūpam .. 3.4.3..



3. All this [fame, etc,] spread out to the sun and took shelter there. It is this that gives rise to the deep black spots in the sun.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat, that [fame, etc.]; vyakṣarat, spread out; tat, it; ādityam abhitaḥ, towards [in] the sun; aśrayat, took shelter; tat vai etat, it is this; yat etat, which is that; param kṛṣṇam rūpam, deep black look; ādityasya, of the sun. Iti caturthaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fourth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

3. That flowed forth, and went towards the sun. And that forms what we call the extreme dark (parah krishnam) light of the sun.


Sloka : 3.5.1

॥ इति चतुर्थः खण्डः ॥

अथ येऽस्योर्ध्वा रश्मयस्ता एवास्योर्ध्वा

मधुनाड्यो गुह्या एवादेशा मधुकृतो ब्रह्मैव

पुष्पं ता अमृता आपः ॥ ३.५.१॥

.. iti caturthaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha ye'syordhvā raśmayastā evāsyordhvā

madhunāḍyo guhyā evādeśā madhukṛto brahmaiva

puṣpaṃ tā amṛtā āpaḥ .. 3.5.1..



1. Next, the rays of the sun which are in the higher region are also its honey-cells in the higher region. The secret instructions are the bees, and Brahman [praṇava] is the flower. The water [from the sacrifice] is the nectar.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; asya ye urdhvāḥ raśmayaḥ, those rays [of the sun] which are in the higher region; tāḥ eva asya urdhvāḥ madhunāḍyaḥ, they are its honeycomb in the higher region; guhyāḥ ādeśāḥ eva madhukṛtaḥ, all secret directions are the bees; brahma eva puṣpam, Brahman [i.e., praṇava, Om] is the flower; tāḥ āpaḥ amṛtāḥ, the water [used in this connection] is the nectar. Commentary:-The mantras used in the sacrifices are both secret and mystical. So also are the directions for a successful performance of a sacrifice. The mantras and the directions together constitute the bees in the illustration given here. The word brahman is used here in the sense of ‘word,’ so it means here praṇava, or Om. It is the flower.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The upward rays of the sun are the honey cells above. The secret doctrines are the bees, Brahman (the Om) is the flower, the water is the nectar.


Sloka : 3.5.2

ते वा एते गुह्या आदेशा एतद्ब्रह्माभ्यतपꣳ

स्तस्याभितप्तस्य यशस्तेज इन्द्रियं

वीर्यमन्नाद्यꣳरसोऽजायत ॥ ३.५.२॥

te vā ete guhyā ādeśā etadbrahmābhyatapagͫ

stasyābhitaptasya yaśasteja indriyaṃ

vīryamannādyagͫraso'jāyata .. 3.5.2..



2. These very secret directions stimulated Brahman [in the form of praṇava]. Out of that so stimulated emerged fame, vitality, the power of the organs, energy, and the essence of food.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te vai ete, these very; guhyāḥ ādeśāḥ, secret directions; etat brahma, this Brahman [as praṇava]; abhyatapan, stimulated; tasya abhitaptasya, from that so stimulated; yaśaḥ, fame; tejaḥ, vitality; indriyam, the power of the organs; vīryam, energy; annādyam rasaḥ, the essence of food; ajāyata, grew. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Those secret doctrines (as bees) brooded over Brahman (the Om); and from it, thus brooded on, sprang as its (nectar) essence, fame, glory of countenance, brightness, vigour, strength, and health.


Sloka : 3.5.3

तद्व्यक्षरत्तदादित्यमभितोऽश्रयत्तद्वा

एतद्यदेतदादित्यस्य मध्ये क्षोभत इव ॥ ३.५.३॥

tadvyakṣarattadādityamabhito'śrayattadvā

etadyadetadādityasya madhye kṣobhata iva .. 3.5.3..



3. All this [fame, etc.] spread out to the sun and took shelter there. It is this that seems to be vibrating within the sun.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat, that [fame, etc.]; vyakṣarat, spread out; tat, it; ādityam abhitaḥ, towards [in] the sun; aśrayat, took shelter; tat vai etat, it is this; yat etat, which is that; kṣobhate iva, seems to be vibrating; ādityasya madhye, within the sun. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. That flowed forth, and went towards the sun. And that forms what seems to stir in the centre of the sun.


Sloka : 3.5.4

ते वा एते रसानाꣳरसा वेदा हि रसास्तेषामेते

रसास्तानि वा एतान्यमृतानाममृतानि वेदा

ह्यमृतास्तेषामेतान्यमृतानि ॥ ३.५.४॥

te vā ete rasānāgͫrasā vedā hi rasāsteṣāmete

rasāstāni vā etānyamṛtānāmamṛtāni vedā

hyamṛtāsteṣāmetānyamṛtāni .. 3.5.4..



4. These colours [red, etc.] are the essence of all essences. The Vedas are the essence, and the colours are the essence of the Vedas. These colours are the nectar of the nectar [the Vedas]. The Vedas are the nectar [and therefore eternal], but the colours are the nectar of the Vedas.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te ete, these [the red and other colours]; vai rasānām rasāḥ, are the essence of the essences; vedāḥ hi rasāḥ, since the Vedas are the essence; teṣām ete rasāḥ, these [colours] are the essence of them [the Vedas]; tāni etāni vai amṛtānām amṛtāni, these [colours] are the nectar of the nectar [the Vedas]; hi vedāḥ amṛtāḥ, as the Vedas are the nectar [or, eternal]; etāni, these [colours]; teṣām amṛtāni, are the nectar of them [the Vedas]. Iti pañcamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fifth section. Commentary:-Honey has been shown to be in different directions. This is just to stimulate our interest in seeking the essence of everything. The essence of everything is the Vedas, because through the Vedas we attain immortality. The term Vedas here means the Vedic ceremonies. Through these ceremonies we attain only relative immortality—that is, a long life, but a life that must end sooner or later. The expression ‘essence of the essences’ means that results which follow from the ceremonies are better than the ceremonies themselves. They are better, but they are short-lived. The implication is that we must not stop there.

Translation By Max Müller

4. These (the different colours in the sun) are the essences of the essences. For the Vedas are essences (the best things in the world); and of them (after they have assumed the form of sacrifice) these (the colours rising to the sun) are again the essences. They are the nectar of the nectar. For the Vedas are nectar (immortal), and of them these are the nectar.


Sloka : 3.6.1

॥ इति पञ्चमः खण्डः ॥

तद्यत्प्रथमममृतं तद्वसव उपजीवन्त्यग्निना मुखेन न वै

देवा अश्नन्ति न पिबन्त्येतदेवामृतं दृष्ट्वा

तृप्यन्ति ॥ ३.६.१॥

.. iti pañcamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

tadyatprathamamamṛtaṃ tadvasava upajīvantyagninā mukhena na vai

devā aśnanti na pibantyetadevāmṛtaṃ dṛṣṭvā

tṛpyanti .. 3.6.1..



1. Led by fire, the Vasus enjoy the first nectar [which is the red colour]. As a matter of fact, the gods and goddesses neither eat nor drink. They are pleased merely by seeing the nectar.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat yat, that which; prathamam amṛtam, the first nectar [i.e., the red colour of the sun]; tat, that; vasavaḥ, the Vasus; upajīvanti, enjoy; agninā mukhena, led by fire; vai, as a matter of fact; devāḥ, the gods and goddesses; na aśnanti na pibanti, neither eat nor drink; etat amṛtam, this nectar; eva dṛṣṭvā tṛpyanti, they are pleased by only seeing. Commentary:-Earlier it was described what the nectar is and how it may be meditated upon. The gods and goddesses enjoy this nectar. How these gods and goddesses may be meditated upon is now being stated. Early in the morning the sun is red, and this red colour is the first nectar, which is enjoyed by the Vasus led by fire. They enjoy it by seeing, not by eating and drinking. They, in fact, enjoy it by using all their organs. The body is a source of bad odour and bad secretions, but because the gods are all under the protection of the sun, they are therefore exempt from them.

Translation By Max Müller

1. On the first of these nectars (the red light, which represents fame, glory of countenance, vigour, strength, health) the Vasus live, with Agni at their head. True, the Devas do not eat or drink, but they enjoy by seeing the nectar.


Sloka : 3.6.2

त एतदेव रूपमभिसंविशन्त्येतस्माद्रूपादुद्यन्ति ॥ ३.६.२॥

ta etadeva rūpamabhisaṃviśantyetasmādrūpādudyanti .. 3.6.2..



2. They enter into this [red] colour [of the sun], and they also come out of this colour, [i.e., They look at this red colour and are satisfied. They make no effort to get it. Nevertheless, they are at times attracted to it and try to reach it].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te, they [the gods and goddesses]; etat eva rūpam, this [red] colour; abhisaṃviśanti, enter into [i.e., they keep looking at it and make no further attempt to enjoy it]; etasmāt rūpāt, from this colour [i.e., attracted by this colour]; udyanti, they come out [i.e., they try to reach it]. Commentary:-The gods and goddesses look at the red colour and keep quiet. Why do they keep quiet? Why do they not try to reach it? Because they feel that the time is not yet ripe for them to get it. When they feel it is the right time, then they start trying. They are fully aware that they must try, and try hard, to attain the things they desire.

Translation By Max Müller

2. They enter into that (red) colour, and they rise from that colour [1].

Footnote:

1. This is differently explained by the commentator. He takes it to mean that, when the Vasus have gone to the sun, and see that there is no opportunity for enjoying that colour, they rest; but when they see that there is an opportunity for enjoying it, they exert themselves for it. I think the colour is here taken for the colour of the morning, which the Vasus enter, and from which they go forth again.


Sloka : 3.6.3

स य एतदेवममृतं वेद वसूनामेवैको भूत्वाग्निनैव

मुखेनैतदेवामृतं दृष्ट्वा तृप्यति स य एतदेव

रूपमभिसंविशत्येतस्माद्रूपादुदेति ॥ ३.६.३॥

sa ya etadevamamṛtaṃ veda vasūnāmevaiko bhūtvāgninaiva

mukhenaitadevāmṛtaṃ dṛṣṭvā tṛpyati sa ya etadeva

rūpamabhisaṃviśatyetasmādrūpādudeti .. 3.6.3..



3. He who knows this nectar thus, becomes one of the Vasus [because only the Vasus know the meaning of this nectar]. Led by fire, he then enjoys looking at the nectar and is happy. He goes into this colour and again comes out of it.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ, he who; evam, thus; etat amṛtam veda, knows this nectar; vasūnām eva ekaḥ bhūtvā, having become one of the Vasus; agninā eva mukhena, led by fire; etat eva amṛtam dṛṣṭvā tṛpyati, enjoys by seeing the nectar; saḥ etat eva rūpam abhisaṃviśati, he enters into this [red] colour; etasmāt rūpāt udeti, he also comes out of this colour. Commentary:-Anyone can perform the ceremonies mentioned in the Ṛg Veda and thus attain the results mentioned earlier. These ceremonies are like flowers, and by reciting the Ṛk mantras, you can collect the honey in the form of fame, strength, etc. Not only that, when you attain these things, you are also able to preserve them by the grace of the sun. Further, the beauty and grandeur of the sun in the early morning is like a special gift meant just for you. You are then one of the gods known as the Vasus. You can enjoy this state at will, and if you wish, can enjoy whatever the sun has to give. If you do not want to enjoy anything, you can merely look at it and that is enough enjoyment for you.

Translation By Max Müller

3. He who thus knows this nectar, becomes one of the Vasus, with Agni at their head, he sees the nectar and rejoices. And he, too, having entered that colour, rises again from that colour.


Sloka : 3.6.4

स यावदादित्यः पुरस्तादुदेता पश्चादस्तमेता

वसूनामेव तावदाधिपत्यꣳस्वाराज्यं पर्येता ॥ ३.६.४॥

sa yāvadādityaḥ purastādudetā paścādastametā

vasūnāmeva tāvadādhipatyagͫsvārājyaṃ paryetā .. 3.6.4..



4. As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, so long will that person enjoy the sovereignty and freedom of the Vasus.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yāvat, so long as; ādityaḥ, the sun; purastāt udetā, rises in the east; paścāt astam-etā, sets in the west; eva tāvat, that long; saḥ, he; vasūnām, of the Vasus; ādhipatyam, sovereignty; svārājyam, freedom; pari-etā, will enjoy. Iti ṣaṣṭhaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the sixth section. Commentary:-There is a difference between those who merely perform sacrifices and those who perform sacrifices but are, at the same time, deeply concerned with their spiritual development. The former may attain heaven, but only for a short while. The latter attain a status like the Vasus and become sovereigns. They attain liberation as and when they like.

Translation By Max Müller

4. So long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west [1], so long does he follow the sovereign supremacy of the Vasus.

Footnote:

1. 1. East:- Vasus:- red:- Agni. 2. South:- Rudras:- white:- Indra. 3. West:- Âditya:- dark:- Varuna. 4. North:- Marut:- very dark:- Soma. 5. Upward:- Sâdhya:- centre:- Brahman.


Sloka : 3.7.1

॥ इति षष्ठः खण्डः ॥

अथ यद्द्वितीयममृतं तद्रुद्रा उपजीवन्तीन्द्रेण

मुखेन न वै देवा अश्नन्ति न पिबन्त्येतदेवामृतं

दृष्ट्वा तृप्यन्ति ॥ ३.७.१॥

.. iti ṣaṣṭhaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha yaddvitīyamamṛtaṃ tadrudrā upajīvantīndreṇa

mukhena na vai devā aśnanti na pibantyetadevāmṛtaṃ

dṛṣṭvā tṛpyanti .. 3.7.1..



1. With Indra as their leader, the Rudras enjoy the second nectar [which is the white colour of the sun]. As a matter of fact, the gods and goddesses neither eat nor drink. They are pleased merely by seeing the nectar.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat, that which; dvitīyam amṛtam, the second nectar [i.e., the white colour of the sun]; tat, that; rudrāḥ, the Rudras; upajīvanti, enjoy; indreṇa mukhena, led by Indra; vai, as a matter of fact; devāḥ, the gods and goddesses; na aśnanti na pibanti, neither eat nor drink; etat amṛtam, this nectar; eva dṛṣṭvā tṛpyanti, they are pleased by only seeing. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. On the second of these nectars the Rudras live, with Indra at their head. True, the Devas do not eat or drink, but they enjoy by seeing the nectar.


Sloka : 3.7.2

त एतदेव रूपमभिसंविशन्त्येतस्माद्रूपादुद्यन्ति ॥ ३.७.२॥

ta etadeva rūpamabhisaṃviśantyetasmādrūpādudyanti .. 3.7.2..



2. They enter into this [white] colour of the sun, and they also come out of this colour.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te, they [the Rudras]; etat eva rūpam, this [white] colour; abhisaṃviśanti, enter into [i.e., they keep looking at it and make no further attempt to enjoy it]; etasmāt rūpāt, from this colour [i.e., attracted by this colour]; udyanti, they come out [i.e., they try to reach it]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. They enter into that white colour, and they rise from that colour.


Sloka : 3.7.3

स य एतदेवममृतं वेद रुद्राणामेवैको भूत्वेन्द्रेणैव

मुखेनैतदेवामृतं दृष्ट्वा तृप्यति स एतदेव

रूपमभिसंविशत्येतस्माद्रूपादुदेति ॥ ३.७.३॥

sa ya etadevamamṛtaṃ veda rudrāṇāmevaiko bhūtvendreṇaiva

mukhenaitadevāmṛtaṃ dṛṣṭvā tṛpyati sa etadeva

rūpamabhisaṃviśatyetasmādrūpādudeti .. 3.7.3..



3. He who knows this nectar thus, becomes a Rudra himself. With Indra as the leader, he looks at the nectar and is happy. He goes into this colour and again comes out of it.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ, he who; evam, thus; etat amṛtam veda, knows this nectar; rudrāṇām eva ekaḥ bhūtvā, becomes one of the Rudras; indreṇa eva mukhena, led by Indra; etat eva amṛtam dṛṣṭvā tṛpyati, enjoys by seeing the nectar; saḥ etat eva rūpam abhisaṃviśati, he enters into this [white] colour; etasmāt rūpāt udeti, he also comes out of this colour. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. He who thus knows this nectar, becomes one of the Rudras, with Indra at their head, he sees the nectar and rejoices. And he, having entered that colour, rises again from that colour.


Sloka : 3.7.4

स यावदादित्यः पुरस्तादुदेता पश्चादस्तमेता

द्विस्तावद्दक्षिणत उदेतोत्तरतोऽस्तमेता रुद्राणामेव

तावदाधिपत्यꣳस्वाराज्यं पर्येता ॥ ३.७.४॥

sa yāvadādityaḥ purastādudetā paścādastametā

dvistāvaddakṣiṇata udetottarato'stametā rudrāṇāmeva

tāvadādhipatyagͫsvārājyaṃ paryetā .. 3.7.4..



4. As long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, twice that long will he [who knows this] rise in the south and set in the north. That person will also attain sovereignty and freedom like the Rudras.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yāvat, so long as; ādityaḥ, the sun; purastāt udetā, rises in the east; paścāt astam-etā, sets in the west; saḥ, he [who knows this]; dviḥ-tāvat, twice that long; dakṣiṇataḥ udetā, will rise in the south; uttarataḥ astam-etā, [and] set in the north; eva tāvat, that long; rudrāṇām, of the Rudras; ādhipatyam, sovereignty; svārājyam, freedom; pari-etā, will attain. Iti saptamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the seventh section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

4. So long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, twice as long does it rise in the south and set in the north; and so long does he follow the sovereign supremacy of the Rudras.


Sloka : 3.8.1

॥ इति सप्तमः खण्डः ॥

अथ यत्तृतीयममृतं तदादित्या उपजीवन्ति वरुणेन

मुखेन न वै देवा अश्नन्ति न पिबन्त्येतदेवामृतं

दृष्ट्वा तृप्यन्ति ॥ ३.८.१॥

.. iti saptamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha yattṛtīyamamṛtaṃ tadādityā upajīvanti varuṇena

mukhena na vai devā aśnanti na pibantyetadevāmṛtaṃ

dṛṣṭvā tṛpyanti .. 3.8.1..



1. With Varuṇa as their leader, the Ādityas enjoy the third nectar [which is dark in colour]. As a matter of fact, the gods and goddesses neither eat nor drink. They are pleased merely by seeing the nectar.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat, that which; tṛtīyam amṛtam, the third nectar [i.e., the dark colour of the sun]; tat, that; ādityāḥ, the Ādityas; upajīvanti, sustain themselves with; varuṇena mukhena, led by Varuṇa; vai, as a matter of fact; devāḥ, the gods and goddesses; na aśnanti na pibanti, neither eat nor drink; etat amṛtam, this nectar; eva dṛṣṭvā tṛpyanti, they become happy by only seeing. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. On the third of these nectars the Âdityas live, with Varuna at their head. True, the Devas do not eat or drink, but they enjoy by seeing the nectar.


Sloka : 3.8.2

त एतदेव रूपमभिसंविशन्त्येतस्माद्रूपादुद्यन्ति ॥ ३.८.२॥

ta etadeva rūpamabhisaṃviśantyetasmādrūpādudyanti .. 3.8.2..



2. They enter into this [dark] colour of the sun, and they also come out of this colour.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te, they [the Ādityas]; etāt eva rūpam, this [dark] colour; abhisaṃviśanti, enter into [i.e., they keep looking at it and make no further attempt to enjoy it]; etasmāt rūpāt, from this colour [i.e., attracted by this colour]; udyanti, they come out [i.e., they try to reach it]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. They enter into that (dark) colour, and they rise from that colour.


Sloka : 3.8.3

स य एतदेवममृतं वेदादित्यानामेवैको भूत्वा वरुणेनैव

मुखेनैतदेवामृतं दृष्ट्वा तृप्यति स एतदेव

रूपमभिसंविशत्येतस्माद्रूपादुदेति ॥ ३.८.३॥

sa ya etadevamamṛtaṃ vedādityānāmevaiko bhūtvā varuṇenaiva

mukhenaitadevāmṛtaṃ dṛṣṭvā tṛpyati sa etadeva

rūpamabhisaṃviśatyetasmādrūpādudeti .. 3.8.3..



3. He who knows this nectar thus, becomes one of the Ādityas. With Varuṇa as the leader, he enjoys the nectar by looking at it. He goes into this colour and again comes out of it.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ he who; evam, thus; etat amṛtam veda, knows this nectar; ādityānām eva ekaḥ bhūtvā, becomes one of the Ādityas; varuṇena era mukhena, led by Varuṇa; etat era amṛtam dṛṣṭvā tṛpyati, enjoys by seeing the nectar; saḥ etat eva rūpam abhisaṃviśati, he enters into this [dark] colour; etasmāt rūpāt udeti, he also comes out of this colour. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. He who thus knows this nectar, becomes one of the Âdityas, with Varuna at their head, he sees the nectar and rejoices. And he, having entered that colour, rises again from that colour.


Sloka : 3.8.4

स यावदादित्यो दक्षिणत उदेतोत्तरतोऽस्तमेता

द्विस्तावत्पश्चादुदेता पुरस्तादस्तमेतादित्यानामेव

तावदाधिपत्यꣳस्वाराज्यं पर्येता ॥ ३.८.४॥

sa yāvadādityo dakṣiṇata udetottarato'stametā

dvistāvatpaścādudetā purastādastametādityānāmeva

tāvadādhipatyagͫsvārājyaṃ paryetā .. 3.8.4..



4. As long as the sun rises in the south and sets in the north, twice that long will he [who knows this] rise in the west and set in the east. That person will also attain sovereignty and freedom like the Ādityas.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yāvat, so long as; ādityaḥ, the sun; dakṣiṇataḥ udetā, rises in the south; uttarataḥ astam-etā, [and] sets in the north; saḥ, he [who knows this]; dviḥ-tāvat, twice that long; paścāt udetā, will rise in the west; purastāt astam-etā, [and] set in the east; eva tāvat, that long; ādityānām, of the Ādityas; ādhipatyam, sovereignty; svārājyam, freedom; pari-etā, will attain. Iti āṣṭamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the eighth section. Commentary:-The sun neither rises nor sets; it is always stationary. It merely gives the impression of rising and setting.

Translation By Max Müller

4. So long as the sun rises in the south and sets in the north, twice as long does it rise in the west and set in the east; and so long does he follow the sovereign supremacy of the Âdityas.


Sloka : 3.9.1

॥ इति अष्टमः खण्डः ॥

अथ यच्चतुर्थममृतं तन्मरुत उपजीवन्ति सोमेन

मुखेन न वै देवा अश्नन्ति न पिबन्त्येतदेवामृतं

दृष्ट्वा तृप्यन्ति ॥ ३.९.१॥

.. iti aṣṭamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha yaccaturthamamṛtaṃ tanmaruta upajīvanti somena

mukhena na vai devā aśnanti na pibantyetadevāmṛtaṃ

dṛṣṭvā tṛpyanti .. 3.9.1..



1. With Soma as their leader, the Maruts enjoy the fourth nectar [which is deep black in colour]. As a matter of fact, the gods and goddesses neither eat nor drink. They enjoy merely by seeing the nectar.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat, that which; caturtham amṛtam, the fourth nectar [i.e., the deep black colour of the sun]; tat, that; marutaḥ, the Maruts; upajīvanti, enjoy; somena mukhena, led by Soma; vai, as a matter of fact; devāḥ, the gods and goddesses; na aśnanti na pibanti, neither eat nor drink; etat amṛtam, this nectar; eva dṛṣṭvā tṛpyanti, they become happy by only seeing. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. On the fourth of these nectars the Maruts live, with Soma at their head. True, the Devas do not eat or drink, but they enjoy by seeing the nectar.


Sloka : 3.9.2

त एतदेव रूपमभिसंविशन्त्येतस्माद्रूपादुद्यन्ति ॥ ३.९.२॥

ta etadeva rūpamabhisaṃviśantyetasmādrūpādudyanti .. 3.9.2..



2. They enter into this [deep black] colour of the sun, and they also come out of this colour.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te, they [the Maruts]; etat eva rūpam, this [deep black] colour; abhisaṃviśanti, enter into [i.e., they keep looking at it and make no further attempt to enjoy it]; etasmāt rūpāt, from this colour [i.e., attracted by this colour]; udyanti, they come out [i.e., they try to reach it]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. They enter in that (very dark) colour, and they rise from that colour.


Sloka : 3.9.3

स य एतदेवममृतं वेद मरुतामेवैको भूत्वा सोमेनैव

मुखेनैतदेवामृतं दृष्ट्वा तृप्यति स एतदेव

रूपमभिसंविशत्येतस्माद्रूपादुदेति ॥ ३.९.३॥

sa ya etadevamamṛtaṃ veda marutāmevaiko bhūtvā somenaiva

mukhenaitadevāmṛtaṃ dṛṣṭvā tṛpyati sa etadeva

rūpamabhisaṃviśatyetasmādrūpādudeti .. 3.9.3..



3. He who knows this nectar thus, becomes one of the Maruts. With Soma as the leader, he enjoys the nectar by looking at it. He goes into this colour and again comes out of it.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ, he who; evam, thus; etat amṛtam veda, knows this nectar; marutām eva ekaḥ bhūtvā, becomes one of the Maruts; somena eva mukhena, led by Soma; etat eva amṛtam dṛṣṭvā tṛpyati, he enjoys by seeing the nectar; saḥ etat eva rūpam abhisaṃviśati, he enters into this [deep black] colour; etasmāt rūpāt udeti, he also comes out of this colour. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. He who thus knows this nectar, becomes one of the Maruts, with Soma at their head, he sees the nectar and rejoices. And he, having entered that colour, rises again from that colour.


Sloka : 3.9.4

स यावदादित्यः पश्चादुदेता पुरस्तादस्तमेता

द्विस्तावदुत्तरत उदेता दक्षिणतोऽस्तमेता मरुतामेव

तावदाधिपत्य्ꣳस्वाराज्यं पर्येता ॥ ३.९.४॥

sa yāvadādityaḥ paścādudetā purastādastametā

dvistāvaduttarata udetā dakṣiṇato'stametā marutāmeva

tāvadādhipatygͫsvārājyaṃ paryetā .. 3.9.4..



4. As long as the sun rises in the west and sets in the east, twice that long will he [who knows this] rise in the north and set in the south. That person will also attain sovereignty and freedom like the Maruts.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yāvat, so long as; ādityaḥ, the sun; paścāt udetā, rises in the west; purastāt astam-etā, [and] sets in the east; saḥ, he [who knows this]; dviḥ-tāvat, twice that long; uttarataḥ udetā, will rise in the north; dakṣiṇataḥ astam-etā, [and] set in the south; eva tāvat, that long; marutām, of the Maruts; ādhipatyam, sovereignty; svārājyam, freedom; pari-etā, will attain. Iti navamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the ninth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

4. So long as the sun rises in the west and sets in the east, twice as long does it rise in the north and set in the south; and so long does he follow the sovereign supremacy of the Maruts.


Sloka : 3.10.1

॥ इति नवमः खण्डः ॥

अथ यत्पञ्चमममृतं तत्साध्या उपजीवन्ति ब्रह्मणा

मुखेन न वै देवा अश्नन्ति न पिबन्त्येतदेवामृतं

दृष्ट्वा तृप्यन्ति ॥ ३.१०.१॥

.. iti navamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha yatpañcamamamṛtaṃ tatsādhyā upajīvanti brahmaṇā

mukhena na vai devā aśnanti na pibantyetadevāmṛtaṃ

dṛṣṭvā tṛpyanti .. 3.10.1..



1. With Brahman [in the form of praṇava, Om] as their leader, the Sādhyas enjoy the fifth nectar [that which seems to be trembling within the sun]. As a matter of fact, the gods and goddesses neither eat nor drink. They enjoy merely by seeing the nectar.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat, that which; pañcamam amṛtam, the fifth nectar [i.e., what appears to be vibrating within the sun]; tat, that; sādhyāḥ, the Sādhyas; upajīvanti, enjoy; brahmaṇā mukhena, led by Brahman [i.e., praṇava]; vai, as a matter of fact; devāḥ, the gods and goddesses; na aśnanti na pibanti, neither eat nor drink; etat amṛtam, this nectar; eva dṛṣṭvā tṛpyanti, they become happy by only seeing. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. On the fifth of these nectars the Sâdhyas live, with Brahman at their head. True, the Devas do not eat or drink, but they enjoy by seeing the nectar.


Sloka : 3.10.2

त एतदेव रूपमभिसंविशन्त्येतस्माद्रूपादुद्यन्ति ॥ ३.१०.२॥

ta etadeva rūpamabhisaṃviśantyetasmādrūpādudyanti .. 3.10.2..



2. They enter into this form of the sun [which seems to be vibrating], and they also come out of this form.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te, they [the Sādhyas]; etat eva rūpam, this form [of the sun which seems to be vibrating]; abhisaṃviśanti, enter into [i.e., they keep looking at it and make no further attempt to enjoy it]; etasmāt rūpāt, from this form [i.e., attracted by this form]; udyanti, they come out [i.e., they try to reach it]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. They enter into that colour, and they rise from that colour.


Sloka : 3.10.3

स य एतदेवममृतं वेद साध्यानामेवैको भूत्वा

ब्रह्मणैव मुखेनैतदेवामृतं दृष्ट्वा तृप्यति स एतदेव

रूपमभिसंविशत्येतस्माद्रूपादुदेति ॥ ३.१०.३॥

sa ya etadevamamṛtaṃ veda sādhyānāmevaiko bhūtvā

brahmaṇaiva mukhenaitadevāmṛtaṃ dṛṣṭvā tṛpyati sa etadeva

rūpamabhisaṃviśatyetasmādrūpādudeti .. 3.10.3..



3. He who knows this nectar thus, becomes one of the Sādhyas. With Brahman [in the form of praṇava] as the leader, he enjoys the nectar by looking at it. He goes into this form [of the sun] and again comes out of it.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ, he who; evam, thus; etat amṛtam veda, knows this nectar; sādhyānām eva ekaḥ bhūtvā, becomes one of the Sādhyas; brahmaṇā eva mukhena, led by Brahman [as praṇava]; etat eva amṛtam dṛṣṭvā tṛpyati, he enjoys by seeing the nectar; saḥ etat eva rūpam abhisaṃviśati, he enters into this form [of Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. He who thus knows this nectar, becomes one of the Sâdhyas, with Brahman at their head; he sees the nectar and rejoices. And he, having entered that colour, rises again from that colour.


Sloka : 3.10.4

स यावदादित्य उत्तरत उदेता दक्षिणतोऽस्तमेता

द्विस्तावदूर्ध्वं उदेतार्वागस्तमेता साध्यानामेव

तावदाधिपत्यꣳस्वाराज्यं पर्येता ॥ ३.१०.४॥

sa yāvadāditya uttarata udetā dakṣiṇato'stametā

dvistāvadūrdhvaṃ udetārvāgastametā sādhyānāmeva

tāvadādhipatyagͫsvārājyaṃ paryetā .. 3.10.4..



4. As long as the sun rises in the north and sets in the south, twice that long will he [who knows this] rise above and set below. That person will also attain sovereighnt and freedom like the Sādhyas [i.e., he can move up and down as he likes].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yāvat, so long as; ādityaḥ, the sun; uttarataḥ udetā, rises in the north; dakṣiṇataḥ astam-etā, [and] sets in the south; saḥ, he [who knows this]; dviḥ-tāvat, twice that long; ūrḍhvaḥ udetā, will rise above; arvāk astam-etā, [and] set down below; eva tāvat, that long; sādhyānām, of the Sādhyas; ādhipatyam, sovereignty; svārājyam, freedom; pari-etā, will attain. Iti daśamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the tenth section. Commentary:-The sun is stationary. It neither rises nor sets. If it appears to rise or set, it is because of how we perceive it. Similarly, the sun may seem to rise in a different direction, depending on where we are when we see it. The Vasus, Rudras, Ādityas, etc., are minor gods and goddesses. They have not yet attained the status of Brahman, but they are on their way to doing so. However, anyone can attain the status of a minor god or godddess—that is, he can be like a Rudra, for instance. By performing sacrifices mentioned in the scriptures a person can share with those minor gods and goddesses the special worlds reserved for them. Such a person may even enjoy many powers and privileges, but he is still far away from the status of Brahman.

Translation By Max Müller

4. So long as the sun rises in the north and sets in the south, twice as long does it rise above, and set below; and so long does he follow the sovereign power of the Sâdhyas [1].

Footnote:

1. The meaning of the five Khandas from 6 to 10 is clear, in so far as they are intended to show that he who knows or meditates on the sacrifices as described before, enjoys his reward in different worlds with the Vasus, Rudras, &c. for certain periods of time, till at last he reaches the true Brahman. Of these periods each succeeding one is supposed to be double the length of the preceding one. This is expressed by imagining a migration of the sun from east to south, west, north, and zenith. Each change of the sun marks a new world, and the duration of each successive world is computed as double the duration of the preceding world. Similar ideas have been more fully developed in the Purânas, and the commentator is at great pains to remove apparent contradictions between the Paurânik and Vaidik accounts, following, as Ânandagñânagiri remarks, the Dravidâkârya ( , l. 13).


Sloka : 3.11.1

॥ इति दशमः खण्डः ॥

अथ तत ऊर्ध्व उदेत्य नैवोदेता नास्तमेतैकल एव

मध्ये स्थाता तदेष श्लोकः ॥ ३.११.१॥

.. iti daśamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha tata ūrdhva udetya naivodetā nāstametaikala eva

madhye sthātā tadeṣa ślokaḥ .. 3.11.1..



1. Next, after giving to all living beings the fruits of their work, the sun will be above such obligations. It will no longer rise nor set, and will stay by itself midway. Here is a verse on the subject:-





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:- Atha, next; tataḥ, after that [i.e., after giving the living beings the fruits of their work]; ūrdhvaḥ udetyā, [and] having risen above [such tasks]; na eva udetā, it [the sun] will not rise again; na astam-etā, nor will it set; ekalaḥ, alone; eva madhye sthātā, it will stay midway; tat eṣaḥ ślokaḥ, here is a verse on the subject. Commentary:- There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. When from thence he has risen upwards, he neither rises nor sets. He is alone, standing in the centre. And on this there is this verse:-


Sloka : 3.11.2

न वै तत्र न निम्लोच नोदियाय कदाचन ।

देवास्तेनाहꣳसत्येन मा विराधिषि ब्रह्मणेति ॥ ३.११.२॥

na vai tatra na nimloca nodiyāya kadācana .

devāstenāhagͫsatyena mā virādhiṣi brahmaṇeti .. 3.11.2..



2. [In answer to a question]—No, indeed, in Brahmaloka the sun never rose, nor did it ever set. O gods, [listen and bear witness to me]. What I am saying is true, and by it may I have no hindrance to my realization of Brahman.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:- [You ask about the sunrise and sunset in Brahmaloka]—na vai, no indeed; tatra, there [in Brahmaloka]; kadācana na nimloca, [the sun] never set; na udiyāya, nor did it rise; devāḥ, O gods [listen to me]; tena satyena, by this which is true; aham brahmaṇā mā virādhiṣi, may I not have any hindrance to my realization of Brahman. Commentary:- This is an assertion that there is no day or night in Brahmaloka. When a person makes a statement like this, he invokes the gods to bear witness to what he is saying. He is confident that what he is saying is true and that it will be no bar to his being one with Brahman.

Translation By Max Müller

2. 'Yonder he neither rises nor sets at any time. If this is not true, ye gods, may I lose Brahman.'


Sloka : 3.11.3

न ह वा अस्मा उदेति न निम्लोचति सकृद्दिवा हैवास्मै

भवति य एतामेवं ब्रह्मोपनिषदं वेद ॥ ३.११.३॥

na ha vā asmā udeti na nimlocati sakṛddivā haivāsmai

bhavati ya etāmevaṃ brahmopaniṣadaṃ veda .. 3.11.3..



3. For him who knows the secret teachings of Brahman there is no sunrise or sunset [or day or night]. For him there is always day [i.e., light].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Na, not; ha vai asmai, so far as he is concerned; udeti, does [the sun] rise; na nimlocati, nor does it set; asmai, for him; sakṛt divā ha eva bhavati, there is always day [i.e., light]; yaḥ, he who; etām, this; evam, in this way; brahmopaniṣadam, the secret teachings about Brahman; veda, knows. Commentary:-Earlier it was described how Brahman manifests itself in various forms—as a crossbeam, a honeycomb, etc., or as various gods enjoying various nectars. If you understand the underlying meaning of such manifestations, you then attain the knowledge of Brahman. To you then there is no day or night. You are like the sun—self-luminous. You are, in fact, one with Brahman—always the same, eternal, infinite.

Translation By Max Müller

3. And indeed to him who thus knows this Brahma-upanishad (the secret doctrine:- of the Veda) the sun does not rise and does not set. For him there is day, once and for all [1].

Footnote:

1. Cf. Kh. Up. VIII, 4, 2.


Sloka : 3.11.4

तद्धैतद्ब्रह्मा प्रजापतय उवाच प्रजापतिर्मनवे

मनुः प्रजाभ्यस्तद्धैतदुद्दालकायारुणये ज्येष्ठाय पुत्राय

पिता ब्रह्म प्रोवाच ॥ ३.११.४॥

taddhaitadbrahmā prajāpataya uvāca prajāpatirmanave

manuḥ prajābhyastaddhaitaduddālakāyāruṇaye jyeṣṭhāya putrāya

pitā brahma provāca .. 3.11.4..



4. First, Brahmā taught this instruction on honey to Prajāpati. Then Prajāpati taught it to Manu, and Manu taught it to his children. The father Aruṇa then taught this knowledge of Brahman to his eldest son Uddālaka Āruṇi.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat ha etat, that [i.e., the teaching on honey]; brahmā prajāpataya uvāca, Brahmā [first] taught to Prajāpati; prajāpatiḥ manave, Prajāpati [taught it] to Manu; manuḥ prajābhyaḥ, Manu [taught it] to his children; tat ha etat, that; brahma, [knowledge of] Brahman; pitā provāca, the father [Aruṇa] taught; jyeṣṭhāya putrāya uddālakāya āruṇaye, to his eldest son Uddālaka Āruṇi. Commentary:-Starting from Brahmā, this knowledge has passed from generation to generation. The mention of this is only to emphasize its importance. This instruction on honey is nothing but Brahma-vidyā, the knowledge of Brahman. It is the secret of how to attain Brahman.

Translation By Max Müller

4. This doctrine (beginning with III, 1, 1) Brahman (m. Hiranyagarbha) told to Pragâpati (Virâg), Pragâpati to Manu, Manu to his offspring (Ikshvâku, &c.) And the father told that (doctrine of) Brahman (n.) to Uddâlaka Âruni.


Sloka : 3.11.5

इदं वाव तज्ज्येष्ठाय पुत्राय पिता ब्रह्म

प्रब्रूयात्प्रणाय्याय वान्तेवासिने ॥ ३.११.५॥

idaṃ vāva tajjyeṣṭhāya putrāya pitā brahma

prabrūyātpraṇāyyāya vāntevāsine .. 3.11.5..



5. This knowledge of Brahman a father will pass on to his eldest son or to a competent resident student.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat vāva idam brahma, this knowledge of Brahman [previously mentioned as passing from teacher to student]; pitā jyeṣṭhāya putrāya, the father to his eldest son; vā, or; praṇāyyāya, a fit; antevāsine, resident student; prabrūyāt, will teach [or, pass on]. Commentary:-The knowledge of Brahman is the highest gift a person can confer on another. A father who has this knowledge can give it to his eldest son, or a competent teacher can pass it on to a competent student living with him.

Translation By Max Müller

5. A father may therefore tell that doctrine of Brahman to his eldest son [1], or to a worthy pupil.

Footnote:

1. This was the old, not the present custom, says Ânandagiri. Not the father, but an âkârya, has now to teach his pupils.


Sloka : 3.11.6

नान्यस्मै कस्मैचन यद्यप्यस्मा इमामद्भिः परिगृहीतां

धनस्य पूर्णां दद्यादेतदेव ततो भूय इत्येतदेव

ततो भूय इति ॥ ३.११.६॥

nānyasmai kasmaicana yadyapyasmā imāmadbhiḥ parigṛhītāṃ

dhanasya pūrṇāṃ dadyādetadeva tato bhūya ityetadeva

tato bhūya iti .. 3.11.6..



6. This should never be taught to anyone else, even if one is tempted with the whole world full of riches and surrounded by water. For this knowledge is more precious than that. This knowledge is surely more precious than that.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Na anyasmai kasmaicana, to nobody else; yadi api asmai, even if to him [to the teacher]; imām, this [world]; adbhiḥ parigṛhītām, surrounded by water; dhanasya pūrṇām, full of gold; dadyāt, gives; etat, this [instruction on honey]; eva tataḥ bhūyaḥ. iti, is more precious than that [the repetition is for emphasis]. Iti ekādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the eleventh section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

6. But no one should tell it to anybody else, even if he gave him the whole sea-girt earth, full of treasure, for this doctrine is worth more than that, yea, it is worth more.


Sloka : 3.12.1

॥ इति एकादशः खण्डः ॥

गायत्री वा ईदꣳ सर्वं भूतं यदिदं किं च वाग्वै गायत्री

वाग्वा इदꣳ सर्वं भूतं गायति च त्रायते च ॥ ३.१२.१॥

.. iti ekādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

gāyatrī vā īdagͫ sarvaṃ bhūtaṃ yadidaṃ kiṃ ca vāgvai gāyatrī

vāgvā idagͫ sarvaṃ bhūtaṃ gāyati ca trāyate ca .. 3.12.1..



1. All that exists in this world, whatever there is, is gāyatrī. It is the word that is gāyatrī, for the word gives names to all things and it also tells them not to fear.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Gāyatrī vai idam sarvam bhūtam, all these beings are gāyatrī; yat idam kiñca, whatever is there; vāk vai gāyatrī, the word is gāyatrī; vāk vai idam sarvam bhūtam gāyati ca, it is vāk that gives names [or sings] to all things; trāyate ca, and also gives protection. Commentary:-Here the importance of the gāyatrī is Being emphasized. True, the gāyatrī is poetry, but it is that poetry which leads to Brahman. This gāyatrī is also called vāk, word, because it is vāk which identifies everything that exists. Vāk gives everything a name and thereby gives it a status. The word gāyatrī means gāyati ca trāyate ca—that which gives names (or sings) to things and also gives them protection. It also means gāyantam trāyate—that is, he who repeats the gāyatrī is saved. (Ga means singing, and tra means saving or protecting.)

Translation By Max Müller

1. The Gâyatrî [1] (verse) is everything whatsoever here exists. Gâyatrî indeed is speech, for speech sings forth (gâya-ti) and protects (trâya-te) everything that here exists.

Footnote:

1. The Gâyatrî is one of the sacred metres, and is here to be meditated on as Brahman. It is used in the sense of verse, and as the name of a famous hymn. The Gâyatrî is often praised as the most powerful metre, and whatever can be obtained by means of the recitation of Gâyatrî verses is described as the achievement of the Gâyatrî. The etymology of gâyatrî from gai and trâ is, of course, fanciful.


Sloka : 3.12.2

या वै सा गायत्रीयं वाव सा येयं पृथिव्यस्याꣳ हीदꣳ

सर्वं भूतं प्रतिष्ठितमेतामेव नातिशीयते ॥ ३.१२.२॥

yā vai sā gāyatrīyaṃ vāva sā yeyaṃ pṛthivyasyāgͫ hīdagͫ

sarvaṃ bhūtaṃ pratiṣṭhitametāmeva nātiśīyate .. 3.12.2..



2. That which is this gāyatrī is that which is this earth. For all things [moving or unmoving] are attached to this earth and cannot get away from it.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yā vai sā gāyatrī, that which is this gāyatrī; iyam vāva sā, it is that; yā iyam pṛthivī, which is this earth; hi, for; asyām, to this [earth]; sarvam bhūtam, all things [moving or unmoving]; pratiṣṭhitam, are attached; etām eva na atiśīyate, cannot get away from it. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. That Gâyatrî is also the earth, for everything that here exists rests on the earth, and does not go beyond.


Sloka : 3.12.3

या वै सा पृथिवीयं वाव सा यदिदमस्मिन्पुरुषे

शरीरमस्मिन्हीमे प्राणाः प्रतिष्ठिता एतदेव

नातिशीयन्ते ॥ ३.१२.३॥

yā vai sā pṛthivīyaṃ vāva sā yadidamasminpuruṣe

śarīramasminhīme prāṇāḥ pratiṣṭhitā etadeva

nātiśīyante .. 3.12.3..



3. That which is this earth is this human body, because all the prāṇas are based in this body and cannot exist independent of it.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yā vai sā pṛthivī, that which [has earlier been referred to as] this earth; iyam vāva sā, it is that; yat idam asmin puruṣe śarīram, the body which is associated with a human being; hi, because; asmin, on this [body]; ime prāṇāḥ, these prāṇas [i.e., prāṇa, apāna, etc., and also the five elements—ākāśa, vāyu, etc.]; pratiṣṭhitāḥ, are based; etat eva na atiśīyante, they cannot go beyond this [body—i.e., they cannot exist independent of this body]. Commentary:-The earth is the gāyatrī and this gāyatrī is also the human body because the human body is born of the earth. How is the human body borm of the earth? This body is made up of the same elements (space, air, fire, etc.) that the earth is. The five prāṇas (prāṇa, apāna, vyāna, udāna, and samāna) are also known as elements, and they rest on this body. The body is therefore the gāyatrī like the earth. It is the gāyatrī because the prāṇas cannot exist without the body.

Translation By Max Müller

3. That earth again is the body in man, for in it the vital airs (prânas [1], which are everything) rest, and do not go beyond.

Footnote:

1. The prânas may be meant for the five senses, as explained in Kh. I, 2, 1; II, 7, 1; or for the five breathings, as explained immediately afterwards in III, 13, 1. The commentator sees in them everything that here exists (Kh. Up. III, 15, 4), and thus establishes the likeness between the body and the Gâyatrî. As Gâyatrî is the earth, and the earth the body, and the body the heart, Gâyatrî is in the end to be considered as the heart.


Sloka : 3.12.4

यद्वै तत्पुरुषे शरीरमिदं वाव तद्यदिदमस्मिन्नन्तः

पुरुषे हृदयमस्मिन्हीमे प्राणाः प्रतिष्ठिता एतदेव

नातिशीयन्ते ॥ ३.१२.४॥

yadvai tatpuruṣe śarīramidaṃ vāva tadyadidamasminnantaḥ

puruṣe hṛdayamasminhīme prāṇāḥ pratiṣṭhitā etadeva

nātiśīyante .. 3.12.4..



4. That which is in this human body is in this human heart, for all these prāṇas are based in this heart and cannot exist independent of it.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yat vai tat puruṣe śarīram, that which is in this human body; idam vāva tat, it is that; yat idam asmin antaḥ puruṣe hṛdayam, which is in this human heart; hi, because; asmin, in this [heart]; ime prāṇāḥ, these prāṇas [the vital forces]; pratiṣṭhitāḥ, are based; etat eva na atiśīyante, they cannot go beyond this [heart—i.e., they cannot exist independent of this heart]. Commentary:-The human body has been described as the gāyatrī. But where is that gāyatrī? It is in the heart. In fact, the heart is the gāyatrī. In what sense can the heart be called the gāyatrī? In the sense that all the prāṇas are in the heart and cannot exist separate from it. And since the body is the gāyatrī, the heart is also the gāyatrī.

Translation By Max Müller

4. That body again in man is the heart within man, for in it the prânas (which are everything) rest, and do not go beyond.


Sloka : 3.12.5

सैषा चतुष्पदा षड्विधा गायत्री तदेतदृचाभ्यनूक्तम्

॥ ३.१२.५॥

saiṣā catuṣpadā ṣaḍvidhā gāyatrī tadetadṛcābhyanūktam

.. 3.12.5..



5. The gāyatrī has four quarters, each being sixfold. This is what is stated in a Ṛk mantra:-





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Sā eṣā gāyatrī catuṣpadā, this gāyatrī has four feet [i.e., quarters]; ṣaṣvidhā, each of them sixfold; tat etat ṛcā abhyanūktam, this is what is stated in a Ṛk mantra [Ṛg Veda 10.10.3]. Commentary:-The gāyatrī is also known as Brahma-gāyatrī. It is one with everything. The Upaniṣad says here that the gāyatrī has four quarters and each quarter has six parts (that is, it

Translation By Max Müller

5. That Gâyatrî has four feet [1] and is sixfold [2]. And this is also declared by a Rik verse (Rig-Veda X, 90, 3):--

Footnote:

1. The four feet are explained as the four quarters of the Gâyatrî metre, of six syllables each. The Gâyatrî really consists of three feet of eight syllables each. 2. The Gâyatrî has been identified with all beings, with speech, earth, body, heart, and the vital airs, and is therefore called sixfold. This, at least, is the way in which the commentator accounts for the epithet 'sixfold.'


Sloka : 3.12.6

तावानस्य महिमा ततो ज्यायाꣳश्च पूरुषः ।

पादोऽस्य सर्वा भूतानि त्रिपादस्यामृतं दिवीति ॥ ३.१२.६॥

tāvānasya mahimā tato jyāyāgͫśca pūruṣaḥ .

pādo'sya sarvā bhūtāni tripādasyāmṛtaṃ divīti .. 3.12.6..



6. Its glory is like this. But the glory of the puruṣa [i.e., Brahman, who fills the whole world] is still greater. All creatures constitute one quarter of him. The remaining three quarters are nectar in heaven.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tāvān, like this; asya mahimā, its glory; tataḥ jyāyān ca puruṣaḥ, that [i.e., the glory] of the puruṣa [i.e., Brahman, who fills the whole world] is still greater; pādaḥ asya sarvā [i.e., sarvāṇi] bhūtāni, all things constitute one foot [or, quarter] of him; tripād asya, [the remaining] three feet [or, quarters] of him; amṛtam divi, are like nectar in heaven. Commentary:-Brahman has been described as the gāyatrī, having four feet (or, quarters) and being sixfold. This is just figurative, however. Brahman is Brahman and there is no way of describing it. In reality, it is without name and form, beyond thought and speech. It is the Absolute. Brahman can be conceived as both the cause and the effect. As the cause (karaṇa) nothing can be predicated about it; it is nirupādhika, without attributes. As the effect (kārya) it is sopādhika, with attributes. Similarly, the gāyatrī is said here to have four quarters and six parts. These are attributes used to help a disciple understand. As the Pañcadaśi says (verse II.58), ‘Niraṃśe api aṃśam āropya....’ (that is, parts are superimposed on that which has no parts in order to explain what cannot be described).

Translation By Max Müller

6. 'Such is the greatness of it (of Brahman, under the disguise of Gâyatrî [1]); greater than it is the Person [2] (purusha). His feet are all things. The immortal with three feet is in heaven (i. e. in himself).'

Footnote:

1. Of Brahman modified as Gâyatrî, having four feet, and being sixfold. 2. The real Brahman, unmodified by form and name.


Sloka : 3.12.7

यद्वै तद्ब्रह्मेतीदं वाव तद्योयं बहिर्धा

पुरुषादाकाशो यो वै स बहिर्धा पुरुषादाकाशः ॥ ३.१२.७॥

yadvai tadbrahmetīdaṃ vāva tadyoyaṃ bahirdhā

puruṣādākāśo yo vai sa bahirdhā puruṣādākāśaḥ .. 3.12.7..



7-9. That which is Brahman is also the space outside the body. That which is the space outside the body is also the space inside the body. And that which is the space inside the body is also the space within the heart. That treasure within the heart is full and unchanging. He who knows this is always full and not subject to change.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yat vai tat brahma iti, that which is Brahman; idam vāva tat, it is that; yaḥ, which; ayam, is this; ākāśaḥ, space; bahirdhā puruṣāt, outside the human body; yaḥ vai saḥ ākāśaḥ, that which is the space; bahirdhā puruṣāt, outside the human body; ayam vāva saḥ, it is that; yaḥ ayam ākāśaḥ, which is this space; antaḥ puruṣe, inside the human body; yaḥ vai saḥ antaḥ puruṣe ākāśaḥ, that which is the space inside the human body; ayam vāva saḥ, it is that; yaḥ ayam ākāśaḥ, which is this space; antaḥ hṛdaye, inside the heart; tat etat, it is that; pūrṇam, full; apravarti, unchanging; śriyam, treasure; yaḥ evam veda, he who knows this; pūrṇām apravartinīm labhate, becomes full and is not subject to change. Iti dvādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the twelfth section. Commentary:-Earlier Brahman was described as the gāyatrī with four quarters and also as amṛta, nectar. Here it is described as space. It is the same space which is inside as well as outside the human body, and also within the heart. The Upaniṣad says that this ākāśa in the heart is full and never changes. That is to say, it is free from desire and because of that it is never subject to change. Anyone who knows that ākāśa in the heart as such is himself always full and free from desire.

Translation By Max Müller

7. The Brahman which has been thus described (as immortal with three feet in heaven, and as Gâyatrî) is the same as the ether which is around us;


Sloka : 3.12.8

अयं वाव स योऽयमन्तः पुरुष अकाशो यो वै सोऽन्तः

पुरुष आकाशः ॥ ३.१२.८॥

ayaṃ vāva sa yo'yamantaḥ puruṣa akāśo yo vai so'ntaḥ

puruṣa ākāśaḥ .. 3.12.8..



Translation By Max Müller

8. And the ether which is around us, is the same as the ether which is within us. And the ether which is within us,


Sloka : 3.12.9

अयं वाव स योऽयमन्तर्हृदय आकाशस्तदेतत्पूर्णमप्रवर्ति

पूर्णमप्रवर्तिनीꣳश्रियं लभते य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१२.९॥

ayaṃ vāva sa yo'yamantarhṛdaya ākāśastadetatpūrṇamapravarti

pūrṇamapravartinīgͫśriyaṃ labhate ya evaṃ veda .. 3.12.9..



Translation By Max Müller

9. That is the ether within the heart. That ether in the heart (as Brahman) is omnipresent and unchanging. He who knows this obtains omnipresent and unchangeable happiness.


Sloka : 3.13.1

॥ इति द्वादशः खण्डः ॥

तस्य ह वा एतस्य हृदयस्य पञ्च देवसुषयः

स योऽस्य प्राङ्सुषिः स प्राणस्तच्चक्षुः

स आदित्यस्तदेतत्तेजोऽन्नाद्यमित्युपासीत

तेजस्व्यन्नादो भवति य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१३.१॥

.. iti dvādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

tasya ha vā etasya hṛdayasya pañca devasuṣayaḥ

sa yo'sya prāṅsuṣiḥ sa prāṇastaccakṣuḥ

sa ādityastadetattejo'nnādyamityupāsīta

tejasvyannādo bhavati ya evaṃ veda .. 3.13.1..



1. In the heart there are five doors guarded by the gods. The door in the east is prāṇa. It is also the eyes, and it is Āditya. Worship this as the source of brightness and food. He who knows this becomes bright and enjoys food.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tasya ha vai etasya hṛdayasya, of this heart; pañca devasuṣayaḥ, five passages guarded by the gods; saḥ yaḥ, that which; asya prāṅsuṣiḥ, is its eastern passage; saḥ prāṇaḥ, that is prāṇa; tat cakṣuḥ, that is [also] the eye; saḥ ādityaḥ, [and] that is Āditya [the sun]; tat etat, it is that; tejaḥ annādyam iti upāsīta, meditate on as the source of brightness and food; yaḥ evam veda, he who knows this; tejasvī annādaḥ bhavati, becomes bright and an eater of food. Commentary:-If you want to enter a house, you must please those who are at the gates. Similarly, if you want to enter heaven, you must worship Brahman as prāṇa. As you do so, you should attribute to prāṇa the qualities of Àditya and annāda—that is, of brightness and strength. If. prāṇa is pleased with you, you have no difficulty attaining heaven.

Translation By Max Müller

1. For that heart there are five gates belonging to the Devas (the senses). The eastern gate is the Prâna (up-breathing), that is the eye, that is Âditya (the sun). Let a man meditate on that as brightness (glory of countenance) and health. He who knows this, becomes bright and healthy.


Sloka : 3.13.2

अथ योऽस्य दक्षिणः सुषिः स व्यानस्तच्छ्रोत्रꣳ

स चन्द्रमास्तदेतच्छ्रीश्च यशश्चेत्युपासीत

श्रीमान्यशस्वी भवति य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१३.२॥

atha yo'sya dakṣiṇaḥ suṣiḥ sa vyānastacchrotragͫ

sa candramāstadetacchrīśca yaśaścetyupāsīta

śrīmānyaśasvī bhavati ya evaṃ veda .. 3.13.2..



2. Next, the southern door of the heart is vyāna. It is also the ears, and it is the moon. Worship it as the source of prosperity and fame. He who knows this becomes prosperous and famous.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yaḥ asya dakṣiṇaḥ suṣiḥ, that which is its southern passage; saḥ vyānaḥ, that is vyāna; tat śrotram, that is [also] the ear; saḥ candramāḥ, [and] that is the moon; tat etat, it is that; śrīḥ ca yaśaḥ iti upāsīta, meditate on as prosperity and fame; yaḥ evam veda, he who knows this; śrīmān yaśasvī bhavati, becomes fortunate and famous. Commentary:-Vyāna is the air that is spread all over the body. It is also the breath you need when you are doing some hard work. Vyāna is the door, or passage, in the southern part of the heart, and it is connected with hearing and the moon. A person learns by hearing, so the ear is said to be the source of knowledge. The moon is the source of food, which gives a person strength, and from strength and knowledge a person acquires prosperity and fame. By worshipping vyāna as Brahman a person can attain heaven, which is his primary concern, and secondarily he attains prosperity and fame.

Translation By Max Müller

2. The southern gate is the Vyâna (back-breathing), that is the ear, that is the moon. Let a man meditate on that as happiness and fame. He who knows this, becomes happy and famous.


Sloka : 3.13.3

अथ योऽस्य प्रत्यङ्सुषिः सोऽपानः

सा वाक्सोऽग्निस्तदेतद्ब्रह्मवर्चसमन्नाद्यमित्युपासीत

ब्रह्मवर्चस्यन्नादो भवति य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१३.३॥

atha yo'sya pratyaṅsuṣiḥ so'pānaḥ

sā vākso'gnistadetadbrahmavarcasamannādyamityupāsīta

brahmavarcasyannādo bhavati ya evaṃ veda .. 3.13.3..



3. Next, the western door of the heart is apāna. It is also vāk, and it is fire. Worship this [Brahman in the form of apāna] as the radiance of Brahman and as food. He who knows this becomes radiant with the light of Brahman and a great eater of food.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yaḥ asya prātyāṅsuṣiḥ, that which is its western passage; saḥ apānaḥ, that is apāna; sā vāk, that is [also] vāk [word]; saḥ agniḥ, [and] that is fire; tat etat, it is that [Brahman as apāna]; brahmavarcasam ca annādyam iti upāsīta, meditate on as the radiance of Brahman [that comes from living a disciplined life and from scholarship] and as food; yah evam veda, he who knows this; Commentary:-Apāna’s function is to remove all waste from the body. It is connected with speech and fire. Brahmavarcasa is the radiance a person acquires when he has much scholarship and has led a disciplined life. One who meditates on apāna as Brahman acquires this radiance and also food.

Translation By Max Müller

3. The western gate is the Apâna (down-breathing), that is speech, that is Agni (fire). Let a man meditate on that as glory of countenance and health. He who knows this, becomes glorious and healthy.


Sloka : 3.13.4

अथ योऽस्योदङ्सुषिः स समानस्तन्मनः

स पर्जन्यस्तदेतत्कीर्तिश्च व्युष्टिश्चेत्युपासीत

कीर्तिमान्व्युष्टिमान्भवति य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१३.४॥

atha yo'syodaṅsuṣiḥ sa samānastanmanaḥ

sa parjanyastadetatkīrtiśca vyuṣṭiścetyupāsīta

kīrtimānvyuṣṭimānbhavati ya evaṃ veda .. 3.13.4..



4. Next, the northern door of the heart is samāna. It is also the mind, and it is the god of rain. Worship this [Brahman in the form of samāna] as fame and beauty. He who knows this becomes famous and beautiful.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yaḥ asya udaṅsuṣiḥ, that which is its northern passage; saḥ samānaḥ, that is samāna; tat manaḥ, that is [also] the mind; saḥ parjanyaḥ, [and] that is the god of rain; tat etat, it is that [Brahman as samāna]; kīrtiḥ ca vyuṣṭiḥ ca iti upāsīta, meditate on as fame and beauty; yaḥ evam veda, he who knows this; kīrtimān vyuṣṭimān bhavati, becomes famous and beautiful. Commentary:-Samāna is so called because it digests all food and drink and makes them equal (sama). The mind and rain are connnected with samāna, and since fame is connected with the mind, it is attributed to samāna. Like fame, physical beauty is also the result of samāna.

Translation By Max Müller

4. The northern gate is the Samâna (on-breathing), that is mind, that is Parganya (rain). Let a man meditate on that as celebrity and beauty. He who knows this, becomes celebrated and beautiful.


Sloka : 3.13.5

अथ योऽस्योर्ध्वः सुषिः स उदानः स वायुः

स आकाशस्तदेतदोजश्च महश्चेत्युपासीतौजस्वी

महस्वान्भवति य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१३.५॥

atha yo'syordhvaḥ suṣiḥ sa udānaḥ sa vāyuḥ

sa ākāśastadetadojaśca mahaścetyupāsītaujasvī

mahasvānbhavati ya evaṃ veda .. 3.13.5..



5. Next, the door at the top of the heart is udāna. It is also vāyu [air], and it is ākāśa [space]. Worship this [Brahman in the form of udāna] as strength and greatness. He who knows this becomes strong and great.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yaḥ asya ūrdhvaḥ suṣiḥ, that which is its passage at the top [of the heart]; saḥ udānaḥ, that is udāna; saḥ vāyuḥ, that is [also] vāyu [air]; saḥ ākāśaḥ, [and] that is ākāśa [space]; tat etat, it is that [Brahman as udāna]; ojaḥ ca mahaḥ ca Commentary:-There is an aperture at the upper part of the heart, and this is known as udāna. Air passes through this aperture from the feet to the head to help maintain the necessary operations of the body. The air that passes thus is also called udāna. Ākāśa (space) is the support of this udāna. Because udāna is one of the gateways to Brahman, it is meditated on as Brahman. If you do this, you become strong and famous. But, more important, you also attain heaven.

Translation By Max Müller

5. The upper gate is the Udâna (out-breathing), that is air, that is ether. Let a man meditate on that as strength and greatness. He who knows this, becomes strong and great.


Sloka : 3.13.6

ते वा एते पञ्च ब्रह्मपुरुषाः स्वर्गस्य लोकस्य

द्वारपाः स य एतानेवं पञ्च ब्रह्मपुरुषान्स्वर्गस्य

लोकस्य द्वारपान्वेदास्य कुले वीरो जायते प्रतिपद्यते

स्वर्गं लोकं य एतानेवं पञ्च ब्रह्मपुरुषान्स्वर्गस्य

लोकस्य द्वारपान्वेद ॥ ३.१३.६॥

te vā ete pañca brahmapuruṣāḥ svargasya lokasya

dvārapāḥ sa ya etānevaṃ pañca brahmapuruṣānsvargasya

lokasya dvārapānvedāsya kule vīro jāyate pratipadyate

svargaṃ lokaṃ ya etānevaṃ pañca brahmapuruṣānsvargasya

lokasya dvārapānveda .. 3.13.6..



6. These five prāṇas are themselves like Brahman, and they are the gatekeepers of heaven. Anyone who regards these prāṇas as Brahman and as the gatekeepers to heaven has a heroic child born in his family. Knowing these prāṇas as Brahman and as the gatekeepers of heaven, a person attains heaven himself.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te vai ete pañca brahma-puruṣāḥ, these five [prāṇas] are the employees of Brahman; svargasya lokasya dvārapāḥ, the gatekeepers of the heavenly world; sāḥ yaḥ veda, he who knows; etān pañca brahma-puruṣān, these five Brahma-puruṣas; svargasya lokasya dvārapān, as gatekeepers of the heavenly world; evam, thus; asya kule vīraḥ jāyate, a heroic child is born in his family; yaḥ etān pañca brahma-puruṣān evam svargasya lokasya dvārapān veda, he who knows these five Brahma-puruṣas thus as the gatekeepers of the heavenly world; svargam lokam pratipadyate, attains the heavenly world. Commentary:-Here the advice is to regard everything as Brahman. If you practise thinking that everything is Brahman, you acquire self-restraint, which is the sine qua non of Self-realization. The advice here is to treat the five prāṇas with great respect, so that they may allow you to enter straight into heaven.

Translation By Max Müller

6. These are the five men of Brahman, the doorkeepers of the Svarga (heaven) world. He who knows these five men of Brahman, the door-keepers of the Svarga world, in his family a strong son is born. He who thus knows these five men of Brahman, as the door-keepers of the Svarga world, enters himself the Svarga world.


Sloka : 3.13.7

अथ यदतः परो दिवो ज्योतिर्दीप्यते विश्वतः पृष्ठेषु

सर्वतः पृष्ठेष्वनुत्तमेषूत्तमेषु लोकेष्विदं वाव

तद्यदिदमस्मिन्नन्तः पुरुषे ज्योतिः ॥ ३.१३.७॥

atha yadataḥ paro divo jyotirdīpyate viśvataḥ pṛṣṭheṣu

sarvataḥ pṛṣṭheṣvanuttameṣūttameṣu lokeṣvidaṃ vāva

tadyadidamasminnantaḥ puruṣe jyotiḥ .. 3.13.7..



7. Then, higher than this heaven, above the world, higher than everything, in the highest world, higher than which nothing exists—the light that shines there is the same light that is in a human being.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; ataḥ paraḥ divaḥ, higher than this heaven; yat jyotiḥ dīpyate, the light which shines; viśvataḥ pṛṣṭheṣu, above the world; sarvataḥ pṛṣṭheṣu, above everything; anuttameṣu uttameṣu lokeṣu, in the highest worlds not excelled by any other world [known as satyaloka]; idam vāva tat, it is that; jyotiḥ, light; yat idam asmin antaḥ puruṣe, which is the same as in a human being. Commentary:-Brahman is said to be above everything else. It is the highest and the best. It shines in the highest world and it also shines in the heart of a human being.

Translation By Max Müller

7. Now that light which shines above this heaven, higher than all, higher than everything, in the highest world, beyond which there are no other worlds, that is the same light which is within man. And of this we have this visible proof [1]:-

Footnote:

1. The presence of Brahman in the heart of man is not to rest on the testimony of revelation only, but is here to be established by the evidence of the senses. Childish as the argument may seem to us, it shows at all events how intently the old Brahmans thought on the problem of the evidence of the invisible.


Sloka : 3.13.8

तस्यैषा दृष्टिर्यत्रितदस्मिञ्छरीरे सꣳस्पर्शेनोष्णिमानं

विजानाति तस्यैषा श्रुतिर्यत्रैतत्कर्णावपिगृह्य निनदमिव

नदथुरिवाग्नेरिव ज्वलत उपश‍ृणोति तदेतद्दृष्टं च

श्रुतं चेत्युपासीत चक्षुष्यः श्रुतो भवति य एवं वेद

य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१३.८॥

tasyaiṣā dṛṣṭiryatritadasmiñcharīre sagͫsparśenoṣṇimānaṃ

vijānāti tasyaiṣā śrutiryatraitatkarṇāvapigṛhya ninadamiva

nadathurivāgneriva jvalata upaśṛṇoti tadetaddṛṣṭaṃ ca

śrutaṃ cetyupāsīta cakṣuṣyaḥ śruto bhavati ya evaṃ veda

ya evaṃ veda .. 3.13.8..



8. Here is proof of it:- When you touch the body you can feel heat in it. There is also an audible proof of it:- When you cover your ears you can hear a sound like a moving chariot, or like the bellowing of a bullock, or like a burning fire. A person should meditate on that light in the body as something that is seen and heard. He who knows this becomes a distinguished person—people want to see him and he is widely known.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tasya, its [i.e., of the Self in the bodies]; eṣā dṛṣṭiḥ, this visible [proof]; yatra, when; etat asmin śarīre, in this body; saṃsparśena, by touch; uṣṇimānam, warmth; vijānāti, one can feel; tasya eṣā śrutiḥ, this audible [proof] of it; yatra etat karṇau apigṛhya, when one covers the ears; ninadam iva, like the sound of a moving chariot; nadathuḥ iva, like the bellowing of a bullock; agneḥ iva jvalataḥ, like the sound of a burning fire; upaśṛṇoti, one can hear; tat etat, that [light]; iti upāsīta, one should meditate on; dṛṣṭam ca śrutam ca, as seen and as heard; yaḥ evam veda, he who knows this; cakṣuṣyaḥ śrutaḥ bhavati, becomes worth seeing and famous. Iti trayodaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the thirteenth section. Commentary:-What proof is there that there is any light in the heart? One proof is the warmth of the body. This warmth comes from the light within. But there is yet another proof:- If you cover your ears you will hear all manner of sounds. The sounds and the feeling of warmth both prove that Brahman is within.

Translation By Max Müller

8. Namely, when we thus perceive by touch the warmth here in the body [1]. And of it we have this audible proof:- Namely, when we thus, after stopping our ears, listen to what is like the rolling of a carriage, or the bellowing of an ox, or the sound of a burning fire [2] (within the ears). Let a man meditate on this as the (Brahman) which is seen and heard. He, who knows this, becomes conspicuous and celebrated, yea, he becomes celebrated.

Footnote:

1. That warmth must come from something, just as smoke comes from fire, and this something is supposed to be Brahman in the heart. 2. Cf. Ait. Âr. III, 2, 4, 11-13.


Sloka : 3.14.1

॥ इति त्रयोदशः खण्डः ॥

सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्म तज्जलानिति शान्त उपासीत ।

अथ खलु क्रतुमयः पुरुषो यथाक्रतुरस्मिꣳल्लोके

पुरुषो भवति तथेतः प्रेत्य भवति स क्रतुं कुर्वीत

॥ ३.१४.१॥

.. iti trayodaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

sarvaṃ khalvidaṃ brahma tajjalāniti śānta upāsīta .

atha khalu kratumayaḥ puruṣo yathākraturasmigͫlloke

puruṣo bhavati tathetaḥ pretya bhavati sa kratuṃ kurvīta

.. 3.14.1..



1. All this is Brahman. Everything comes from Brahman, everything goes back to Brahman, and everything is sustained by Brahman. One should therefore quietly meditate on Brahman. Each person has a mind of his own. What a person wills in his present life, he becomes when he leaves this world. One should bear this in mind and meditate accordingly.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Sarvam idam, all this; khalu; no doubt; brahma, is Brahman; tajjalān, from this everything comes, into this everything disappears, and on this everything is sustained; iti śāntaḥ upāsīta, meditate on this fact quietly; atha khalu kratumayaḥ puruṣaḥ, because each person has a mind of his own; asmin loke, [therefore] in his present life; yathā kratuḥ puruṣaḥ bhavati, just as a person wills; itaḥ pretya tathā bhavati, he becomes that when he leaves this world; saḥ kratum kurvīta, [therefore] he should be careful about what he wants. Commentary:-The word brahman means ‘the oldest,’ ‘the biggest.’ Tejas (fire), jala (water), and pṛthivī (earth) emerged from Brahman in that order, so they are called tajja. Then they disappear in Brahman in the reverse order, so they are called talla. In the past, in the present, and in the future—they are sustained in Brahman. They are, therefore, one with Brahman. The Upaniṣad says here to think over this with kratu—that is, with great effort, and with deep concentration. Kratu also means will, or will power. It is your will that decides your destiny. Śrī Kṛṣṇa said to Arjuna (Bhagavad Gītā 8.6):- ‘O son of Kunti, at the time of death when a person leaves the body, he attains whatever object he thinks of, as he has been [previously] constantly absorbed in its thought.’ This shows the importance of your kratu.

Translation By Max Müller

1. All this is Brahman (n.) Let a man meditate on that (visible world) as beginning, ending, and breathing [1] in it (the Brahman). Now man is a creature of will. According to what his will is in this world, so will he be when he has departed this life. Let him therefore have this will and belief:-

Footnote:

1. Galân is explained by ga, born, la, absorbed, and an, breathing. It is an artificial term, but fully recognised by the Vedânta school, and always explained in this manner.


Sloka : 3.14.2

मनोमयः प्राणशरीरो भारूपः सत्यसंकल्प

आकाशात्मा सर्वकर्मा सर्वकामः सर्वगन्धः सर्वरसः

सर्वमिदमभ्यत्तोऽवाक्यनादरः ॥ ३.१४.२॥

manomayaḥ prāṇaśarīro bhārūpaḥ satyasaṃkalpa

ākāśātmā sarvakarmā sarvakāmaḥ sarvagandhaḥ sarvarasaḥ

sarvamidamabhyatto'vākyanādaraḥ .. 3.14.2..



2. He is controlled by the mind [i.e., his mind decides what he should and should not do]. He has a subtle body, and he is luminous. If he wants something, he never fails to get it. His Self is spotless like the sky. The whole world is his creation. [Desires are many, and] all those desires are his desires. All odours are his; similarly, all tastes are his. He is everywhere in the world. He has no sense organs, and he is free from desires.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Manomayaḥ, dominated by the mind; prāṇaśarīraḥ, with a subtle body; bhārūpaḥ, whose body is luminous; satyasaṅkalpaḥ, whose thoughts always prove true; ākāśātmā, spotless like the sky; sarvakarmā, whose creation is this world; sarvakāmaḥ, whose desires are always pure; sarvagandhaḥ, who possesses good odours; sarvarasaḥ, whose tastes are all pure; idam sarvam abhyāttaḥ, this is all-pervasive; avākī anādaraḥ, has no sense organs and no desires. Commentary:-This is how you meditate on your Self. You have a mind, and with the help of that mind you can decide what you will or will not do. You have a subtle body consisting of the five organs of action (pañca karmendriyas), the five organs of perception (pañca jñānendriyas), the vital breath in its five forms (prāṇa, apāna, vyāna, udāna, and samāna), plus the mind and the intellect. You are luminous. Whatever you wish for, you acquire. You are spotless, like the sky, and all-pervasive. You are the sole doer of things. You are the source of all desires, and all your desires are pure. You are also the source of all odours and tastes. You have no organs, and you are everywhere. There is nothing you have not already achieved.

Translation By Max Müller

2. The intelligent, whose body is spirit, whose form is light, whose thoughts are true, whose nature is like ether (omnipresent and invisible), from whom all works, all desires, all sweet odours and tastes proceed; he who embraces all this, who never speaks, and is never surprised,


Sloka : 3.14.3

एष म आत्मान्तर्हृदयेऽणीयान्व्रीहेर्वा यवाद्वा

सर्षपाद्वा श्यामाकाद्वा श्यामाकतण्डुलाद्वैष

म आत्मान्तर्हृदये ज्यायान्पृथिव्या

ज्यायानन्तरिक्षाज्ज्यायान्दिवो ज्यायानेभ्यो

लोकेभ्यः ॥ ३.१४.३॥

eṣa ma ātmāntarhṛdaye'ṇīyānvrīhervā yavādvā

sarṣapādvā śyāmākādvā śyāmākataṇḍulādvaiṣa

ma ātmāntarhṛdaye jyāyānpṛthivyā

jyāyānantarikṣājjyāyāndivo jyāyānebhyo

lokebhyaḥ .. 3.14.3..



3. My Self within my heart is smaller than a grain of rice, smaller than a grain of barley, smaller than a mustard seed, smaller than a grain of millet, smaller even than the kernel of a grain of millet. The Self in my heart is larger than the earth, larger than the mid-region, larger than heaven, and larger even than all these worlds.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Eṣaḥ me ātmā, this my Self; antaḥ hṛdaye, inside the heart; aṇīyān, smaller than; vrīheḥ vā, a grain of rice; yavāt vā, or a grain of barley; sarṣapāt vā, or a mustard seed; śyāmākāt vā, or a grain of millet; śyāmākataṇḍulāt vā, or the kernel of a grain of millet; eṣaḥ me ātmā antaḥ hṛdaye, this Self within my heart; jyāyān pṛthivyā, is larger than the earth; jyāyān antarikṣāt, larger than the mid-region; jyāyān divaḥ, larger than heaven; jyāyān ebhyaḥ lokebhyāḥ, larger than all these worlds. Commentary:-The underlying idea in the verse is that the Self is everything and everywhere. It is therefore smaller than the smallest and bigger than the biggest.

Translation By Max Müller

3. He is my self within the heart, smaller than a corn of rice, smaller than a corn of barley, smaller than a mustard seed, smaller than a canary seed or the kernel of a canary seed. He also is my self within the heart, greater than the earth, greater than the sky, greater than heaven, greater than all these worlds.


Sloka : 3.14.4

सर्वकर्मा सर्वकामः सर्वगन्धः सर्वरसः

सर्वमिदमभ्यात्तोऽवाक्यनादर एष म आत्मान्तर्हृदय

एतद्ब्रह्मैतमितः प्रेत्याभिसंभवितास्मीति यस्य स्यादद्धा

न विचिकित्सास्तीति ह स्माह शाण्डिल्यः शाण्डिल्यः

॥ ३.१४.४॥

sarvakarmā sarvakāmaḥ sarvagandhaḥ sarvarasaḥ

sarvamidamabhyātto'vākyanādara eṣa ma ātmāntarhṛdaya

etadbrahmaitamitaḥ pretyābhisaṃbhavitāsmīti yasya syādaddhā

na vicikitsāstīti ha smāha śāṇḍilyaḥ śāṇḍilyaḥ

.. 3.14.4..



4. He who is the sole creator, whose desires are the desires of all, whose odours are the odours of all, whose tastes are the tastes of all, who is everywhere, who has no sense organs, and who is free from desires—he is my Self and is in my heart. He is no other than Brahman. When I leave this body, I shall attain him. He who firmly believes this has no doubt in his mind. [He will surely attain Brahman.] This is what Śāṇḍilya has said.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yaḥ, he who; sarvakarmā, is the sole creator of everything; sarvakāmaḥ, whose desires are the desires of all; sarvagandhaḥ, whose odours are the odours of all; sarvarasaḥ, whose tastes are the tastes of all; sarvam idam abhyāttaḥ, who is in all this; avākī, who is without any organs; anādaraḥ, who is not interested in anything; eṣaḥ me ātmā antaḥ hṛdaye, this Self of mine is within my heart; etat brahma, this is Brahman; itaḥ pretya, upon leaving this body; etam abhisambhavitāsmi iti, I shall attain him; yasya syāt addhā, one who has this kind of belief; na vicikitsā asti, has no doubt in his mind; iti ha sma āha śāṇḍilyaḥ, this is what Śāṇḍilya said; śāṇḍilyaḥ, [this is what] Śāṇḍilya [said]. Iti caturdaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fourteenth section. Commentary:-The word Self here means the Cosmic Self (Paramātman). If you believe that you are the Cosmic Self, and that you will be free as soon as your prārabdha karma (the results of your past actions that are now bearing fruit) is exhausted and your

Translation By Max Müller

4. He from whom all works, all desires, all sweet odours and tastes proceed, who embraces all this, who never speaks and who is never surprised, he, my self within the heart, is that Brahman (n.) When I shall have departed from hence, I shall obtain him (that Self). He who has this faith [1] has no doubt; thus said Sândilya [2], yea, thus he said.

Footnote:

1. Or he who has faith and no doubt, will obtain this. 2. This chapter is frequently quoted as the Sândilya-vidyâ, Vedântasâra, init; Vedânta-sûtra III, 3, 31.


Sloka : 3.15.1

॥ इति चतुर्दशः खण्डः ॥

अन्तरिक्षोदरः कोशो भूमिबुध्नो न जीर्यति दिशो

ह्यस्य स्रक्तयो द्यौरस्योत्तरं बिलꣳ स एष कोशो

वसुधानस्तस्मिन्विश्वमिदꣳ श्रितम् ॥ ३.१५.१॥

.. iti caturdaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

antarikṣodaraḥ kośo bhūmibudhno na jīryati diśo

hyasya sraktayo dyaurasyottaraṃ bilagͫ sa eṣa kośo

vasudhānastasminviśvamidagͫ śritam .. 3.15.1..



1. There is a chest which has the mid-region as its inside and the earth as its bottom. It never decays. The quarters are its sides and the heaven its opening above. This chest is the container of treasures, for in it rests the whole universe.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Kośaḥ, the chest; antarikṣa-udaraḥ, with the midregion as its inside; bhūmi-budhnaḥ, the earth as its bottom; na jīryati, never decays; diśaḥ, the quarters; hi asya sraktayaḥ, are its sides; dyauḥ, the heaven; asya uttaram bilam, is its opening above; saḥ eṣaḥ kośaḥ, this chest; vasudhānaḥ, [is] the container of treasures; tasmin, in it; viśvam idam śritam, rests this universe. Commentary:-The universe is here compared to a chest. Whatever you put inside a chest is safe there. Similarly, whatever is in the universe is safe and sound. It may change its form, but it does not totally disappear.

Translation By Max Müller

1. The chest which has the sky for its circumference and the earth for its bottom, does not decay, for the quarters are its sides, and heaven its lid above. That chest is a treasury, and all things are within it.


Sloka : 3.15.2

तस्य प्राची दिग्जुहूर्नाम सहमाना नाम दक्षिणा

राज्ञी नाम प्रतीची सुभूता नामोदीची तासां

वायुर्वत्सः स य एतमेवं वायुं दिशां वत्सं वेद न

पुत्ररोदꣳ रोदिति सोऽहमेतमेवं वायुं दिशां वत्सं

वेद मा पुत्ररोदꣳरुदम् ॥ ३.१५.२॥

tasya prācī digjuhūrnāma sahamānā nāma dakṣiṇā

rājñī nāma pratīcī subhūtā nāmodīcī tāsāṃ

vāyurvatsaḥ sa ya etamevaṃ vāyuṃ diśāṃ vatsaṃ veda na

putrarodagͫ roditi so'hametamevaṃ vāyuṃ diśāṃ vatsaṃ

veda mā putrarodagͫrudam .. 3.15.2..



2. The eastern quarter of the chest is called juhū, the southern quarter is called sahamānā, the western quarter is called rājñī, and the northern quarter is called subhūtā. Vāyu [air] is the son of these quarters. He who knows this, that Vāyu is the child of the quarters, does not have to weep over the loss of his child. ‘I know that Vāyu is the child of the quarters. May I never have to weep over the loss of my child.’





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Prācī dik, the eastern quarter; tasya, of it [i.e., of the chest]; juhūḥ nāma, is called juhū [after the vessel used for offering oblations facing the east]; dakṣiṇā, the southern [quarter]; sahamānām nāma, is named sahamānā; pratīcī, the western [quarter]; rājñī nāma, is named rājñī [because the western sky is red in the evening]; udīcī, the northern [quarter]; subhūtā nāma, is named subhūtā [because those who are rich dominate this quarter]; vāyaḥ, air; tāsām, their [i.e., the quarters’]; vatsaḥ, son; saḥ yaḥ etam veda, he who knows this; vāyum diśām vatsam, that Vāyu is the child of the quarters; putrarodam na roditi, does not have to weep over the loss of his child; saḥ aham etam evam veda, I know this thus; vāyum diśām vatsam, that Vāyu is the son of the quarters; mā putrarodam rudam, may I not have to weep over the loss of my child. Commentary:-The eastern quarter is called juhū because you face that direction when you offer that oblation in the sacrifice. The southern side is sahamānā because sinners go to that quarter to suffer the consequences of the sins they commit. The western side is called rājñī because when the sun sets in that direction, the sky becomes red. Subhūtā is the name of the northern side, because it is dominated by Śiva, Kubera, and other deities of good fortune. Vāyu (air) is considered the child of the quarters because it arises from the quarters. If you believe that Vāyu is immortal and is the child of the quarters, you will then never suffer the loss of your child.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Its eastern quarter is called Guhû, its southern Sahamânâ, its western Râgñî, its northern Subhûtâ [1]. The child of those quarters is Vâyu, the air, and he who knows that the air is indeed the child of the quarters, never weeps for his sons. 'I know the wind to be the child of the quarters, may I never weep for my sons.'

Footnote:

1. These names are explained by the commentator as follows:- Because people offer libations (guhvati), turning to the east, therefore it is called Guhû. Because evil doers suffer (sahante) in the town of Yama, which is in the south, therefore it is called Sahamânâ. The western quarter is called Râgñî, either because it is sacred to king Varuna (râgan), or on account of the red colour (râga) of the twilight. The north is called Subhûtâ, because wealthy beings (bhûtimat), like Kuvera &c., reside there.


Sloka : 3.15.3

अरिष्टं कोशं प्रपद्येऽमुनामुनामुना

प्राणं प्रपद्येऽमुनामुनामुना भूः प्रपद्येऽमुनामुनामुना

भुवः प्रपद्येऽमुनामुनामुना स्वः प्रपद्येऽमुनामुनामुना

॥ ३.१५.३॥

ariṣṭaṃ kośaṃ prapadye'munāmunāmunā

prāṇaṃ prapadye'munāmunāmunā bhūḥ prapadye'munāmunāmunā

bhuvaḥ prapadye'munāmunāmunā svaḥ prapadye'munāmunāmunā

.. 3.15.3..



3. For the sake of my child’s life, I take refuge in that immortal kośa [i.e., the chest, representing the universe]. For the sake of my child’s life, I take refuge in prāṇa [the vital breath]. For the sake of my child’s life, I take refuge in bhūh [the earth]. For the sake of my child’s life, I take refuge in bhuvaḥ [the mid-region]. For the sake of my child’s life, I take refuge in svaḥ [heaven].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Amunā amunā amunā, for the sake of that [child’s life], for the sake of that [child’s life], for the sake of that [child’s life]; ariṣṭam kośam, in the immortal chest; prapadye, I take refuge; amunā amunā amunā, for the sake of that [child’s life—etc.]; prāṇam prapadye, I take refuge in prāṇa; amunā amunā amunā, for the sake of that [child’s life—etc.]; bhūḥ prapadye, I take refuge in bhūh [the earth]; amunā amunā amunā, for the sake of that [child’s life—etc.]; bhuvaḥ prapadye, I take refuge in bhuvaḥ [the mid-region]; amunā amunā amunā, for the sake of that [child’s life—etc.]; svaḥ prapadye, I take refuge in svah [heaven]. Commentary:-For the welfare of your child, surrender to every power on earth, in the mid-region, and in heaven. Repeat this three times, each time saying the name of the child thrice. Here the word amunā has been used instead of the name of the child.

Translation By Max Müller

3. 'I turn to the imperishable chest with such and such and such [1].' 'I turn to the Prâna (life) with such and such and such.' 'I turn to Bhûh with such and such and such.' 'I turn to Bhuvah with such and such and such.' 'I turn to Svah with such and such and such.'

Footnote:

1. Here the names of the sons are to be pronounced.


Sloka : 3.15.4

स यदवोचं प्राणं प्रपद्य इति प्राणो वा इदꣳ सर्वं

भूतं यदिदं किंच तमेव तत्प्रापत्सि ॥ ३.१५.४॥

sa yadavocaṃ prāṇaṃ prapadya iti prāṇo vā idagͫ sarvaṃ

bhūtaṃ yadidaṃ kiṃca tameva tatprāpatsi .. 3.15.4..



4. When I said, ‘I take refuge in prāṇa,’ I meant that prāṇa is everything visible, whatever there is, and therefore I have taken refuge in everything.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yat avocam, when I said; prāṇam prapadye iti, I take refuge in prāṇa; prāṇaḥ vai idam sarvam bhūtam, I meant prāṇa is everything; yat idaṃ kiñca, whatever is here [visible]; tat, therefore; tam eva prāpatsi, I am under the care of that [prāṇa]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

4. 'When I said, I turn to Prâna, then Prâna means all whatever exists here--to that I turn.'


Sloka : 3.15.5

अथ यदवोचं भूः प्रपद्य इति पृथिवीं प्रपद्येऽन्तरिक्षं

प्रपद्ये दिवं प्रपद्य इत्येव तदवोचम् ॥ ३.१५.५॥

atha yadavocaṃ bhūḥ prapadya iti pṛthivīṃ prapadye'ntarikṣaṃ

prapadye divaṃ prapadya ityeva tadavocam .. 3.15.5..



5. Then, when I said, ‘I take refuge in bhūḥ,’ what I meant was that I take refuge in the earth, I take refuge in the mid-region, and I take refuge in heaven.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat avocam, when I said; bhūḥ prapadye hi, I take refuge in bhūḥ [the earth]; iti eva tat avocam, it is this that I meant; pṛthivīm prapadye, I take refuge in the earth; antarikṣam prapadye, I take refuge in the mid-region; divam prapadye, I take refuge in heaven. Commentary:-That is to say, I meant that I had taken refuge in all the three worlds.

Translation By Max Müller

5. 'When I said, I turn to Bhûh, what I said is, I turn to the earth, the sky, and heaven.'


Sloka : 3.15.6

अथ यदवोचं भुवः प्रपद्य इत्यग्निं प्रपद्ये वायुं

प्रपद्य आदित्यं प्रपद्य इत्येव तदवोचम् ॥ ३.१५.६॥

atha yadavocaṃ bhuvaḥ prapadya ityagniṃ prapadye vāyuṃ

prapadya ādityaṃ prapadya ityeva tadavocam .. 3.15.6..



6. Then, when I said, ‘I take refuge in bhuvaḥ,’ what I meant was that I take refuge in fire, I take refuge in air, and I take refuge in the sun.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat avocam, when I said; bhuvaḥ prapadye hi, I take refuge in bhuvaḥ [the mid-region]; hi eva tat avocam, it is this that I meant; agnim prapadye, I take refuge in fire; vāyum prapadye, I take refuge in air; ādityam prapadye, I take refuge in the sun. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

6. 'When I said, I turn to Bhuvah, what I said is, I turn to Agni (fire), Vâyu (air), Âditya (sun).'


Sloka : 3.15.7

अथ यदवोचꣳस्वः प्रपद्य इत्यृग्वेदं प्रपद्ये यजुर्वेदं प्रपद्ये

सामवेदं प्रपद्य इत्येव तदवोचं तदवोचम् ॥ ३.१५.७॥

atha yadavocagͫsvaḥ prapadya ityṛgvedaṃ prapadye yajurvedaṃ prapadye

sāmavedaṃ prapadya ityeva tadavocaṃ tadavocam .. 3.15.7..



7. Then, when I said, “I take refuge in svaḥ,” what I meant was that I take refuge in the Ṛg Veda, I take refuge in the Yajur Veda, and I take refuge in the Sāma Veda. It is this that I meant.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat avocam, when I said; svaḥ prapadye iti, I take refuge in svaḥ [heaven]; iti eva tat avocam, it is this that I meant; ṛg vedam prapadye, I take refuge in the Ṛg Veda; yajur vedam prapadye, I take refuge in the Yajur Veda; sāma vedam prapadye, I take refuge in the Sāma Veda; tat avocam tat avocam, it is this that I meant, this that I meant. Iti pañcadaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fifteenth section. Commentary:-One should first meditate on the immortal chest, and then repeat the mantras following the meditation. To emphasize the importance of the worship, the mantras are repeated again and again.

Translation By Max Müller

7. 'When I said, I turn to Svah, what I said is, I turn to the Rig-veda, Yagur-veda, and Sâma-veda. That is what I said, yea, that is what I said.'


Sloka : 3.16.1

॥ इति पञ्चदशः खण्डः ॥

पुरुषो वाव यज्ञस्तस्य यानि चतुर्विꣳशति वर्षाणि

तत्प्रातःसवनं चतुर्विꣳशत्यक्षरा गायत्री गायत्रं

प्रातःसवनं तदस्य वसवोऽन्वायत्ताः प्राणा वाव वसव

एते हीदꣳसर्वं वासयन्ति ॥ ३.१६.१॥

.. iti pañcadaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

puruṣo vāva yajñastasya yāni caturvigͫśati varṣāṇi

tatprātaḥsavanaṃ caturvigͫśatyakṣarā gāyatrī gāyatraṃ

prātaḥsavanaṃ tadasya vasavo'nvāyattāḥ prāṇā vāva vasava

ete hīdagͫsarvaṃ vāsayanti .. 3.16.1..



1. The human body is like a sacrifice, and the first twenty-four years are like the morning libation. The gāyatrī has twenty-four syllables, and the morning libation is accompanied by the gāyatrī. The Vasus reside in this morning libation. The Vasus are the vital breaths and the sense organs, for the word vasu means those who make others live and who live themselves.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Puruṣaḥ vāva yajñaḥ, the human body is like a sacrifice; tasya yāni cāturviṃśati varṣāṇi, its first twenty-four years; tat, that; prātaḥ savanam, is the morning libation; gāyatrī caturviṃśati akṣarā, the gāyatrī is constituted of twenty-four syllables; gāyatram prātaḥ savanam, the morning libation is accompanied by the gāyatrī; asya, of this [i.e., this sacrifice of the human body]; tat, it [the morning libation covering the first twenty-four years]; vasavaḥ, the deities called Vasus; anvāyattāḥ, are connected; prāṇāḥ vāva vasavaḥ, the prāṇas [together with the sense organs] are the Vasus; hi, for; ete, these [Vasus]; idam sarvam, everything in this [world]; vāsayanti, cause to live [and they themselves also live (vasu)]. Commentary:-In the previous section, meditation and repetition of certain mantras was recommended for the long life of one’s children. The same thing is being recommended now for one’s own life. Here the meditation is that one’s life is a sacrifice, and that the first twenty-four years are the morning offering. This offering is connected with the gāyatrī, which has twenty-four syllables. The Vasus are also connected with this offering, and they are thought of as the organs, which abide (vasu) and which also make others abide.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Man is sacrifice. His (first) twenty-four years are the morning-libation. The Gâyatrî has twenty-four syllables, the morning-libation is offered with Gâyatrî hymns. The Vasus are connected with that part of the sacrifice. The Prânas (the five senses) are the Vasus, for they make all this to abide (vâsayanti).


Sloka : 3.16.2

तं चेदेतस्मिन्वयसि किंचिदुपतपेत्स ब्रूयात्प्राणा

वसव इदं मे प्रातःसवनं माध्यंदिनꣳसवनमनुसंतनुतेति

माहं प्राणानां वसूनां मध्ये यज्ञो विलोप्सीयेत्युद्धैव

तत एत्यगदो ह भवति ॥ ३.१६.२॥

taṃ cedetasminvayasi kiṃcidupatapetsa brūyātprāṇā

vasava idaṃ me prātaḥsavanaṃ mādhyaṃdinagͫsavanamanusaṃtanuteti

māhaṃ prāṇānāṃ vasūnāṃ madhye yajño vilopsīyetyuddhaiva

tata etyagado ha bhavati .. 3.16.2..



2. If, within these first twenty-four years of his life, he has some ailment, he should then say:- ‘O Prāṇas, O Vasus, please extend this first libation to the midday libation. As the sacrifice, may I not disappear among the Vasus, who are my prāṇas [i.e., who are like my life].’ [If he prays like this,] he gets rid of his ailment and becomes fully well.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Cet, if; etasmin vayasi, within these [twenty-four] years of his life; tam kiñcit upatapet, something troubles him; saḥ brūyāt, he will say; prāṇāḥ, O Prāṇas; vasavaḥ, O Vasus; idam me prātaḥ savanam, this, my morning libation; mādhyandinam savanam, to the midday libation; anusantanuta iti, extend; mā aham, may I not; yajñaḥ, as the sacrifice; madhye prāṇānām vasūnām, in the midst of the prāṇas, who are the Vasus; vilopsīya iti, disappear; tataḥ ha eva ut-eti, he gets rid of that [ailment]; agadaḥ ha bhavati, [and] becomes well. Commentary:-W SRrīTñī:- 5fFTT ^ ^ iūḍpñ II 3 II

Translation By Max Müller

2. If anything ails him in that (early) age, let him say:- 'Ye Prânas, ye Vasus, extend this my morning-libation unto the midday-libation, that I, the sacrificer, may not perish in the midst of the Prânas or Vasus.' Thus he recovers from his illness, and becomes whole.


Sloka : 3.16.3

अथ यानि चतुश्चत्वारिꣳशद्वर्षाणि तन्माध्यंदिनꣳ

सवनं चतुश्चत्वारिꣳशदक्षरा त्रिष्टुप्त्रैष्टुभं

माध्यंदिनꣳसवनं तदस्य रुद्रा अन्वायत्ताः प्राणा

वाव रुद्रा एते हीदꣳसर्वꣳरोदयन्ति ॥ ३.१६.३॥

atha yāni catuścatvārigͫśadvarṣāṇi tanmādhyaṃdinagͫ

savanaṃ catuścatvārigͫśadakṣarā triṣṭuptraiṣṭubhaṃ

mādhyaṃdinagͫsavanaṃ tadasya rudrā anvāyattāḥ prāṇā

vāva rudrā ete hīdagͫsarvagͫrodayanti .. 3.16.3..



3. Then the next forty-four years are like the midday libation. The triṣṭubh metre has forty-four syllables, and the midday libation is accompanied by a hymn which is in the triṣṭubh metre. The Rudras are connected with this midday libation. The prāṇas are called Rudras because they [are cruel and] make everyone in this world weep.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, then; yāni catuścatvāriṃśat varṣāṇi, that which is the next forty-four years; tat, that; mādhyandinam savanam, is the midday libation; triṣṭup catuścatvāriṃśat akṣarā, the triṣṭubh metre is constituted of forty-four syllables; traiṣṭubham mādhyandinam savanam, the midday libation is accompanied by a hymn in the triṣṭubh metre; asya, of this [i.e., this sacrifice of the human body]; tat, it [the midday libation covering the next forty-four years]; rudrāḥ, the deities called Rudras; anvāyattāḥ, are connected; prāṇāḥ vāva rudrāḥ, the prāṇas [together with the sense organs] are the Rudras; hi, for; ete, these [Rudras]; idam sarvam rodayanti, make everyone in this world weep. Commentary:-The sense organs become very powerful when a person has reached middle age, and they may make him do things he will regret and for which he will have to ‘weep.’ In this sacrifice, these next forty-four years correspond to the midday worship. The libation offered at this worship is accompanied by a hymn in the triṣṭubh metre, which has forty-four syllables. In this way, one can easily meditate on a human being as a ritualistic sacrifice.

Translation By Max Müller

3. The next forty-four years are the midday-libation. The Trishtubh has forty-four syllables, the midday-libation is offered with Trishtubh hymns. The Rudras are connected with that part of it. The Prânas are the Rudras, for they make all this to cry (rodayanti).


Sloka : 3.16.4

तं चेदेतस्मिन्वयसि किंचिदुपतपेत्स ब्रूयात्प्राणा रुद्रा

इदं मे माध्यंदिनꣳसवनं तृतीयसवनमनुसंतनुतेति

माहं प्राणानाꣳरुद्राणां मध्ये यज्ञो विलोप्सीयेत्युद्धैव

तत एत्यगदो ह भवति ॥ ३.१६.४॥

taṃ cedetasminvayasi kiṃcidupatapetsa brūyātprāṇā rudrā

idaṃ me mādhyaṃdinagͫsavanaṃ tṛtīyasavanamanusaṃtanuteti

māhaṃ prāṇānāgͫrudrāṇāṃ madhye yajño vilopsīyetyuddhaiva

tata etyagado ha bhavati .. 3.16.4..



4. If, within these next forty-four years of his life, he has some ailment, he should then say:- ‘O Prāṇas, O Rudras, please extend my midday libation and join it to the third libation. As the sacrifice, may I not disappear among the Rudras, who are my prāṇas [i.e., who are like my life].’ [If he prays like this,] he gets rid of his ailment and becomes fully well.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Cet, if; etasmin vayasi, within these [forty-four] years of his life; tam kiñcit upatapet, something troubles him; saḥ brūyāt, he will say; prāṇāḥ, O Prāṇas; rudrāḥ, O Rudras; idam me mādhyandinam savanam, this, my midday libation; tṛtīya savanam, to the third libation; anusantanuta iti, extend; mā aham, may I not; yajñaḥ, as the sacrifice; prāṇānām rudrāṇām madhye, in the midst of the prāṇas, who are the Rudras; vilopsīya iti, disappear; tataḥ ha eva ut-eti, he gets rid of that [ailment]; agadaḥ ha bhavati, [and] becomes well. Commentary:-The idea behind this prayer is:- ‘O Rudras, you are like my life. I am the sacrifice, and now the midday libation is going on. Will you please extend this libation so that I may do the third libation without a break [that is, may I live long enough to do the evening libation]? I am the sacrifice, and I don’t want the sacrifice to be stopped before it reaches the end. And I don’t want to be separated from the Rudras, who are like my life.’ If the afflicted person (who is the sacrifice) keeps praying like this, he will then get well and be fully fit again.

Translation By Max Müller

4. If anything ails him in that (second) age, let him say:- 'Ye Prânas, ye Rudras, extend this my midday-libation unto the third libation, that I, the sacrificer, may not perish in the midst of the Prânas or Rudras.' Thus he recovers from his illness, and becomes whole.


Sloka : 3.16.5

अथ यान्यष्टाचत्वारिꣳशद्वर्षाणि

तत्तृतीयसवनमष्टाचत्वारिꣳशदक्षरा

जगती जागतं तृतीयसवनं तदस्यादित्या अन्वायत्ताः

प्राणा वावादित्या एते हीदꣳसर्वमाददते ॥ ३.१६.५॥

atha yānyaṣṭācatvārigͫśadvarṣāṇi

tattṛtīyasavanamaṣṭācatvārigͫśadakṣarā

jagatī jāgataṃ tṛtīyasavanaṃ tadasyādityā anvāyattāḥ

prāṇā vāvādityā ete hīdagͫsarvamādadate .. 3.16.5..



5. Then the next forty-eight years are the third libation. The jagatī metre has forty-eight syllables, and the third libation is accompanied by a hymn which is in the jagatī metre. The Ādityas are connected with this third libation. The prāṇas are called Ādityas because they accept [ādā] all things.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yāni aṣṭācatvāriṃśat varṣāṇi, that which is the next forty-eight years; tat, that; tṛtīya savanam, is the third libation; jagatī aṣṭācatvāriṃśat akṣarā, the jagatī metre is constituted of forty-eight syllables; jāgatam tṛtīya savanam, the third libation is accompanied by a hymn in the jagatī metre; asya, of this [i.e., this sacrifice of the human body]; tat, it [the third libation covering the next forty-eight years]; ādityāḥ, the deities called Ādityas; anvāyattāḥ, are connected; prāṇāḥ vāva ādityāḥ, the prāṇas are the Ādityas; hi, for; ete, these [Ādityas]; idam sarvam ādadate, accept [ādā] all objects. Commentary:-A human being is supposed to live a total of a hundred and sixteen years, which has three phaṣes:- the first twenty-four years, the next forty-four years, and the last forty-eight years. When this life is thought of as a sacrifice, the first twenty-four years would be the morning offering, the next forty-four years would be the midday offering, and the last forty-eight years would be the evening offering. Just as the morning libation is connected with the Vasus, so the first twenty-four years of one’s life are also connected with the Vasus. The gāyatrī is sung during the morning offering, and it has twenty-four syllables. The offering made at midday is connected with the Rudras, and it is accompanied by a hymn in the triṣṭubh metre, having forty-four syllables. Then the evening offering is connected with the Ādityas, and it is sung in the jagatī metre, having forty-eight syllables. The concept of a human life as a sacrifice arises from the similarity to the components of a ritualistic sacrifice.

Translation By Max Müller

5. The next forty-eight years are the third libation. The Gagatî has forty-eight syllables, the third libation is offered with Gagatî hymns. The Âdityas are connected with that part of it. The Prânas are the Âdityas, for they take up all this (âdadate).


Sloka : 3.16.6

तं चेदेतस्मिन्वयसि किंचिदुपतपेत्स ब्रूयात्प्राणा

अदित्या इदं मे तृतीयसवनमायुरनुसंतनुतेति माहं

प्राणानामादित्यानां मध्ये यज्ञो विलोप्सीयेत्युद्धैव

तत एत्यगदो हैव भवति ॥ ३.१६.६॥

taṃ cedetasminvayasi kiṃcidupatapetsa brūyātprāṇā

adityā idaṃ me tṛtīyasavanamāyuranusaṃtanuteti māhaṃ

prāṇānāmādityānāṃ madhye yajño vilopsīyetyuddhaiva

tata etyagado haiva bhavati .. 3.16.6..



6. If, within the next forty-eight years of his life, he has some ailment, he should then say:- ‘O Prāṇas, O Ādityas, please extend my evening libation to the end of my life. As the sacrifice, may I not disappear among the Ādityas, who are my prāṇas [i.e., who are like my life].’ [If he prays like this,] he gets rid of his ailment and becomes well.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Cet, if; etasmin vayasi, within these [forty-eight] years of his life; tam kiñcit upatapet, something troubles him; saḥ brūyāt, he should say; prāṇāḥ, O Prāṇas; ādityāḥ, O Ādityas; idam me tṛtīya savanam, this, my evening libation; āyuḥ, to the full length; anusantanuta iti, extend; mā aham, may I not; yajñaḥ, as the sacrifice; prāṇānām ādityānām madhye, in the midst of the prāṇas, who are the Ādityas; vilopsīya iti, disappear; tataḥ ha eva ut-eti, he gets rid of that [ailment]; agadaḥ ha eva bhavati, [and] becomes well. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

6. If anything ails him in that (third) age, let him say:- 'Ye Prânas, ye Âdityas, extend this my third libation unto the full age, that I, the sacrificer, may not perish in the midst of the Prânas or Âdityas.' Thus he recovers from his illness, and becomes whole.


Sloka : 3.16.7

एतद्ध स्म वै तद्विद्वानाह महिदास ऐतरेयः

स किं म एतदुपतपसि योऽहमनेन न प्रेष्यामीति

स ह षोडशं वर्षशतमजीवत्प्र ह षोडशं

वर्षशतं जीवति य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१६.७॥

etaddha sma vai tadvidvānāha mahidāsa aitareyaḥ

sa kiṃ ma etadupatapasi yo'hamanena na preṣyāmīti

sa ha ṣoḍaśaṃ varṣaśatamajīvatpra ha ṣoḍaśaṃ

varṣaśataṃ jīvati ya evaṃ veda .. 3.16.7..



7. Having known this, Itarā’s son Mahidāsa said:- ‘O disease, why are you troubling me so? Rest assured, I am not going to die [of this disease].’ He lived for one hundred and sixteen years. A person who knows this also lives that long.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Etat ha vai vidvān, having known this; mahidāsaḥ aitareyaḥ, Mahidāsa Aitareya, the son of Itarā; āha sma, said; saḥ [i.e;, tvam] kim me etat upatapasi, O disease, why are you troubling me; yaḥ aham anena na preṣyāmi iti, who for certain will not die of this; saḥ, he [Mahidāsa Aitareya]; ha ṣoḍaśam varṣaśatam, one hundred and sixteen years; ajīvat, lived; yaḥ evam veda, he who knows thus; ha -ṣoḍaśam varṣaśatam prajīvati, also lives one hundred and sixteen years Iti ṣoḍaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the sixteenth section. Commentary:-Mahidāsa is an example of one who conquered death by his knowledge and strong will.

Translation By Max Müller

7. Mahidâsa Aitareya (the son of Itarâ), who knew this, said (addressing a disease):- 'Why dost thou afflict me, as I shall not die by it?' He lived a hundred and sixteen years (i.e.


Sloka : 3.17.1

॥ इति षोडशः खण्डः ॥

स यदशिशिषति यत्पिपासति यन्न रमते ता अस्य

दीक्षाः ॥ ३.१७.१॥

.. iti ṣoḍaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

sa yadaśiśiṣati yatpipāsati yanna ramate tā asya

dīkṣāḥ .. 3.17.1..



1. That he has the desire to eat, the desire to drink, and no desire to indulge in sense pleasures—this is his initiation [i.e., this is how he has to begin practising self-restraint].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ, he [the person who is performing the puruṣa sacrifice just mentioned]; yat aśiśiṣati, that he wants to eat; yat pipāsati, that he wants to drink; yat na ramate, that he has no desire to indulge in sense pleasure; tāḥ, all these; asya dīkṣaḥ, are the initiation rites [to perform the sacrifice]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. When a man (who is the sacrificer) hungers, thirsts, and abstains from pleasures, that is the Dîkshâ (initiatory rite).


Sloka : 3.17.2

अथ यदश्नाति यत्पिबति यद्रमते तदुपसदैरेति ॥ ३.१७.२॥

atha yadaśnāti yatpibati yadramate tadupasadaireti .. 3.17.2..



2. After this he will eat, he will drink, or he will enjoy pleasure, as if he is observing upasad [when he can only take milk or water].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, after this; yat aśnāti, what he eats; yat pibati, what he drinks; yat ramate, the pleasure he enjoys; tat upasadaiḥ eti, that is his upasad [when one fasts by only taking milk or water]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. When a man eats, drinks, and enjoys pleasures, he does it with the Upasadas (the sacrificial days on which the sacrificer is allowed to partake of food).


Sloka : 3.17.3

अथ यद्धसति यज्जक्षति यन्मैथुनं चरति स्तुतशस्त्रैरेव

तदेति ॥ ३.१७.३॥

atha yaddhasati yajjakṣati yanmaithunaṃ carati stutaśastraireva

tadeti .. 3.17.3..



3. After this, he laughs, he eats, and he even enjoys some sense pleasure—these represent the sounds coming from the stutas and śastras.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat hasati, he laughs; yat jakṣati, he eats; yat maithunam carati, he indulges in sense pleasure; stuta-śastraiḥ eva tat eti, they are like [the sounds of] the stutas and śastras [certain hymns and mantras recited during the sacrifice]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. When a man laughs, eats, and delights himself, he does it with the Stuta-sastras (hymns sung and recited at the sacrifices).


Sloka : 3.17.4

अथ यत्तपो दानमार्जवमहिꣳसा सत्यवचनमिति

ता अस्य दक्षिणाः ॥ ३.१७.४॥

atha yattapo dānamārjavamahigͫsā satyavacanamiti

tā asya dakṣiṇāḥ .. 3.17.4..



4. Next, austerity, charity, straightforwardness, nonviolence, and truthfulness—these are his dakṣiṇā.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat tapaḥ, the austerity; dānam, charity; ārjavam, straightforwardness; ahiṃsā, non-violence; satyavacanam, truthfulness; iti tāḥ, all these [good qualities]; asya, of him [the person who regards his life as a sacrifice]; dakṣiṇāḥ, are the special fee paid after the sacrifice. Commentary:-These qualities of austerity, charity, etc., are an additional gain, besides what you get by living a life as if it is a sacrifice. These moral qualities and the life you live both contribute much to the growth of your religious life.

Translation By Max Müller

4. Penance, liberality, righteousness, kindness, truthfulness, these form his Dakshinâs (gifts bestowed on priests, &c.)


Sloka : 3.17.5

तस्मादाहुः सोष्यत्यसोष्टेति पुनरुत्पादनमेवास्य

तन्मरणमेवावभृथः ॥ ३.१७.५॥

tasmādāhuḥ soṣyatyasoṣṭeti punarutpādanamevāsya

tanmaraṇamevāvabhṛthaḥ .. 3.17.5..



5. Therefore people say, ‘He will give birth,’ or ‘He has given birth.’ In either case, it is a rebirth [in the sense that when he starts living his life as a sacrifice, that is his rebirth]. When death overtakes him, that is the conclusion of the sacrifice.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tasmāt, therefore; āhuḥ, it is said; soṣyati, will give birth to; asoṣṭa iti, has given birth to; punaḥ utpādanam eva, [because] it is a rebirth; tat maraṇam eva asya, the death of the person; avabhṛthaḥ, is the conclusion of the sacrifice. Commentary:-Life is a kind of sacrifice, but when a person dedicates his life as such, he is said to be reborn. The words soṣyati and asoṣṭa are used when a mother is about to give birth, or has given birth, to a child. But they are also used at the time when someone is about to begin performing a sacrifice (soṣyati), or has already begun performing it (asoṣṭa), because it is his rebirth. When death comes to the person who treats his life as a sacrifice, it is the end of the sacrifice, just as it is the end of his life. Just as aṭ the end of a sacrifice, a person bathes and puts on new clothes, so also, when a person dies, his body is bathed and new clothes are put on it. The treatment is the same, whether the sacrifice is that person’s life or it is the usual sacrificial ritual. And the words used on both occasions are the same. This makes the similarity between the ritualistc sacrifice and life as a sacrifice more meaningful.

Translation By Max Müller

5. Therefore when they say, 'There will be a birth,' and 'there has been a birth' (words used at the Soma-sacrifice, and really meaning, 'He will pour out the Soma-juice,' and 'he has poured out the Soma-juice'), that is his new birth. His death is the Avabhritha ceremony (when the sacrificial Vessels are carried away to be cleansed).


Sloka : 3.17.6

तद्धैतद्घोर् आङ्गिरसः कृष्णाय

देवकीपुत्रायोक्त्वोवाचापिपास एव स बभूव

सोऽन्तवेलायामेतत्त्रयं प्रतिपद्येताक्षितमस्यच्युतमसि

प्राणसꣳशितमसीति तत्रैते द्वे ऋचौ भवतः ॥ ३.१७.६॥

taddhaitadghor āṅgirasaḥ kṛṣṇāya

devakīputrāyoktvovācāpipāsa eva sa babhūva

so'ntavelāyāmetattrayaṃ pratipadyetākṣitamasyacyutamasi

prāṇasagͫśitamasīti tatraite dve ṛcau bhavataḥ .. 3.17.6..



6. The sage Ghora, of the family of Aṅgirasa, taught this truth to Kṛṣṇa, the son of Devakī. As a result, Kṛṣṇa became free from all desires. Then Ghora said:- ‘At the time of death a person should repeat these three mantras:- “You never decay, you never change, and you are the essence of life.”’ Here are two Ṛk mantras in this connection:-





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat ha etat, this [truth]; ghoraḥ āṅgirasaḥ, the sage Ghora, of the family of Aṅgirasa; kṛṣṇāya devakīputrāya uktvā, having taught to Kṛṣṇa, the son of Devakī; apipāsaḥ, free from desire; eva saḥ babhūva, he [Kṛṣṇa] became; uvāca, [Ghora] said; saḥ, a person; antavelāyām, at the time of death; etat trayam, these three [mantras]; pratipadyeta, should take refuge in; akṣitam asi, you never decay; acyutam asi, you never change; prāṇasaṃśitam asi iti, you are the essence of life; tatra, in this connection; ete dve ṛcau bhavataḥ, there are these two Ṛk mantras. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

6. Ghora Âṅgirasa, after having communicated this (view of the sacrifice) to Krishna, the son of Devăkî [1]--and he never thirsted again (after other knowledge)--said:- 'Let a man, when his end approaches, take refuge with this Triad [2]:- "Thou art the imperishable," "Thou art the unchangeable," "Thou art the edge of Prâna."' On this subject there are two Rik verses (Rig-veda VIII, 6, 30):---

Footnote:

1. The curious coincidence between Krishna Devakîputra, here mentioned as a pupil of Ghora Âṅgirasa, and the famous Krishna, the son of Devakî, was first pointed out by Colebrooke, Miscell. Essays, II, 177. Whether it is more than a coincidence, is difficult to say. Certainly we can build no other conclusions on it than those indicated by Colebrooke, that new fables may have been constructed elevating this personage to the rank of a god. We know absolutely nothing of the old Krishna Devakîputra except his having been a pupil of Ghora Âṅgirasa, nor does there seem to have been any attempt made by later Brahmans to connect their divine Krishna, the son of Vasudeva, with the Krishna Devakîputra of our Upanishad. This is all the more remarkable because the author of the Sândilya-sûtras, for instance, who is very anxious to find a srauta authority for the worship of Krishna Vâsudeva as the supreme deity, had to be satisfied with quoting such modern compilations as the Nârâyanopanishad, Atharvasiras, VI, 9, brahmanyo devakîputro, brahmanyo madhusûdanah (see Sândilya-sûtras, ed. Ballantyne, , translated by Cowell, ), without venturing to refer to the Krishna Devakîputra of the Khândogya-upanishad. The occurrence of such names as Krishna, Vâsudeva, Madhusûdanah stamps Upanishads, like the Âtmabodha-upanishad, as modern (Colebrooke, Essays, 1, 101), and the same remark applies, as Weber has shown, to the Gopâlatâpanî-upanishad (Bibliotheca Indica, No. 183), where we actually find such names as Srîkrishna Govinda, Gopîganavallabha, Devakyâm gâtâh ( ), &c. Professor Weber has treated these questions very fully, but it is not quite clear to me whether he wishes to go beyond Colebrooke and to admit more than a similarity of name between the pupil of Ghora Âṅgirasa and the friend of the Gopîs. 2. Let him recite these three verses.


Sloka : 3.17.7

आदित्प्रत्नस्य रेतसः ।

उद्वयं तमसस्परि ज्योतिः पश्यन्त उत्तरꣳस्वः

पश्यन्त उत्तरं देवं देवत्रा सूर्यमगन्म

ज्योतिरुत्तममिति ज्योतिरुत्तममिति ॥ ३.१७.७॥

āditpratnasya retasaḥ .

udvayaṃ tamasaspari jyotiḥ paśyanta uttaragͫsvaḥ

paśyanta uttaraṃ devaṃ devatrā sūryamaganma

jyotiruttamamiti jyotiruttamamiti .. 3.17.7..



7-8. [Those who know Brahman] see that the light shining in Para-Brahman is the seed of the world. This light is all-pervasive like daylight. It is eternal. It is that great light which is the cause of the world.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ādit, [has no meaning except that it introduces a new line of thought]; pratnasya, ancient; retasaḥ, seed [of the world]; jyotiḥ, light [manifestation]; paśyanti, they see [eveṛywhere]; vāsaram, daylight [i.e., as all-pervasive]; paraḥ, the best; yat, that which; idhyate, shines; divi, in heaven [i.e., in Para-Brahman], Tamasaḥ, darkness [i.e., ignorance]; pari, beyond [dispels]; uttaram, the best; jyotiḥ, light; paśyantaḥ, having seen; svaḥ, in oneself [i.e., in one’s own heart]; devam, bright; devatrā, among all the gods; sūryam, the sun; vayam ut-aganma, we have attained; jyotiḥ uttamam iti jyotiḥ uttamam iti, the best light, the best light. Iti saptadaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the seventeenth section. Commentary:-The greatest light is that which dispels the darkness of ignorance. Having seen this light within our own hearts, we have attained that shining god who is the Supreme Light of all. There is an eternal light which is the cause of this universe. This light is the source of the light we see in the luminous Jodies such as the sun, the moon, and the stars. This light is everywhere. Everything in this phenomenal universe moves and works the way it does because of this light. Those who have lived a life of self-discipline, with their minds on the highest thoughts, and have thereby acquired a pure heart, can see this light. They see it within themselves and they also see it outside. They know this light as their own Self and as the Self of all. They know this light as Para Brahman.

Translation By Max Müller

7. 'Then they see (within themselves) the ever-present light of the old seed (of the world, the Sat), the highest, which is lighted in the brilliant (Brahman).' Rig-veda I, 50, 10:-- 'Perceiving above the darkness (of ignorance) the higher light (in the sun), as the higher light within the heart, the bright source (of light and life) among the gods, we have reached the highest light, yea, the highest light [1].'

Footnote:

1. Both these verses had to be translated here according to their scholastic interpretation, but they had originally a totally different meaning. Even the text was altered, divâ being changed to divi, svah to sve. The first is taken from a hymn addressed to Indra, who after conquering the dark clouds brings back the light of the sun. When he does that, then the people see again, as the poet says, the daily light of the old seed (from which the sun rises) which is lighted in heaven. The other verse belongs to a hymn addressed to the sun. Its simple meaning. is:- 'Seeing above the darkness (of the night) the rising light, the Sun, bright among the bright, we came towards the highest light.'


Sloka : 3.18.1

॥ इति सप्तदशः खण्डः ॥

मनो ब्रह्मेत्युपासीतेत्यध्यात्ममथाधिदैवतमाकाशो

ब्रह्मेत्युभयमादिष्टं भवत्यध्यात्मं चाधिदैवतं च

॥ ३.१८.१॥

.. iti saptadaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

mano brahmetyupāsītetyadhyātmamathādhidaivatamākāśo

brahmetyubhayamādiṣṭaṃ bhavatyadhyātmaṃ cādhidaivataṃ ca

.. 3.18.1..



1. The mind is Brahman—this worship is called adhyātma. Next is that called adhidaivata:- Space is Brahman. [That is, meditate on space as Brahman.] These two ways of meditation are advised:- adhyātma and adhidaivata.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Manaḥ brahma iti upāsīta, meditate on the mind as Brahman; iti adhyātmam, this is so far as the body and mind is concerned; atha adhidaivatam, next is [the meditation] on the elements and the worlds; ākāśaḥ brahma iti, space is Brahman; ubhayam ādiṣṭam bhavati, two ways [of meditation] are advised; adhyātmam ca adhidaivatam ca, adhyātma and adhidaivata. Commentary:-Brahman is extremely subtle. Similarly, the mind is also subtle. And it is in the mind that Brahman can be realized. This is why it is comparatively easy to think that the mind is Brahman. In the same way, ākāśa (space) is also close to Brahman. Like Brahman, it is vast, invisible, all-pervasive, and without any attributes whatsoever. It is therefore appropriate to meditate on ākāśa as Brahman.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Let a man meditate on mind as Brahman (n.), this is said with reference to the body. Let a man meditate on the ether as Brahman (n.), this is said with reference to the Devas. Thus both the meditation which has reference to the body, and the meditation which has reference to the Devas, has been taught.


Sloka : 3.18.2

तदेतच्चतुष्पाद्ब्रह्म वाक्पादः प्राणः पादश्चक्षुः

पादः श्रोत्रं पाद इत्यध्यात्ममथाधिदैवतमग्निः

पादो वायुः पादा अदित्यः पादो दिशः पाद

इत्युभयमेवादिष्टं भवत्यध्यात्मं चैवाधिदैवतं च

॥ ३.१८.२॥

tadetaccatuṣpādbrahma vākpādaḥ prāṇaḥ pādaścakṣuḥ

pādaḥ śrotraṃ pāda ityadhyātmamathādhidaivatamagniḥ

pādo vāyuḥ pādā adityaḥ pādo diśaḥ pāda

ityubhayamevādiṣṭaṃ bhavatyadhyātmaṃ caivādhidaivataṃ ca

.. 3.18.2..



2. Brahman as the mind has four feet [or, quarters]. The organ of speech is one foot; prāṇa is the next foot; the eyes are the third foot; and the ears are the fourth foot. This is the adhyātma [the physical and mental] aspect of Brahman. Next is the adhidaivata aspect. Fire is one foot; air is another foot; the sun is the next foot; and the quarters are the fourth foot. These two ways of meditation are advised:- adhyātma and adhidaivata.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat etat catuṣpāt brahma, this Brahman [as the mind] is fourfold; vāk pādaḥ, speech is a foot; prāṇaḥ pādaḥ, prāṇa [the vital force] is a foot; cakṣuḥ pādaḥ, the eyes are a foot; śrotram pādaḥ, the ears are a foot; iti adhyātmam, this is the adhyātma [meditation—i.e., on the body and mind]; atha adhidaivatam, next, the meditation relating to the elements and worlds; agniḥ pādaḥ, fire is a foot; vāyuḥ pādaḥ, air is a foot; ādityaḥ pādaḥ, the sun is a foot; diśaḥ pādaḥ, the quarters are a foot; ubhayam ādiṣṭam bhavati, two ways [of meditation] are advised; adhyātmam ca adhidaivatam ca, adhyātma and adhidaivata. Commentary:-The word pāda is not to be taken literally, for Brahman has no feet. Brahman is infinite, but here it is conceived as having four feet—as if it is covering the whole universe with them. Pāda also means a quarter, or a part. First let us imagine our mind and body together as Brahman. This is a meditation on the adhyātma level. Then let us imagine that this Brahman has four feet. What are the four feet? They are the organ of speech, the vital breath, the eyes, and the ears. We can also do this meditation on the adhidaivata level—that is, as the worlds and the elements. First, let us imagine Brahman as ākāśa, space. Brahman’s four feet would then be fire (agni), air (vāyu), the sun (āditya), and the quarters (diśa). A cow has four feet to take it where it wants to go. Similarly, a human being is guided to where he wants to go by his organ of speech, his organ of smelling, his eyes, and his ears. Again, just as the four legs and feet of a cow come out of her body, in the same way, fire, air, the sun, and the quarters seem to come out of space

Translation By Max Müller

2. That Brahman (mind) has four feet (quarters). Speech is one foot, breath is one foot, the eye is one foot, the car is one foot-so much with reference to the body. Then with reference to the gods, Agni (fire) is one foot, Vâyu (air) is one foot, Âditya (sun) is one foot, the quarters are one foot. Thus both the worship which has reference to the body, and the worship which has reference to the Devas, has been taught.


Sloka : 3.18.3

वागेव ब्रह्मणश्चतुर्थः पादः सोऽग्निना ज्योतिषा

भाति च तपति च भाति च तपति च कीर्त्या यशसा

ब्रह्मवर्चसेन य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१८.३॥

vāgeva brahmaṇaścaturthaḥ pādaḥ so'gninā jyotiṣā

bhāti ca tapati ca bhāti ca tapati ca kīrtyā yaśasā

brahmavarcasena ya evaṃ veda .. 3.18.3..



3. Vāk is one of the four feet of Brahman [as the mind]. It shines in the light of fire and also radiates heat. He who knows this shines and radiates warmth with his good work, with his fame, and with the radiance he acquires from leading a scholarly and disciplined life.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Vāk eva brahmaṇaḥ caturthaḥ pādaḥ, speech is the fourth foot of [manomaya] Brahman; agninā jyotiṣā, by the light it gets from fire; saḥ bhāti ca tapati ca, it shines and gives heat; yaḥ evam veda, he who knows thus; bhāti ca tapati ca, shines and radiates warmth; kīrtyā, through good work; yaśasā, through fame; brahmavarcasena, through the radiance that comes from a scholarly and disciplined life. Commentary:-Animals move where they want by their feet. Similarly, people find their way to Brahman by hearing someone speak about it. This is why the organ of speech is called one of the four feet of Brahman. Fire gives both light and heat. And because fire is the presiding deity of speech, speech also is said to give light and heat. A person who can speak well acquires fame and popularity; It is as if he has done much good work, or has given away much money in charity, or is a great scholar and has lived a disciplined life. Such a person has a shining personality and radiates heat (i.e., energy).

Translation By Max Müller

3. Speech is indeed the fourth foot of Brahman. That foot shines with Agni (fire) as its light, and warms. He who knows this, shines and warms through his celebrity, fame, and glory of countenance.


Sloka : 3.18.4

प्राण एव ब्रह्मणश्चतुर्थः पादः स वायुना ज्योतिषा

भाति च तपति च् भाति च तपति च कीर्त्या यशसा

ब्रह्मवर्चसेन य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१८.४॥

prāṇa eva brahmaṇaścaturthaḥ pādaḥ sa vāyunā jyotiṣā

bhāti ca tapati c bhāti ca tapati ca kīrtyā yaśasā

brahmavarcasena ya evaṃ veda .. 3.18.4..



4. Prāṇa [the organ of smelling] is one of the four feet of Brahman [as the mind]. It shines by the light of vāyu [air] and also radiates heat. He who knows this shines and radiates warmth with his good work, with his fame, and with the radiance he acquires from leading a scholarly and disciplined life.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Prāṇaḥ eva brahmaṇaḥ caturthaḥ pādaḥ, prāṇa [the organ of smelling] is the fourth foot of [manomaya] Brahman; vāyunā jyotiṣā, by the light it gets from air [its presiding deity]; saḥ bhāti ca tapati ca, it shines and gives heat; yaḥ evam veda, he who knows thus; bhāti ca tapati ca, shines and radiates warmth; kīrtyā, through good work; yaśasā, through fame; brahmavarcasena, through the radiance that comes from a scholarly and disciplined life. Commentary:-Vāyu, air, is the presiding deity of the organ of smell, because vāyu carries odours and reveals them.

Translation By Max Müller

4. Breath is indeed the fourth foot of Brahman. That foot shines with Vâyu (air) as its light, and warms. He who knows this, shines and warms through his celebrity, fame, and glory of countenance.


Sloka : 3.18.5

चक्षुरेव ब्रह्मणश्चतुर्थः पादः स आदित्येन ज्योतिषा

भाति च तपति च भाति च तपति च कीर्त्या यशसा

ब्रह्मवर्चसेन य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१८.५॥

cakṣureva brahmaṇaścaturthaḥ pādaḥ sa ādityena jyotiṣā

bhāti ca tapati ca bhāti ca tapati ca kīrtyā yaśasā

brahmavarcasena ya evaṃ veda .. 3.18.5..



5. The organ of vision is one of the four feet of Brahman [as the mind]. It shines by the light of the sun and also radiates heat. He who knows this shines and radiates warmth with his good work, with his fame, and with the radiance he acquires from leading a scholarly and disciplined life.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Cakṣuḥ eva brahmaṇaḥ caturthaḥ pādaḥ, the organ of vision is the fourth foot of [manomaya] Brahman; ādityena jyotiṣā, by the light it gets from the sun [its presiding deity]; saḥ bhāti ca tapati ca, it shines and gives heat; yaḥ evam veda, he who knows thus; bhāti ca tapati ca, shines and radiates warmth; kīrtyā, through good work; yaśasā, through fame; brahmavarcasena, through the radiance that comes from a scholarly and disciplined life. Commentary:-The eyes can distinguish colours because of the light they get from the sun. Just as cows can feel their way with their feet, similarly, human beings can recognize things through their eyes. When a person knows how the eyes serve as feet, he acquires fame, glory, and the brightness of Brahman, for he can then make good use of his eyes. He can read and learn the best things possible, things that transform him into a realized soul.

Translation By Max Müller

5. The eye is indeed the fourth foot of Brahman. That foot shines with Âditya (sun) as its light, and warms. He who knows this, shines and warms through his celebrity, fame, and glory of countenance.


Sloka : 3.18.6

श्रोत्रमेव ब्रह्मणश्चतुर्थः पादः स दिग्भिर्ज्योतिषा

भाति च तपति च भाति च तपति च कीर्त्या यशसा

ब्रह्मवर्चसेन य एवं वेद य एवं वेद ॥ ३.१८.६॥

śrotrameva brahmaṇaścaturthaḥ pādaḥ sa digbhirjyotiṣā

bhāti ca tapati ca bhāti ca tapati ca kīrtyā yaśasā

brahmavarcasena ya evaṃ veda ya evaṃ veda .. 3.18.6..



6. The organ of hearing is one of the four feet of Brahman [as the mind]. It shines by the light of the quarters and also radiates heat. He who knows this shines and radiates warmth with his good work, with his fame, and with the radiance he acquires from leading a scholarly and disciplined life.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Śrotram eva brahmaṇaḥ caturthaḥ pādaḥ, the organ of hearing is the fourth foot of [manomaya] Brahman; digbhiḥ jyotiṣā, by the light it gets from [its presiding deity,] the quarters; sāḥ bhāti ca tapati ca, it shines and gives heat; yaḥ evam veda yaḥ evam veda, he who knows thus, he who knows thus; bhāti ca tapati ca, shines and radiates warmth; kīrtyā, through good work; yaśasā, through fame; brahmavarcasena, through the radiance that comes from a scholarly and disciplined life. Iti aṣṭādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the eighteenth section. Commentary:-The organ of hearing derives its power from the quarters, and through this organ we get knowledge. The results of that knowledge may be direct or indirect. True knowledge, however, is knowledge of Brahman. To emphasize this, ‘he who knows’ is repeated. This emphasis suggests that it is the knowledge of Brahman. The organ of hearing is our ‘foot’ because it is the means by which we can know Brahman. Those who know the importance of the organ of hearing and use it in the right way, acquire name, fame, and become radiant like Brahman. They will also eventually realize Brahman.

Translation By Max Müller

6. The ear is indeed the fourth foot of Brahman. That foot shines with the quarters as its light, and warms. He who knows this, shines and warms through his celebrity, fame, and glory of countenance.


Sloka : 3.19.1

॥ इति अष्टादशः खण्डः ॥

आदित्यो ब्रह्मेत्यादेशस्तस्योपव्याख्यानमसदेवेदमग्र

आसीत् । तत्सदासीत्तत्समभवत्तदाण्डं निरवर्तत

तत्संवत्सरस्य मात्रामशयत तन्निरभिद्यत ते आण्डकपाले

रजतं च सुवर्णं चाभवताम् ॥ ३.१९.१॥

.. iti aṣṭādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

ādityo brahmetyādeśastasyopavyākhyānamasadevedamagra

āsīt . tatsadāsīttatsamabhavattadāṇḍaṃ niravartata

tatsaṃvatsarasya mātrāmaśayata tannirabhidyata te āṇḍakapāle

rajataṃ ca suvarṇaṃ cābhavatām .. 3.19.1..



1. It has been said, ‘Āditya is Brahman.’ Now this is being explained:- This universe was at first non-existent, being without names and forms. [It was not visible, but it existed in a subtle form.] Slowly it manifested itself, as a shoot comes out of a seed. Next it developed into an egg and remained for a whole year like that. It then split in two, one half becoming silver and the other half becoming gold.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Ādityaḥ brahma, Āditya [the sun] is Brahman; iti ādeśaḥ, so it is said; tasya upavyākhyānam, [here is] an explanation of that [statement]; idam, this [universe of name and form]; agre asat eva āsīt, was at first unmanifested [i.e., it was without its names and forms]; [lest the word asat give the impression that the universe was like ‘a flower in the sky,’ it is said,] tat, this [universe with its names and forms in a subtle state]; sat āsīt, became manifest; tat, that [subtle universe]; samabhavat, first emerged as a seed; tat āṇḍam niravartata, that developed into an egg; tat, it [i.e., the egg]; saṃvatsarasya mātrām aśayata, lay still for a period of a year; tat, it [the egg]; nirabhidyata, split open; te āṇḍakapāle, those two parts of the egg; rajatam ca suvarṇam ca abhāvatām, turned silver and gold respectively. Commentary:-Earlier Āditya, the sun, was described as a foot of Brahman. Now this is being explained. Many people think that the universe was created. But Vedānta says that something cannot be created out of nothing. The universe has always existed, though sometimes it exists like a seed—invisible and without any names and forms. But why is the sun being called Brahman? Because without the sun there is only darkness, and we are then not conscious of this universe with its names and forms. The universe is non-existent then. And in the absence of the universe, there is no way of knowing that Brahman exists, for it is this universe with its names and forms that makes us aware that Brahman is behind everything. Brahman manifests itself as this universe.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Âditya (the sun [1]) is Brahman, this is the doctrine, and this is the fuller account of it:-- In the beginning this was non-existent [2]. It became existent, it grew. It turned into an egg [3]. The egg lay for the time of a year. The egg broke open. The two halves were one of silver, the other of gold.

Footnote:

1. Âditya, or the sun, had before been represented as one of the four feet of Brahman. He is now represented as Brahman, or as to be meditated on as such. 2. Not yet existing, not yet developed in form and name, and therefore as if not existing. 3. Ânda instead of anda is explained as a Vedic irregularity. A similar cosmogony is given in Manu's Law Book, I, 12 seq. See Kellgren, Mythus de ovo mundano, Helsingfors, 1849.


Sloka : 3.19.2

तद्यद्रजतꣳ सेयं पृथिवी यत्सुवर्णꣳ सा द्यौर्यज्जरायु

ते पर्वता यदुल्बꣳ समेघो नीहारो या धमनयस्ता

नद्यो यद्वास्तेयमुदकꣳ स समुद्रः ॥ ३.१९.२॥

tadyadrajatagͫ seyaṃ pṛthivī yatsuvarṇagͫ sā dyauryajjarāyu

te parvatā yadulbagͫ samegho nīhāro yā dhamanayastā

nadyo yadvāsteyamudakagͫ sa samudraḥ .. 3.19.2..



2. Of these two parts of the egg, the one that is silver is this earth, and the one that is gold is heaven. The thick membranes are the mountains. The thin membranes are the clouds and mist. The veins are the rivers, and the fluid in the bladder is the ocean.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat yat rajatam, that [half] which is silver; sā iyam pṛthivī, that is this earth; yat suvarṇam, that [half] which is gold; sā dyauḥ, that is heaven; yat jarāyu, that which is the thick membrane; te parvatāḥ, they are the mountains; yat ulbam, that which is the thin membrane; sameghaḥ nīhāraḥ, are the clouds and mist; yāḥ dhamanayaḥ, that which are the veins; Commentary:-It has already been stated that at a certain point in time the cosmos takes the shape of an egg, and after remaining in that state for a while, the egg splits in two. The lower part iṣ silver and represents the earth. The upper half is gold and represents heaven. The thick outer membrane around the baby represents the mountains, and the thin inner membrane represents the clouds and mist. The veins of the infant are likened to rivers, and the fluid inside the bladder to the ocean. It is to be noted that these diverse things have all come from one source.

Translation By Max Müller

2. The silver one became this earth, the golden one the sky, the thick membrane (of the white) the mountains, the thin membrane (of the yoke) the mist with the clouds, the small veins the rivers, the fluid the sea.


Sloka : 3.19.3

अथ यत्तदजायत सोऽसावादित्यस्तं जायमानं घोषा

उलूलवोऽनूदतिष्ठन्त्सर्वाणि च भूतानि सर्वे च

कामास्तस्मात्तस्योदयं प्रति प्रत्यायनं प्रति घोषा

उलूलवोऽनूत्तिष्ठन्ति सर्वाणि च भूतानि सर्वे च कामाः

॥ ३.१९.३॥

atha yattadajāyata so'sāvādityastaṃ jāyamānaṃ ghoṣā

ulūlavo'nūdatiṣṭhantsarvāṇi ca bhūtāni sarve ca

kāmāstasmāttasyodayaṃ prati pratyāyanaṃ prati ghoṣā

ulūlavo'nūttiṣṭhanti sarvāṇi ca bhūtāni sarve ca kāmāḥ

.. 3.19.3..



3. Then that which was born was the sun. Its appearance was greeted by joyous sounds from all beings, and many desirable things appeared. Since then, the sunrise and the sunset are both marked by joyous sounds from all beings, and many enjoyable things also appear at that time.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, next; yat tat ajāyata, that which was born; saḥ asau ādityaḥ, it is that sun; tam jāyamānam anu, after it was born; ulūlavaḥ ghoṣāḥ, the sounds of ‘uh’; sarvāṇi ca bhūtāni’, from all beings; sarve ca kāmāḥ, and all desirable things; udatiṣṭhan, came forth; tasmāt, therefore; udayam prati, at the rising; pratyāyanam prati, at the setting; tasya, of that [sun]; ulūlavaḥ ghoṣāḥ, the sounds of ‘ulu’; sarvāṇi ca bhūtāni, from all beings; sarve ca kāmāḥ, and all desirable things; anūttiṣṭhanti, appear. Commentary:-Here it is said that the sun was born from the egg. When a child is born, there is much jubilation in the house, and also in the neighbourhood. Even today, people in India sometimes make the sound of ‘ulu’ on such occasions. Not only that, many precious gifts are also exchanged.

Translation By Max Müller

3. And what was born from it that was Âditya, the sun. When he was born shouts of hurrah arose, and all beings arose, and all things which they desired. Therefore whenever the sun rises and sets, shouts of hurrah arise, and all beings arise, and all things which they desire.


Sloka : 3.19.4

स य एतमेवं विद्वानादित्यं ब्रह्मेत्युपास्तेऽभ्याशो ह

यदेनꣳ साधवो घोषा आ च गच्छेयुरुप च

निम्रेडेरन्निम्रेडेरन् ॥ ३.१९.४॥

sa ya etamevaṃ vidvānādityaṃ brahmetyupāste'bhyāśo ha

yadenagͫ sādhavo ghoṣā ā ca gaccheyurupa ca

nimreḍerannimreḍeran .. 3.19.4..



4. One who knows the sun as Brahman and worships it as such very soon hears sounds pleasing to the ears and also has many good things to enjoy.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ etam evam vidvān, he who knows this as such; ādityam brahma iti upāste, [and] worships the sun as Brahman; abhyāśaḥ, soon; ha, surely; ya, enam āgaccheyuḥ, to him come; sādhavaḥ ghoṣāḥ, pleasant sounds; ca upa-nimreḍeran ca nimreḍeran and also good things to enjoy, good things to enjoy. [The repetition marks the end of the chapter.] It ekonaviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the nineteenth section. Iti chāndogyopaniṣadi tṛtīyaḥ adhyāyaḥ, here ends the third chapter of the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

4. If any one knowing this meditates on the sun as Brahman, pleasant shouts will approach him and will continue, yea, they will continue.


Sloka : 4.1.1

॥ इति एकोनविंशः खण्डः ॥

॥ इति तृतीयोऽध्यायः ॥

॥ चतुर्थोऽध्यायः ॥

जानश्रुतिर्ह पौत्रायणः श्रद्धादेयो बहुदायी बहुपाक्य आस

स ह सर्वत आवसथान्मापयांचक्रे सर्वत एव

मेऽन्नमत्स्यन्तीति ॥ ४.१.१॥

.. iti ekonaviṃśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

.. iti tṛtīyo'dhyāyaḥ ..

.. caturtho'dhyāyaḥ ..

jānaśrutirha pautrāyaṇaḥ śraddhādeyo bahudāyī bahupākya āsa

sa ha sarvata āvasathānmāpayāṃcakre sarvata eva

me'nnamatsyantīti .. 4.1.1..



1. In ancient times there was a king who was the great-grandson of Janaśruta. He was a highly charitable person, who gave many gifts in charity, and always with due respect. He also had large quantities of food cooked for people. With the thought in mind, ‘People all over will eat my food,’ he had many rest-houses built in different places.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Pautrāyaṇaḥ, the grandson; jānaśrutiḥ, the son of Janaśruta; śraddhādeyaḥ, gave away in charity with due respect; bahudāyī, gave many gifts; bahupākyaḥ, cooked large quantities of food for free distribution; āsa ha, it happened like this; saḥ, he [Jānaśruti]; sarvataḥ, from all quarters; me annam, my food; atsyanti, [people] will eat; iti, this [i.e., with this thought in mind]; sarvataḥ eva, in all directions; āvasathān, rest-houses; māpayāñcakre, built. Commentary:-There was once a king named Jānaśruti, who was the great-grandson of Janaśruta. He was a highly charitable person. He not only made large donations, but whatever he gave he gave with love and respect. Every day large quantities of food were cooked and he fed many people. He also had rest-houses built all over the country. He wanted people to come, stay in those rest-houses, and enjoy his food.

Translation By Max Müller

1. There lived once upon a time Gânasruti Pautrâyana (the great-grandson of Ganasruta), who was a pious giver, bestowing much wealth upon the people, and always keeping open house. He built places of refuge everywhere, wishing that people should everywhere eat of his food.


Sloka : 4.1.2

अथ हꣳसा निशायामतिपेतुस्तद्धैवꣳ हꣳ सोहꣳ समभ्युवाद

हो होऽयि भल्लाक्ष भल्लाक्ष जानश्रुतेः पौत्रायणस्य

समं दिवा ज्योतिराततं तन्मा प्रसाङ्क्षी स्तत्त्वा

मा प्रधाक्षीरिति ॥ ४.१.२॥

atha hagͫsā niśāyāmatipetustaddhaivagͫ hagͫ sohagͫ samabhyuvāda

ho ho'yi bhallākṣa bhallākṣa jānaśruteḥ pautrāyaṇasya

samaṃ divā jyotirātataṃ tanmā prasāṅkṣī stattvā

mā pradhākṣīriti .. 4.1.2..



2. Once he saw some swans flying overhead at night. The swan flying behind called out to the one ahead:- ‘Hey, you short-sided one! Don’t you see that the brightness of Jānaśruti has spread all over the sky like daylight? Beware you don’t touch it. See that it doesn’t bum you’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ha, once; haṃsāḥ, swans [i.e., some sages who had taken the form of swans]; niśāyām, at night; atipetuḥ, were flying; tat, then; haṃsaḥ, one of the swans; evam ha abhyuvāda, loudly said; haṃsam, to the other swan; ho ho ayi bhallākṣa bhallākṣa, hey, you short-sided one [don’t you see?]; jānaśruteḥ pautrāyaṇasya jyotiḥ, the light [emanating] from Jānaśruti; divā, in the sky; samam ātatam, has spread like daylight; tat, that [light]; mā prasāṅkṣīḥ, don’t touch; tat tvā mā pradhākṣī iti, don’t let it burn you. Commentary:-One evening the king was resting on the roof of his palace and he noticed a couple of swans flying above him in the sky. These swans were actually sages or gods in disguise. Just then the swan flying behind joked with the one ahead about the king, within the king’s hearing.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Once in the night some Hamsas (flamingoes) flew over his house, and one flamingo said to another:- 'Hey, Bhallâksha, Bhallâksha (short-sighted friend). The light (glory) of Gânasruti Pautrâyana has spread like the sky. Do not go near, that it may not burn thee.'


Sloka : 4.1.3

तमु ह परः प्रत्युवाच कम्वर एनमेतत्सन्तꣳ सयुग्वानमिव

रैक्वमात्थेति यो नु कथꣳ सयुग्वा रैक्व इति ॥ ४.१.३॥

tamu ha paraḥ pratyuvāca kamvara enametatsantagͫ sayugvānamiva

raikvamāttheti yo nu kathagͫ sayugvā raikva iti .. 4.1.3..



3. The swan in front replied:- ‘Say, who is this person? From the way you are talking one would think he was Raikva with the cart.’ Then the other swan asked, ‘And who is this Raikva with the cart you are referring to?’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Paraḥ, the other [i.e., the swan in front]; pratyuvāca, replied; are kam u enam etat santam, [feigning contempt and a mood to debate] say, who is this one; sayugvānam raikvam iva āttha iti, you are talking as if he were Raikva with the cart; yaḥ nu katham sayugvā raikvaḥ iti, [the other swan asked] who is this Raikva with the cart that you are referring to? Commentary:-What the swan in front meant was:- ‘This prince is a worthless fellow. He by no means deserves the honour you are paying him. You are talking of him as if he had attained Self-knowledge—as if he were a great person like Sayugvā Raikva (that is, Raikva who rides the small cart).’ But the other swan did not know who this Sayugvā Raikva was.

Translation By Max Müller

3. The other answered him:- 'How can you speak of him, being what he is (a râganya, noble), as if he were like Raikva with the car [1]?'

Footnote:

1. Sayugvan is explained as possessed of a car with yoked horses or oxen. Could it have meant originally, 'yoke-fellow, equal,' as in Rig-veda X, 130, 4? Anquetil renders it by 'semper cum se ipso camelum solutum habens.'


Sloka : 4.1.4

यथा कृतायविजितायाधरेयाः संयन्त्येवमेनꣳ सर्वं

तदभिसमैति यत्किंच प्रजाः साधु कुर्वन्ति यस्तद्वेद

यत्स वेद स मयैतदुक्त इति ॥ ४.१.४॥

yathā kṛtāyavijitāyādhareyāḥ saṃyantyevamenagͫ sarvaṃ

tadabhisamaiti yatkiṃca prajāḥ sādhu kurvanti yastadveda

yatsa veda sa mayaitadukta iti .. 4.1.4..



4. ‘Just as in a game of dice, when a person wins the toss called kṛta he automatically wins the lower tosses also, in the same way, whatever good work people do goes to the credit of Raikva. If anyone knows what Raikva knows, he becomes like Raikva. This is how I would describe Raikva.’





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yathā, just as; kṛtāya-vijitāya, if a person wins the toss of dice called kṛta; adhareyāḥ, all lower tosses [i.e., tretā, three; dvāpara, two; and kali, one]; samyanti, are included [i.e., are also won]; evam, in the same way; yat kiñca prajāḥ sādhu kurvanti, whatever good work people do; enam sarvam tat abhisamaiti, all that comes under that one [i.e., it Commentary:-Kṛta is the highest number possible in a toss of dice, so it is said to include all the lower numbers within it. The swan says that Raikva is a person like kṛta, because he includes within himself all the good things that other people do. He is the sum total of all that is good in the world. If anyone has the knowledge that Raikva has, then he becomes the same as Raikva.

Translation By Max Müller

4. The first replied:- 'How is it with this Raikva with the car of whom thou speakest?' The other answered:- 'As (in a game of dice) all the lower casts [1] belong to him who has conquered with the Krita cast, so whatever good deeds other people perform, belong to that Raikva. He who knows what he knows, he is thus spoken of by me.'

Footnote:

1. Instead of adhareyâh, we must read adhare 'yâh.


Sloka : 4.1.5

तदु ह जानश्रुतिः पौत्रायण उपशुश्राव

स ह संजिहान एव क्षत्तारमुवाचाङ्गारे ह सयुग्वानमिव

रैक्वमात्थेति यो नु कथꣳ सयुग्वा रैक्व इति ॥ ४.१.५॥

tadu ha jānaśrutiḥ pautrāyaṇa upaśuśrāva

sa ha saṃjihāna eva kṣattāramuvācāṅgāre ha sayugvānamiva

raikvamāttheti yo nu kathagͫ sayugvā raikva iti .. 4.1.5..



5-6. Jānaśruti Pautrāyaṇa overheard what the swan said. He got up from his bed and the first thing he did was to ask his attendant [who was standing nearby]:- ‘O my child, can I be compared to Raikva with the cart? Who is this Raikva with the cart? What sort of person is he?’ [Then he quoted what the swan had said:-] ‘Just as in a game of dice, if a person wins the toss called kṛta, he automatically wins the lower tosses also, in the same way, whatever good work people do goes to the credit of Raikva. If anyone knows what Raikva knows, he becomes like Raikva. This is how I would describe Raikva.’





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-U tat, that [what the swan said]; jānaśrutiḥ pautrāyaṇa upaśuśrāva, the great-grandson of Janaśruta overheard; saḥ ha sañjihānaḥ, he got up from his bed; eva kṣattāram uvāca, and immediately said to his charioteer; aṅga are, O my child; sayugvānam iva raikvam āttha ha iti, do you compare me with Raikva with the cart; yaḥ sayugvā raikva iti, who is this Raikva with the cart; nu katham, what sort of person is he?; Yathā, just as; kṛtāya-vijitāya, if a person wins the toss of dice called kṛta; adhareyāḥ, all lower tosses [i.e., tretā, three; dvāpara, two; and kali, one]; samyanti, are included [i.e., are also won]; evam, in the same way; yat kiñca prajāḥ sādhu kurvanti, whatever good work people do; enam sarvam tat abhisamaiti, all that comes under that one [i.e., it goes to the credit of Raikva]; yaḥ tat veda, he who knows that; yat saḥ veda, whatever he [Raikva] knows; saḥ mayā etat uktaḥ iti, this is said of him by me. Commentary:-Jānaśruti was disturbed by what the swans had said about him. Maybe he could not be compared with Raikva, but in what way did Raikva excel over him? Who was this Raikva with a cart? Jānaśruti had a sleepless night. The next morning when he got up, the first thing he did was to question his attendant about this Raikva. He wanted to somehow find out in what respect Raikva was superior to him.

Translation By Max Müller

5. Gânasruti Pautrâyana overheard this conversation, and as soon as he had risen in the morning, he said to his. door-keeper (kshattri):- 'Friend, dost thou speak of (me, as if I were) Raikva with the car?' He replied:- 'How is it with this Raikva, with the car?'


Sloka : 4.1.6

यथा कृतायविजितायाधरेयाः संयन्त्येवमेनꣳ सर्वं

तदभिसमैति यत्किंच प्रजाः साधु कुर्वन्ति यस्तद्वेद

यत्स वेद स मयैतदुक्त इति ॥ ४.१.६॥

yathā kṛtāyavijitāyādhareyāḥ saṃyantyevamenagͫ sarvaṃ

tadabhisamaiti yatkiṃca prajāḥ sādhu kurvanti yastadveda

yatsa veda sa mayaitadukta iti .. 4.1.6..



Translation By Max Müller

6. The king said:- 'As (in a game of dice), all the lower casts belong to him who has conquered with the Krita cast, so whatever good deeds other people perform, belong to that Raikva. He who knows what he knows, he is thus spoken of by me.'


Sloka : 4.1.7

स ह क्षत्तान्विष्य नाविदमिति प्रत्येयाय तꣳ होवाच

यत्रारे ब्राह्मणस्यान्वेषणा तदेनमर्च्छेति ॥ ४.१.७॥

sa ha kṣattānviṣya nāvidamiti pratyeyāya tagͫ hovāca

yatrāre brāhmaṇasyānveṣaṇā tadenamarccheti .. 4.1.7..



7. [Jānaśruti asked his attendant to go and look for Raikva.] Having looked for him, the attendant thought, ‘I can’t find him,’ and returned to his master. Jānaśruti then said to him:- ‘Well, why don’t you go to places where brāhmins are to be found—in forests and solitary places? Look for him there’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ ha kṣattā, that attendant; anviṣya, having looked [for Raikva]; na avidam iti, thought ‘I have not found him’; pratyeyāya, came back; tam ha uvāca, [then Jānaśruti] said to him; are yatra brāhmaṇasya anveṣaṇā, well, wherever brāhmins are to be found [i.e., in Commentary:-Jānaśruti’s attendant looked for Raikva in many places, but obviously they were unlikely places. Raikva could be found only in a quiet place, such as a forest or by the side of a river. It would be there that such a person would prefer to stay. So Jānaśruti asked the attendant to search in those places.

Translation By Max Müller

7. The door-keeper went to look for Raikva, but returned saying, 'I found him not.' Then the king said:- 'Alas! where a Brâhmana should be searched for (in the solitude of the forest), there go for him.'


Sloka : 4.1.8

सोऽधस्ताच्छकटस्य पामानं कषमाणमुपोपविवेश

तꣳ हाभ्युवाद त्वं नु भगवः सयुग्वा रैक्व

इत्यहꣳ ह्यरा३ इति ह प्रतिजज्ञे स ह क्षत्ताविदमिति

प्रत्येयाय ॥ ४.१.८ ॥

so'dhastācchakaṭasya pāmānaṃ kaṣamāṇamupopaviveśa

tagͫ hābhyuvāda tvaṃ nu bhagavaḥ sayugvā raikva

ityahagͫ hyarā3 iti ha pratijajñe sa ha kṣattāvidamiti

pratyeyāya .. 4.1.8 ..



8. The attendant noticed a man sitting under a cart, scratching a rash on his body. Sitting down close to him, the attendant asked, ‘Sir, are you Raikva with the cart?’ The man answered, ‘Well, yes, I am.’ The attendant thought, ‘I have found him,’ and returned.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ, he [the attendant]; śakaṭasya adhastāt, [noticed a man sitting] under a cart; pāmānam, with a rash on his skin; kaṣamāṇam, scratching; upa upaviveśa, he sat close to him; tam ha abhyuvāda, he said to him; tvam nu bhagavaḥ sayugvā raikva iti, Sir, are you Raikva with the cart; aham hi arā iti, well, yes, I am the same; pratijajñe, he admitted [rather contemptuously]; saḥ ha kṣattā, that attendant; avidam iti, thought ‘I have found him’; pratyeyāya, came back. Iti prathamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, heṛe ends the first section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

8. The door-keeper came to a man who was lying beneath a car and scratching his sores [1]. He addressed him, and said:- 'Sir, are you Raikva with the car? ' He answered:- 'Here I am.' Then the door-keeper returned, and said:- 'I have found him.'

Footnote:

1. It is curious that in a hymn of the Atharva-veda (V, 22, 5, 8) takman, apparently a disease of the skin, is relegated to the Mahâvrishas, where Raikva dwelt. Roth, Zur Literatur des Veda, .


Sloka : 4.2.1

॥ इति प्रथमः खण्डः ॥

तदु ह जानश्रुतिः पौत्रायणः षट्शतानि गवां

निष्कमश्वतरीरथं तदादाय प्रतिचक्रमे तꣳ हाभ्युवाद

॥ ४.२.१॥

.. iti prathamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

tadu ha jānaśrutiḥ pautrāyaṇaḥ ṣaṭśatāni gavāṃ

niṣkamaśvatarīrathaṃ tadādāya praticakrame tagͫ hābhyuvāda

.. 4.2.1..



1. Then Jānaśruti Pautrāyaṇa went to that place, taking with him six hundred cows, a gold necklace, and a chariot drawn by mules. He said to him [Raikva]:-





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat u ha, next; jānaśrutiḥ pautrāyaṇaḥ, the great-grandson of Janaśruta; ṣaṭ śatāni gavām, six hundred cows; niṣkam, a gold necklace; aśvatarīratham, a chariot drawn by mules; tat ādāya, that with him; praticakrame, went [there]; tam ha abhyuvāda, he said to him. Commentary:-Hearing the report from his attendant, and thinking that Raikva might be poor and in need of money, Jānaśruti went with some gifts to offer Raikva, so that Raikva would teach him.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Then Gânasruti Pautrâyana took six hundred cows, a necklace, and a carriage with mules, went to Raikva and said:-


Sloka : 4.2.2

रैक्वेमानि षट्शतानि गवामयं निष्कोऽयमश्वतरीरथोऽनु

म एतां भगवो देवताꣳ शाधि यां देवतामुपास्स इति

॥ ४.२.२॥

raikvemāni ṣaṭśatāni gavāmayaṃ niṣko'yamaśvatarīratho'nu

ma etāṃ bhagavo devatāgͫ śādhi yāṃ devatāmupāssa iti

.. 4.2.2..



2. ‘O Raikva, all these—six hundred cows, a gold necklace, and a chariot drawn by mules—are for you. Please tell me about the god you worship’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Raikva, O Raikva; imāni, all these; ṣaṭ śatāni gavām, six hundred cows; ayam niṣkaḥ, this gold necklace; ayam aśvatarīrathaḥ, this chariot drawn by mules; bhagavaḥ, sir; anuśādhi me, please teach me; etām devatām, about the god; yām devatām upāsse iti, that god which you worship. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. 'Raikva, here are six hundred cows, a necklace, and a carriage with mules; teach me the deity which you worship.'


Sloka : 4.2.3

तमु ह परः प्रत्युवाचाह हारेत्वा शूद्र तवैव सह

गोभिरस्त्विति तदु ह पुनरेव जानश्रुतिः पौत्रायणः

सहस्रं गवां निष्कमश्वतरीरथं दुहितरं तदादाय

प्रतिचक्रमे ॥ ४.२.३॥

tamu ha paraḥ pratyuvācāha hāretvā śūdra tavaiva saha

gobhirastviti tadu ha punareva jānaśrutiḥ pautrāyaṇaḥ

sahasraṃ gavāṃ niṣkamaśvatarīrathaṃ duhitaraṃ tadādāya

praticakrame .. 4.2.3..



3. Raikva said to him, ‘You śūdra, the necklace and chariot along with the cows—let all these be yours.’ Jānaśruti left and then again came back—this time with one thousand cows, a gold necklace, a chariot drawn by mules, and his own daughter.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tam u, to him [Jānaśruti]; ha paraḥ, the other [i.e., Raikva]; pratyuvāca, replied; aha śūdra, O you śūdra; hāra-itvā, the necklace and chariot; saha gobhiḥ, along with the cows; tava eva astu iti, they may be with you; tat u ha jānaśrutiḥ pautrāyaṇaḥ, then Jānaśruti Pautrāyaṇa; punaḥ eva, again; sahasram gavām, one thousand cows; niṣkam, a gold necklace; aśvatarīratham, a chariot drawn by mules; duhitaram, his own daughter; tat ādāya, taking that with him; praticakrame, he went back. Commentary:-Jānaśruti was a kṣatriya. Why then did Raikva address him as a śūdra? Because Jānaśruti thought he could tempt Raikva to teach him Brahmavidyā, the knowledge of Brahman, through wealth. He did not understand

Translation By Max Müller

3. The other replied:- 'Fie, necklace and carriage be thine, O Sûdra, together with the cows.' Then Gânasruti Pautrâyana took again a thousand cows, a necklace, a carriage with mules, and his own daughter, and went to him.


Sloka : 4.2.4

तꣳ हाभ्युवाद रैक्वेदꣳ सहस्रं गवामयं

निष्कोऽयमश्वतरीरथ इयं जायायं ग्रामो

यस्मिन्नास्सेऽन्वेव मा भगवः शाधीति ॥ ४.२.४ ॥

tagͫ hābhyuvāda raikvedagͫ sahasraṃ gavāmayaṃ

niṣko'yamaśvatarīratha iyaṃ jāyāyaṃ grāmo

yasminnāsse'nveva mā bhagavaḥ śādhīti .. 4.2.4 ..



4. He said to Raikva:- ‘I am giving you these thousand cows, this gold necklace, this chariot drawn by mules, this daughter of mine to be your wife, and also this village in which you live. Now, sir, please teach me’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tam, to him [Raikva]; ha abhyuvāda, [Jānaśruta] said; raikva, O Raikva; idam sahasram gavām, these thousand cows; ayam niṣkaḥ, this gold necklace; ayam aśvatarīrathaḥ, this chariot drawn by mules; iyam jāyā, this wife [my daughter]; ayam grāmaḥ, this village; yasmin āsse, where you live; [I am presenting all these to you]; bhagavaḥ, sir; eva anuśādhi iti, now please teach me. Commentary:-Jānaśruti offered Raikva many things, but most important, he offered his daughter in marriage and

Translation By Max Müller

4. He said to him:- 'Raikva, there are a thousand cows, a necklace, a carriage with mules, this wife, and this village in which thou dwellest. Sir, teach me!'


Sloka : 4.2.5

तस्या ह मुखमुपोद्गृह्णन्नुवाचाजहारेमाः शूद्रानेनैव

मुखेनालापयिष्यथा इति ते हैते रैक्वपर्णा नाम

महावृषेषु यत्रास्मा उवास स तस्मै होवाच ॥ ४.२.५ ॥

tasyā ha mukhamupodgṛhṇannuvācājahāremāḥ śūdrānenaiva

mukhenālāpayiṣyathā iti te haite raikvaparṇā nāma

mahāvṛṣeṣu yatrāsmā uvāsa sa tasmai hovāca .. 4.2.5 ..



5. Lifting the face of the princess, Raikva said:- ‘You have brought me many things [but they are not making me speak]. It is this face that is making me speak.’ The villages in the Mahāvṛṣa province, where Raikva lived, were known thenceforth as Raikvaparṇā. It was here Raikva taught Jānaśruti. Raikva said to him:-





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tasyāḥ ha mukham upodgṛhṇan, lifting her face; uvāca, [Raikva] said; śūdra, O śūdra; ajahāra, you have brought; imāḥ, all these; anena eva mukhena, by this face [or, mouth]; ālāpayiṣyathā iti, you will make me speak; te ha ete raikvaparṇāḥ nāma, these [villages] known as Raikvaparṇā; mahāvṛṣeṣu, in the province of Mahāvṛṣa; yatra, where; uvāsa, [Raikva] lived; asmai, [and where Raikva taught] him [i.e., Jānaśruti]; tasmai ha uvāca, he said to him. Iti dvitīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the second section. Commentary:-Raikva was a brahmacārin. He had no home, and he lived an austere life. He had, however, attained Self-knowledge. When Jānaśruti approached him for spiritual instructions, he was unwilling. He did not like Jānaśruti’s offering him wealth. This is why he called him a śūdra. But When Jānaśruti offered him his daughter in marriage, Raikva was impressed by his keenness. He then agreed to teach him.

Translation By Max Müller

5. He, opening her mouth [1], said:- 'You have brought these (cows and other presents), O Sûdra, but only by that mouth did you make me speak.' These are the Raikva-parna villages in the country of the Mahâvrishas (mahâpunyas) where Raikva dwelt under him [2]. And he said to him:-

Footnote:

1. To find out her age. The commentator translates, 'Raikva, knowing her mouth to be the door of knowledge, i. e. knowing that for her he might impart his knowledge to Gânasruti, and that Gânasruti by bringing such rich gifts had become a proper receiver of knowledge, consented to do what he had before refused.' 2. The commentator supplies adât, the king gave the villages to him.


Sloka : 4.3.1

॥ इति द्वितीयः खण्डः ॥

वायुर्वाव संवर्गो यदा वा अग्निरुद्वायति वायुमेवाप्येति

यदा सूर्योऽस्तमेति वायुमेवाप्येति यदा चन्द्रोऽस्तमेति

वायुमेवाप्येति ॥ ४.३.१॥

.. iti dvitīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

vāyurvāva saṃvargo yadā vā agnirudvāyati vāyumevāpyeti

yadā sūryo'stameti vāyumevāpyeti yadā candro'stameti

vāyumevāpyeti .. 4.3.1..



1. The air swallows everything. When fire is extinguished, it disappears into the air. When the sun sets, it disappears into the air. And when the moon sets, it disappears into the air.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Vāyuḥ vāva samvargaḥ, the air swallows everything; yadā vai agniḥ udvāyati, when fire is extinguished; vāyum eva apyeti, it disappears into the air; yadā sūryaḥ astam eti, when the sun sets; vāyum eva apyeti, it disappears into the air; yadā candraḥ astam eti, when the moon sets; vāyum eva apyeti, it disappears into the air. Commentary:-Earlier, the question of imparting spiritual instructions has been discussed. Here, how the instruction is given is being shown. The instruction begins with the forces of nature (adhidaivata)—by stressing the importance of air. Air can overcome everything, including even the sun, the moon, and fire.

Translation By Max Müller

1. 'Air (vâyu) is indeed the end of all [1]. For when fire goes out, it goes into air. When the sun goes down, it goes into air. When the moon goes down, it goes into air.

Footnote:

1. Samvarga, absorption, whence samvargavidyâ, not samsarga. It is explained by samvargana, samgrahana, and samgrasana, in the text itself by adana, eating.


Sloka : 4.3.2

यदाप उच्छुष्यन्ति वायुमेवापियन्ति

वायुर्ह्येवैतान्सर्वान्संवृङ्क्त इत्यधिदैवतम् ॥ ४.३.२॥

yadāpa ucchuṣyanti vāyumevāpiyanti

vāyurhyevaitānsarvānsaṃvṛṅkta ityadhidaivatam .. 4.3.2..



2. When water dries up, it disappears into the air. The air swallows all these. This is the worship of the forces of nature (adhidaivata).





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yadā āpaḥ ucchuṣyanti, when water dries up; vāyum eva apiyanti, it goes into the air; vāyuḥ hi etān sarvān saṃvṛṅkte, the air swallows all these; iti adhidaivatam, this is the worship of the forces of nature. Commentary:-This is to show that air is supreme. It can even destroy such a powerful thing as fire.

Translation By Max Müller

2. 'When water dries up, it goes into air. Air indeed consumes them all. So much with reference to the Devas.


Sloka : 4.3.3

अथाध्यात्मं प्राणो वाव संवर्गः स यदा स्वपिति प्राणमेव

वागप्येति प्राणं चक्षुः प्राणꣳ श्रोत्रं प्राणं मनः प्राणो

ह्येवैतान्सर्वान्संवृङ्क्त इति ॥ ४.३.३॥

athādhyātmaṃ prāṇo vāva saṃvargaḥ sa yadā svapiti prāṇameva

vāgapyeti prāṇaṃ cakṣuḥ prāṇagͫ śrotraṃ prāṇaṃ manaḥ prāṇo

hyevaitānsarvānsaṃvṛṅkta iti .. 4.3.3..



3. Next is the worship concerning the body. Prāṇa swallows everything. When a person sleeps, speech, the eyes, the ears, and the mind—all these go into prana. Prāṇa swallows all these.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha adhyātmam, now, that relating to the body; prāṇaḥ vāva samvargaḥ, prāṇa [the vital force] swallows everything; saḥ yadā svapiti, when a person is sleeping; prāṇam eva vāk apyeti, speech disappears into prāṇa; prāṇam cakṣuḥ, the eyes [disappear] into prāṇa; prāṇam śrotram, the ears [disappear] into prāṇa; prāṇam manaḥ, the mind [disappears] into prāṇa; prāṇaḥ hi eva etān sarvān saṃvṛṇkte iti, prāṇa swallows all these. Commentary:-When a person falls asleep, the sense organs stop working. They retire into prāṇa, as if they have been swallowed by it.

Translation By Max Müller

3. 'Now with reference to the body. Breath (prâna) is indeed the end of all. When a man sleeps, speech goes into breath, so do sight, hearing, and mind. Breath indeed consumes them all.


Sloka : 4.3.4

तौ वा एतौ द्वौ संवर्गौ वायुरेव देवेषु प्राणः प्राणेषु

॥ ४.३.४॥

tau vā etau dvau saṃvargau vāyureva deveṣu prāṇaḥ prāṇeṣu

.. 4.3.4..



4. These two swallow everything:- air among the gods and prāṇa among the organs.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tau vai etau dvau, these are those two; samvargau, all-swallowing; vāyuḥ eva deveṣu, the air among the gods; prāṇaḥ prāṇeṣu, prāṇa [the vital breath] among the organs. Commentary:-Briefly, vāyu, air, is the source of fire, the sun, the moon, and water. Therefore one should worship vāyu as outside, in nature (adhidaivata). Likewise, prāṇa, the vital breath, is the source of speech, the eyes, the ears, and the mind, and therefore one should worship this prāṇa as within oneself (adhyātma).

Translation By Max Müller

4. 'These are the two ends, air among the Devas, breath among the senses (prânâh).'

________________


Sloka : 4.3.5

अथ ह शौनकं च कापेयमभिप्रतारिणं च काक्षसेनिं

परिविष्यमाणौ ब्रह्मचारी बिभिक्षे तस्मा उ ह न ददतुः

॥ ४.३.५॥

atha ha śaunakaṃ ca kāpeyamabhipratāriṇaṃ ca kākṣaseniṃ

pariviṣyamāṇau brahmacārī bibhikṣe tasmā u ha na dadatuḥ

.. 4.3.5..



5. Once Śaunaka, the son of Kapi, and Abhipratārin, the son of Kakṣasena, were being served their meals when a brahmacārin appeared and begged for some food. They, however, refused to give him any.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ha, once; śaunakam kāpeyam ca abhipratāriṇam kākṣasenim ca pariviṣyamāṇau, food was being served to Śaunaka, the son of Kapi, and Abhipratārin, the son of Kaksasena; brahmacārī bibhikṣe, a brahmacārin Commentary:-Śaunaka and Abhipratārin were having their meals, and the cook was serving. Just then a brahmacārin came to them for some food. He was one who had attained the knowledge of Brahman. Śaunaka and Abhipratārin, however, wanted to see if the brahmacārin’s knowledge was genuine, so they did not give him anything.

Translation By Max Müller

5. Once while Saunaka Kâpeya and Abhipratârin Kâkshaseni were being waited on at their meal, a religious student begged of them. They gave him nothing.


Sloka : 4.3.6

स होवाच महात्मनश्चतुरो देव एकः कः स जगार

भुवनस्य गोपास्तं कापेय नाभिपश्यन्ति मर्त्या

अभिप्रतारिन्बहुधा वसन्तं यस्मै वा एतदन्नं तस्मा

एतन्न दत्तमिति ॥ ४.३.६॥

sa hovāca mahātmanaścaturo deva ekaḥ kaḥ sa jagāra

bhuvanasya gopāstaṃ kāpeya nābhipaśyanti martyā

abhipratārinbahudhā vasantaṃ yasmai vā etadannaṃ tasmā

etanna dattamiti .. 4.3.6..



6. The brahmacārin said:- ‘One god has swallowed four sages. Who is he who protects this world? O Kāpeya, O Abhipratārin, that god exists in many forms, but human beings cannot see him. The food is meant for him, but you are not giving it to him’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ ha uvāca, he [the brahmacārin] said; ekaḥ devaḥ, one god; mahātmanaḥ caturaḥ, four sages; jagāra, swallowed; kaḥ saḥ, who is that [god]; bhuvanasya gopāḥ, the guardian of the world; kāpeya abhipratārin, O Kāpeya, O Abhipratārin; martyāḥ tam na abhipaśyanti, human beings cannot see him; bahudhā vasantam, existing in many forms; yasmai, for whom; vai etat annam, this food; tasmai, to him; etat na dattam iti, did not give it. Commentary:-Fire, the sun, the moon, and water—these are said to be four sages. Air controls all these, and air is called the god Prajāpati. Similarly, prāṇa is also the god Prajāpati, and the sages are speech, the eyes, the ears, and the mind. Prajāpati is the protector of all, and he resides in diverse forms—sometimes within the human body (ādhyātmika), Sometimes in the forces of nature (ādhidaivika), and sometimes within other living beings (ādhibautika). People are ignorant about him and do not recognize him. They prepare food for him but do not know it, and they refuse to give it to him.

Translation By Max Müller

6. He said:- 'One god--who is he?--swallowed the four great ones [1], he, the guardian of the world. O Kâpeya, mortals see him not, O Abhipratârin, though he dwells in many places. He to whom this food belongs, to him it has not been given [2].'

Footnote:

1. This must refer to Vâyu and Prâna swallowing the four, as explained in IV, 3, 2, and IV, 3, 3. The commentator explains it by Pragâpati, who is sometimes called Ka. In one sense it would be Brahman, as represented by Vâyu and Prâna. 2. The food which you have refused to me, you have really refused to Brahman.


Sloka : 4.3.7

तदु ह शौनकः कापेयः प्रतिमन्वानः प्रत्येयायात्मा देवानां

जनिता प्रजानाꣳ हिरण्यदꣳष्ट्रो बभसोऽनसूरिर्महान्तमस्य

महिमानमाहुरनद्यमानो यदनन्नमत्तीति वै वयं

ब्रह्मचारिन्नेदमुपास्महे दत्तास्मै भिक्षामिति ॥ ४.३.७॥

tadu ha śaunakaḥ kāpeyaḥ pratimanvānaḥ pratyeyāyātmā devānāṃ

janitā prajānāgͫ hiraṇyadagͫṣṭro babhaso'nasūrirmahāntamasya

mahimānamāhuranadyamāno yadanannamattīti vai vayaṃ

brahmacārinnedamupāsmahe dattāsmai bhikṣāmiti .. 4.3.7..



7. After thinking this over, Śaunaka Kāpeya went to the brahmacārin and said, ‘He who is the self of all the gods and goddesses, the creator of all things moveable and immoveable, who eats with his golden [i.e., firm] teeth, who is intelligent, whom others cannot eat, who eats things which are not food, whose greatness wise people think highly of—O brahmacārin, we worship him.’ After this he said, ‘Give this man alms’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tat u ha, that [statement]; śaunaka kāpeyaḥ pratimanvānaḥ, thought over; pratyeyāya, [and then] went to him; ātmā devānām, the self of all the gods and goddesses; janitā, the creator; prajānām, of all things [moving or unmoving]; hiraṇyadaṃstraḥ, with teeth made of gold; babhasaḥ, the eater; anasūriḥ, intelligent; mahāntam, great; asya, its; mahimānam, greatness; āhuḥ, is so described; anadyamānaḥ, uneatable; yat, that; anannam, no food; atti, eats; brahmacārin, O brahmacārin; vayam, we; idam vai ā-upāsmahe iti, worship this one; datta asmai bhikṣām iti, give alms to him. Commentary:-Śaunaka told the brahmacārin:- ‘It is not correct that we do not know him. We do know him. He is Prajāpati. He creates and also destroys everything. He is the self of all, and he is also the destṛoyer of all. He is supreme. All wise people worship him as such.’ Śaunaka then told his servant to give the brahmacārin some food.

Translation By Max Müller

7. Saunaka Kâpeya, pondering on that speech, went to the student and said:- 'He is the self of the Devas, the creator of all beings, with golden tusks, the eater, not without intelligence. His greatness is said to be great indeed, because, without being eaten, he eats even what is not food [1]. Thus do we, O Brahmakârin, meditate on that Being.' Then he said:- 'give him food.'

Footnote:

1. Saunaka wishes the student to understand that though I mortals see him not,' he sees and knows him, viz. the god who, as Vâyu, swallows all the gods, but produces them again, and who, as prâna, swallows during sleep all senses, but produces them again at the time of waking.


Sloka : 4.3.8

तस्म उ ह ददुस्ते वा एते पञ्चान्ये पञ्चान्ये दश

सन्तस्तत्कृतं तस्मात्सर्वासु दिक्ष्वन्नमेव दश कृतꣳ सैषा

विराडन्नादी तयेदꣳ सर्वं दृष्टꣳ सर्वमस्येदं दृष्टं

भवत्यन्नादो भवति य एवं वेद य एवं वेद ॥ ४.३.८॥

tasma u ha daduste vā ete pañcānye pañcānye daśa

santastatkṛtaṃ tasmātsarvāsu dikṣvannameva daśa kṛtagͫ saiṣā

virāḍannādī tayedagͫ sarvaṃ dṛṣṭagͫ sarvamasyedaṃ dṛṣṭaṃ

bhavatyannādo bhavati ya evaṃ veda ya evaṃ veda .. 4.3.8..



8. Then they gave him alms. The first five [Vāyu, etc.] and the second five [prāṇa, etc.] together make ten. That is kṛta [the throw of dice of the highest denomination]. These ten are the ten directions, and they are the food. This kṛta is Virāṭ. As Virāṭ is all-pervasive, everything is its food. By that Virāṭ all this is seen. He who knows this Virāṭ becomes Virāṭ himself. He becomes all-pervasive and everything becomes his food.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tasmai, to him [the brahmacārin]; u ha daduḥ, they gave [alms]; te vai ete, all these; pañca anye, five other [i.e., air, plus the four others (fire, the sun, the moon, and water) constituting its food]; pañca anye, five other [i.e., prāṇa, plus the four others (speech, the eyes, the ears, and the mind) constituting its food]; daśa santaḥ, make ten; tat kṛtam, that is kṛta [the turn of the dice that swallows all others]; tasmāt, therefore; sarvāsu dikṣu daśa, these which are in the ten directions; annam eva, are the food; kṛtam, [and also] kṛta; sā eṣā virāṭ, that is Virāṭ; annādi, that which swallows; tayā, by that [Virāṭ]; sarvam idam dṛṣṭam, all this is seen; yaḥ evam veda, he who knows thus; asya sarvam idam dṛṣṭam bhavati, all this to him becomes seen; annādaḥ bhavati, [and] he becomes an eater of food. Iti tṛtīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the third section. Commentary:-Prāṇa (the vital force), speech, the eyes, the ears, and the mind—these five represent our physical (adhyātmika) self. Air, fire, the sun, the moon, and water—these five represent nature (adhidaivika), which surrounds us. These ten together are compared to the dice throw called kṛta. Being the highest number, kṛta ‘swallows’ the other throws of dice, adds their numbers to itself, and then becomes ten. (Kṛta is 4, so the other numbers are 3, 2, and 1; therefore 4+3+2+1 = 10.) Then if is said that the adhyātmika and adhidaivika elements together are the ten quarters. They represent the whole world, so they are Virāṭ. This Virāṭ is both the eater and the food. The person who knows this then becomes Virāṭ.

Translation By Max Müller

8. They gave him food. Now these five (the eater Vâyu (air), and his food, Agni (fire), Âditya (sun), Kandramas (moon), Ap (water)) and the other five (the eater Prâna (breath), and his food, speech, sight, hearing, mind) make ten, and that is the Krita (the highest [1]) cast (representing the ten, the eaters and the food). Therefore in all quarters those ten are food (and) Krita (the highest cast). These are again the Virâg [2] (of ten syllables) which eats the food. Through this all this becomes seen. He who knows this sees all this and becomes an eater of food, yea, he becomes an eater of food.

Footnote:

1. The words are obscure, and the commentator does not throw much light on them. He explains, however, the four casts of the dice, the Krita = 4, the Tretâ = 3, the Dvâpara = 2, the Kali = 1, making together 10, the Krita cast absorbing the other casts, and thus counting ten. 2. Virâg, name of a metre of ten syllables, and also a name of food. One expects, 'which is the food and eats the food.'


Sloka : 4.4.1

॥ इति तृतीयः खण्डः ॥

सत्यकामो ह जाबालो जबालां मातरमामन्त्रयांचक्रे

ब्रह्मचर्यं भवति विवत्स्यामि किंगोत्रो न्वहमस्मीति

॥ ४.४.१॥

.. iti tṛtīyaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

satyakāmo ha jābālo jabālāṃ mātaramāmantrayāṃcakre

brahmacaryaṃ bhavati vivatsyāmi kiṃgotro nvahamasmīti

.. 4.4.1..



1. Once Satyakāma Jābāla said to his mother Jabālā:- ‘Revered mother, I would like to live with a teacher as a celibate student. What is my lineage?’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Satyakāmaḥ jābālaḥ ha, once Satyakāma Jābāla; jabālām mātaram āmantrayāñcakre, said to his mother Jabālā; brahmacaryam bhavati vivatsyāmi, O revered mother, I want to live as a brahmacārin [with a teacher]; kim gotraḥ nu aham asmi iti, what is my lineage? Commentary:-To attain Self-realization, one has to practise austerities, study the scriptures, and live a life of self-discipline. The story of Satyakāma illustrates this.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Satyakâma, the son of Gabâlâ, addressed his mother and said:- 'I wish to become a Brahmakârin (religious student), mother. Of what family am I?'


Sloka : 4.4.2

सा हैनमुवाच नाहमेतद्वेद तात यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि

बह्वहं चरन्ती परिचारिणी यौवने त्वामलभे

साहमेतन्न वेद यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि जबाला तु नामाहमस्मि

सत्यकामो नाम त्वमसि स सत्यकाम एव जाबालो

ब्रवीथा इति ॥ ४.४.२॥

sā hainamuvāca nāhametadveda tāta yadgotrastvamasi

bahvahaṃ carantī paricāriṇī yauvane tvāmalabhe

sāhametanna veda yadgotrastvamasi jabālā tu nāmāhamasmi

satyakāmo nāma tvamasi sa satyakāma eva jābālo

bravīthā iti .. 4.4.2..



2. Jabālā said to him:- ‘My son, I don’t know what your lineage is. I was very busy serving many people when I was young, and I had you. As this was the situation, I know nothing about your lineage. My name is Jabālā, and your name is Satyakāma. When asked about your lineage, say, “I am Satyakāma Jābāla.”’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Sā, she [Jabālā]; ha enam uvāca, said to him; na aham etat veda, I don’t know this; tāta, my son; yat gotraḥ tvam asi, what your lineage is; bahu aham carantī paricāriṇī, I was busy serving many people; yauvane tvām alabhe, I had you when I was young; sā etat, for this reason; aham yat gotraḥ tvam asi na veda, I know nothing about what your lineage is; jabālā tu nāma aham asmi, but my name is Jabālā; satyakāmaḥ nāma tvam asi, your name is Satyakāma; saḥ satyakāmaḥ eva jābālaḥ bruvīthāḥ iti, [when asked about your lineage] say this that you are Satyakāma Jābāla. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. She said to him:- 'I do not know, my child, of what family thou art. In my youth when I had to move about much as a servant (waiting on the guests in my father's house), I conceived thee. I do not know of what family thou art. I am Gabâlâ by name, thou art Satyakâma (Philalethes). Say that thou art Satyakâma Gâbâlâ.'


Sloka : 4.4.3

स ह हारिद्रुमतं गौतममेत्योवाच ब्रह्मचर्यं भगवति

वत्स्याम्युपेयां भगवन्तमिति ॥ ४.४.३॥

sa ha hāridrumataṃ gautamametyovāca brahmacaryaṃ bhagavati

vatsyāmyupeyāṃ bhagavantamiti .. 4.4.3..



3. Satyakāma went to Gautama, the son of Haridrumata, and said:- ‘Revered sir, I wish to live with you as a celibate. I have come, revered sir, to be your disciple’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ ha hāridmmatam gautamam etya, he went to Gautama, the son of Haridrumata; uvāca, [and] said; brahmacaryam bhagavati vatsyāmi, revered sir, I wish to live [with you] as a celibate student; upeyām bhagavantam iti, I have come to you, revered sir, [as a disciple]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. He going to Gautama Hâridrumata said to him, 'I wish to become a Brahmakârin with you, Sir. May I come to you, Sir?'


Sloka : 4.4.4

तꣳ होवाच किंगोत्रो नु सोम्यासीति स होवाच

नाहमेतद्वेद भो यद्गोत्रोऽहमस्म्यपृच्छं मातरꣳ

सा मा प्रत्यब्रवीद्बह्वहं चरन्ती परिचरिणी यौवने

त्वामलभे साहमेतन्न वेद यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि जबाला तु

नामाहमस्मि सत्यकामो नाम त्वमसीति सोऽहꣳ

सत्यकामो जाबालोऽस्मि भो इति ॥ ४.४.४॥

tagͫ hovāca kiṃgotro nu somyāsīti sa hovāca

nāhametadveda bho yadgotro'hamasmyapṛcchaṃ mātaragͫ

sā mā pratyabravīdbahvahaṃ carantī paricariṇī yauvane

tvāmalabhe sāhametanna veda yadgotrastvamasi jabālā tu

nāmāhamasmi satyakāmo nāma tvamasīti so'hagͫ

satyakāmo jābālo'smi bho iti .. 4.4.4..



4. Gautama asked him, ‘O Somya, what is your lineage?’ Satyakāma said:- ‘Sir, I do not know what my lineage is. When I asked my mother, she said to me:- “I was very busy serving many people when I was young, and I had you. As this was the situation, I know nothing about your lineage. My name is Jabālā, and your name is Satyakāma.” So, sir, I am Satyakāma Jābāla’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tam ha uvāca, he [Gautama] said to him; kim gotraḥ nu somya asi iti, O Somya, what is your lineage; saḥ ha uvāca, he [Satyakāma] said; na aham etat veda bhoḥ, I do not know this, sir; yat gotraḥ aham asmi, of what lineage I am; apṛccham mātaram, I asked my mother; sā mā pratyabravīt, she said to me; bahu aham carantī paricāriṇī, I was busy serving many people; yauvane tvām alabhe, I had you when I was young; sā etat, for this reason; aham yat gotraḥ tvam asi na veda, I know nothing about what your lineage is; jabālā tu nāma aham asmi, but my name is Jabālā; satyakāmaḥ nāma tvam asi, your name is Satyakāma; saḥ aham satyakāmaḥ jābālaḥ asmi bhoḥ iti, so I am Satyakāma Jābāla, sir. Commentary:-Jabālā told Satyakāma the truth and, should anyone ask him, she told him to tell the truth also—irrespective

Translation By Max Müller

4. He said to him:- 'Of what family are you, my friend?' He replied:- 'I do not know, Sir, of what family I am. I asked my mother, and she answered:- "In my youth when I had to move about much as a servant, I conceived thee. I do not know of what family thou art. I am Gabâlâ by name, thou art Satyakâma," I am therefore Satyakâma Gâbâlâ, Sir.'


Sloka : 4.4.5

तꣳ होवाच नैतदब्राह्मणो विवक्तुमर्हति समिधꣳ

सोम्याहरोप त्वा नेष्ये न सत्यादगा इति तमुपनीय

कृशानामबलानां चतुःशता गा निराकृत्योवाचेमाः

सोम्यानुसंव्रजेति ता अभिप्रस्थापयन्नुवाच

नासहस्रेणावर्तेयेति स ह वर्षगणं प्रोवास ता यदा

सहस्रꣳ सम्पेदुः ॥ ४.४.५॥

tagͫ hovāca naitadabrāhmaṇo vivaktumarhati samidhagͫ

somyāharopa tvā neṣye na satyādagā iti tamupanīya

kṛśānāmabalānāṃ catuḥśatā gā nirākṛtyovācemāḥ

somyānusaṃvrajeti tā abhiprasthāpayannuvāca

nāsahasreṇāvarteyeti sa ha varṣagaṇaṃ provāsa tā yadā

sahasragͫ sampeduḥ .. 4.4.5..



5. Gautama said to him:- ‘No non-brāhmin could speak like this. [Therefore, you must be a brāhmin.] O Somya, go and get me some fuel [for the sacrificial fire]. I will initiate you [as a brāhmin by presenting you with the sacred thread], as you have not deviated from truth.’ After the initiation, he selected four hundred feeble and famished cows. Addressing Satyakāma, Gautama said, ‘O Somya, take these cows away [and look after them].’ As. Satyakāma was taking them away, he said, ‘I will not come back until there are a thousand of them.’ He lived away for many years until they had become a thousand.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tam ha uvāca, he [Gautama] said to him; na etat abrāhmaṇaḥ vivaktum arhati, no non-brāhmin could speak like this; samidham āhara, get some fuel; somya, O Somya; tvā upaneṣye, I shall initiate you; na satyāt agāḥ iti, you have not deviated from truth; tam upanīya, having initiated him; kṛśānām abalānām catuḥśatāḥ gāḥ, four hundred thin and famished cows; nirākṛtya uvāca, having chosen, he said; somya, O Somya; anusaṃvraja iti, take these away; tāḥ abhiprasthāpayan, as he was leaving with them; uvāca, he [Satyakāma] said; na āvarteya asahasreṇa, I will not come back until they are a thousand in number; saḥ ha varṣagaṇam provāsa, he lived away for a long time; tāḥ yadā sahasram sampeduḥ, until they were a thousand. Iti caturthaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fourth section. Commentary:-The point is, no matter what Satyakāma’s birth was, he had the qualities of a brāhmin—love of truth and learning. Though he had to suffer much hardship living in the forest looking after the cows, he was more concerned with keeping his word than with seeking physical comforts.

Translation By Max Müller

5. He said to him:- 'No one but a true Brâhmana would thus speak out. Go and fetch fuel, friend, I shall initiate you. You have not swerved from the truth.' Having initiated him, he chose four hundred lean and weak cows, and said:- 'Tend these, friend.' He drove them out and said to himself, 'I shall not return unless I bring back a thousand.' He dwelt a number of years (in the forest), and when the cows had become a thousand,


Sloka : 4.5.1

॥ इति चतुर्थः खण्डः ॥

अथ हैनमृषभोऽभ्युवाद सत्यकाम३ इति

भगव इति ह प्रतिशुश्राव प्राप्ताः सोम्य सहस्रꣳ स्मः

प्रापय न आचार्यकुलम् ॥ ४.५.१॥

.. iti caturthaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha hainamṛṣabho'bhyuvāda satyakāma3 iti

bhagava iti ha pratiśuśrāva prāptāḥ somya sahasragͫ smaḥ

prāpaya na ācāryakulam .. 4.5.1..



1. Then a bull called to Satyakāma, saying, ‘O Satyakāma!’ He replied, ‘Yes, lord.’ [The bull then said:-] ‘We are now a thousand. Take us to the teacher’s house’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha, then; ha enam ṛṣabhaḥ abhyuvāda iti, a bull called to him [Satyakāma] saying; satyakāma, O Satyakāma; bhagavaḥ iti ha pratiśuśrāva, he replied, ‘Yes, lord’; prāptāḥ somya sahasram smaḥ, we are now a thousand; prāpaya naḥ ācāryakulam, lead us to the teacher’s house. Commentary:-Vāyu (air) is the presiding deity of the quarters (the directions). Being pleased with Satyakāma for the way he fulfilled his promise to his teacher, Vāyu entered the body of a bull and spoke to Satyakāma in a very heavy voice. Satyakāma recognized the deity, and so he addressed him as ‘lord.’

Translation By Max Müller

1. The bull of the herd (meant for Vâyu) said to him:- 'Satyakâma!' He replied:- 'Sir!' The bull said:- 'We have become a thousand, lead us to the house of the teacher;


Sloka : 4.5.2

ब्रह्मणश्च ते पादं ब्रवाणीति ब्रवीतु मे भगवानिति

तस्मै होवाच प्राची दिक्कला प्रतीची दिक्कला

दक्षिणा दिक्कलोदीची दिक्कलैष वै सोम्य चतुष्कलः

पादो ब्रह्मणः प्रकाशवान्नाम ॥ ४.५.२॥

brahmaṇaśca te pādaṃ bravāṇīti bravītu me bhagavāniti

tasmai hovāca prācī dikkalā pratīcī dikkalā

dakṣiṇā dikkalodīcī dikkalaiṣa vai somya catuṣkalaḥ

pādo brahmaṇaḥ prakāśavānnāma .. 4.5.2..



2. The bull said, ‘Let me also tell you about one foot of Brahman.’ Satyakāma replied,’Yes, lord, please tell me.’ Then the bull said to him:- ‘The east is one part of Brahman, the west is another, the south is another, and the north is yet another. O Somya, this is one foot of Brahman, consisting of four parts. This foot is called Prakāśavān, the shining’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Brahmaṇaḥ ca te pādam bravāṇi iti, [the bull said,] let me also tell you about a foot [a quarter] of Brahman; bravītu me bhagavān iti, yes, lord, please tell me; tasmai ha uvāca, [the bull] said to him; prācī dik kalā, the east is one part [i.e., one sixteenth—a quarter of a quarter]; pratīcī dik kalā, the west is one part; dakṣiṇā dik kalā, the south is one part; udīcī dik kalā, the north is one part; eṣaḥ vai somya catuṣkalaḥ pādaḥ brahmaṇaḥ, O Somya, this is one foot of Brahman having four parts; prakāśavān nāma, it is called Prakāśavān [the shining]. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. 'And I will declare to you one foot of Brahman.' 'Declare it, Sir,' he replied. He said to him:- 'The eastern region is one quarter, the western region is one quarter, the southern region is one quarter, the northern region is one quarter. This is a foot of Brahman, consisting of the four quarters, and called Prakâsavat (endowed with splendour).


Sloka : 4.5.3

स य एतमेवं विद्वाꣳश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मणः

प्रकाशवानित्युपास्ते प्रकाशवानस्मिꣳल्लोके भवति

प्रकाशवतो ह लोकाञ्जयति य एतमेवं विद्वाꣳश्चतुष्कलं

पादं ब्रह्मणः प्रकाशवानित्युपास्ते ॥ ४.५.३॥

sa ya etamevaṃ vidvāgͫścatuṣkalaṃ pādaṃ brahmaṇaḥ

prakāśavānityupāste prakāśavānasmigͫlloke bhavati

prakāśavato ha lokāñjayati ya etamevaṃ vidvāgͫścatuṣkalaṃ

pādaṃ brahmaṇaḥ prakāśavānityupāste .. 4.5.3..



3. ‘He who knows this foot of Brahman, which has four parts and is called “the Shining,” and worships it as such becomes famous in this world. He who knows this foot of Brahman, which has four parts and is called “the Shining,” and worships it as such attains other worlds which are luminous’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ etam evam vidvān, he who knows this thus; catuṣkalam pādam brahmaṇaḥ, one foot [or quarter] of Brahman having four parts; prakāśavān iti, known as the shining; upāste, [and] meditates on it; prakāśavān asmin loke bhavati, becomes famous in this world; yaḥ etam evam vidvān, he who knows this thus; catuṣkalam pādam brahmaṇaḥ, one foot of Brahman having four parts; prakāśavān iti, known as the shining; upāste, [and] meditates on it; prakāśavataḥ ha lokān jayati, wins luminous worlds after death. Iti pañcamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fifth section. Commentary:-If you worship Brahman as luminous, you yourself become luminous—that is, you become famous. But not only that, after your death you go to those luminous worlds where gods and goddesses live.

Translation By Max Müller

3. 'He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the name of Prakâsavat, becomes endowed with splendour in this world. He conquers the resplendent worlds, whoever knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman, consisting of the four quarters, by the name of Prakâsavat.


Sloka : 4.6.1

॥ इति पञ्चमः खण्डः ॥

अग्निष्टे पादं वक्तेति स ह श्वोभूते ग

आभिप्रस्थापयांचकार ता यत्राभि सायं

बभूवुस्तत्राग्निमुपसमाधाय गा उपरुध्य समिधमाधाय

पश्चादग्नेः प्राङुपोपविवेश ॥ ४.६.१॥

.. iti pañcamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

agniṣṭe pādaṃ vakteti sa ha śvobhūte ga

ābhiprasthāpayāṃcakāra tā yatrābhi sāyaṃ

babhūvustatrāgnimupasamādhāya gā uparudhya samidhamādhāya

paścādagneḥ prāṅupopaviveśa .. 4.6.1..



1. [Then the bull said,] ‘Agni [fire] will tell you about another foot of Brahman.’ The next day Satyakāma collected the cows and drove them towards his teacher’s house. At dusk they arrived at a place [where they halted for the night]. Having confined the cows and collected some fuel, he lit a fire and sat down just behind it facing east.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Agniḥ te pādam vaktā iti, Agni [fire] will tell you about [another] foot; saḥ ha śvaḥ-bhūte gāḥ abhiprasthāpayāñcakāra, the next day he led the cows [towards his teacher’s house]; yatra sāyam, when it was dusk; tāḥ abhi-babhūvuḥ, they arrived at a place; tatra agnim upasamādhāya, having made a fire there; gāḥ uparudhya, keeping the cows confined; samidham ādhāya, having collected fuel; paścāt agneḥ, behind the fire; prāk upa-upaviveśa, sat facing the east. Commentary:-The next day Satyakāma finished his morning rites and then started for the teacher’s house with the cows. They halted for the night at a suitable spot, and after gathering the cows together, Satyakāma lit a fire and sat by it facing east. The bull had told him that Agni (fire) would teach him about another foot of Brahman. He began to wonder what Agni would say and when he would say it. He could not think of anything else.

Translation By Max Müller

1. 'Agni will declare to you another foot of Brahman.' (After these words of the bull), Satyakâma, on the morrow, drove the cows (toward the house of the teacher). And when they came towards the evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid wood on the fire, and sat down behind the fire, looking to the east.


Sloka : 4.6.2

तमग्निरभ्युवाद सत्यकाम३ इति भगव इति

ह प्रतिशुश्राव ॥ ४.६.२॥

tamagnirabhyuvāda satyakāma3 iti bhagava iti

ha pratiśuśrāva .. 4.6.2..



2. Fire called to him, ‘O Satyakāma.’ He replied, ‘Yes, lord’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Agniḥ, fire; tam abhyuvāda, called to him; satyakāma iti, O Satyakāma; bhagavaḥ iti ha pratiśuśrāva, he replied, ‘Yes, lord.’ Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Then Agni (the fire) said to him:- 'Satyakâma!' He replied:- 'Sir.'


Sloka : 4.6.3

ब्रह्मणः सोम्य ते पादं ब्रवाणीति ब्रवीतु मे भगवानिति

तस्मै होवाच पृथिवी कलान्तरिक्षं कला द्यौः कला

समुद्रः कलैष वै सोम्य चतुष्कलः पादो

ब्रह्मणोऽनन्तवान्नाम ॥ ४.६.३॥

brahmaṇaḥ somya te pādaṃ bravāṇīti bravītu me bhagavāniti

tasmai hovāca pṛthivī kalāntarikṣaṃ kalā dyauḥ kalā

samudraḥ kalaiṣa vai somya catuṣkalaḥ pādo

brahmaṇo'nantavānnāma .. 4.6.3..



3. [Fire said,] ‘O Somya, let me tell you about one foot of Brahman.’ [Satyakāma replied,] ‘Yes, lord, please tell me.’ [Fire] said to him:- ‘The earth is one part, the mid-region is another part, heaven is a third part, and the ocean is a fourth part. O Somya, these are the four parts that make up a foot of Brahman. This foot is named Anantavān, the Unlimited’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Somya, O Somya; brahmaṇaḥ te pādam bravāṇi iti, I will now tell you about a foot of Brahman; bravītu me bhagavān iti, yes, lord, please tell me; tasmai ha uvāca, [fire] said to him; pṛthivī kalā, the earth is one part; antarikṣam kalā, the space between heaven and earth is one part; dyauḥ kalā, heaven is one part; samudraḥ kalā, the ocean is one part; eṣaḥ vai somya catuṣkalaḥ pādaḥ brahmaṇaḥ, O Somya, these are the four parts that make up one foot of Brahman; anantavān nāma, named Anantavān, the Unlimited. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. Agni said:- 'Friend, I will declare unto you one foot of Brahman.' 'Declare it, Sir,' he replied. He said to him:- 'The earth is one quarter, the sky is one quarter, the heaven is one quarter, the ocean is one quarter. This is a foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, and called Anantavat (endless).'


Sloka : 4.6.4

स य एतमेवं विद्वाꣳश्चतुष्कलं पादं

ब्रह्मणोऽनन्तवानित्युपास्तेऽनन्तवानस्मिꣳल्लोके

भवत्यनन्तवतो ह लोकाञ्जयति य एतमेवं विद्वाꣳश्चतुष्कलं

पादं ब्रह्मणोऽनन्तवानित्युपास्ते ॥ ४.६.४॥

sa ya etamevaṃ vidvāgͫścatuṣkalaṃ pādaṃ

brahmaṇo'nantavānityupāste'nantavānasmigͫlloke

bhavatyanantavato ha lokāñjayati ya etamevaṃ vidvāgͫścatuṣkalaṃ

pādaṃ brahmaṇo'nantavānityupāste .. 4.6.4..



4. ‘He who knows this foot of Brahman, which has four parts and is known as “the Unlimited,” and worships it as such becomes long-lived in this world. He who knows this foot of Brahman, which has four parts and is known as “the Unlimited,” and worships it as such attains worlds which are long-lasting’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ etam evam vidvān, he who knows this thus; catuṣkalam pādam brahmaṇaḥ, one foot of Brahman having four parts; anantavān iti, known as the Unlimited; upāste, [and] meditates on it; anantavān asmin loke bhavati, becomes long-lived in this world; yaḥ etam evam vidvān, he who knows this thus; catuṣkalam pādam brahmaṇaḥ, one foot of Brahman having four parts; anantavān iti, known as the Unlimited; upāste, [and] meditates on it; anantavataḥ ha lokān jayati, wins long-lasting worlds after death. Iti ṣaṣṭhaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the sixth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

4. 'He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the name of Anantavat, becomes endless in this world. He conquers the endless worlds, whoever knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the name of Anantavat.


Sloka : 4.7.1

॥ इति षष्ठः खण्डः ॥

हꣳसस्ते पादं वक्तेति स ह श्वोभूते गा

अभिप्रस्थापयांचकार ता यत्राभि सायं

बभूवुस्तत्राग्निमुपसमाधाय गा उपरुध्य समिधमाधाय

पश्चादग्नेः प्राङुपोपविवेश ॥ ४.७.१॥

.. iti ṣaṣṭhaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

hagͫsaste pādaṃ vakteti sa ha śvobhūte gā

abhiprasthāpayāṃcakāra tā yatrābhi sāyaṃ

babhūvustatrāgnimupasamādhāya gā uparudhya samidhamādhāya

paścādagneḥ prāṅupopaviveśa .. 4.7.1..



1. [Then the fire said,] ‘The swan will tell you about another foot of Brahman.’ The next day Satyakāma collected the cows and drove them towards his teacher’s house. At dusk they arrived at a place [where they halted for the night]. Having confined the cows and collected some fuel, he lit a fire and sat down just behind it facing east.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Haṃsaḥ te pādam vaktā iti, the swan will tell you about [another] foot; saḥ ha śvaḥ-bhūte gāḥ abhiprasthāpayāñcakāra, the next day he led the cows [towards his teacher’s house]; yātra sāyam, when it was dusk; tāḥ abhi-babhūvuḥ, they arrived at a place; tatra agnim upasamādhāya, having made a fire there; gāḥ uparudhya, keeping the cows confined; samidham ādhāya, having collected fuel; paścāt agneḥ, behind the fire; prāk upa-upaviveśa, sat facing the east. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. 'A Hamsa (flamingo, meant for the sun) will declare to you another foot of Brahman.' (After these words of Agni), Satyakâma, on the morrow, drove the cows onward. And when they came towards the evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid wood on the fire, and sat down behind the fire, looking toward the east.


Sloka : 4.7.2

तꣳहꣳस उपनिपत्याभ्युवाद सत्यकाम३ इति भगव

इति ह प्रतिशुश्राव ॥ ४.७.२॥

tagͫhagͫsa upanipatyābhyuvāda satyakāma3 iti bhagava

iti ha pratiśuśrāva .. 4.7.2..



2. The swan came flying to him and said, ‘O Satyakāma.’ Satyakāma replied, ‘Yes, lord’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Haṃsaḥ upanipatya, the swan flew near; tam abhyuvāda satyakāma iti, [and] called to him, ‘O Satyakāma’; bhagavaḥ iti ha pratiśuśrāva, he replied, ‘Yes, lord.’ Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Then a Hamsa flew near and said to him 'Satyakâma.' He replied:- 'Sir.'


Sloka : 4.7.3

ब्रह्मणः सोम्य ते पादं ब्रवाणीति ब्रवीतु मे भगवानिति

तस्मै होवाचाग्निः कला सूर्यः कला चन्द्रः कला

विद्युत्कलैष वै सोम्य चतुष्कलः पादो ब्रह्मणो

ज्योतिष्मान्नाम ॥ ४.७.३॥

brahmaṇaḥ somya te pādaṃ bravāṇīti bravītu me bhagavāniti

tasmai hovācāgniḥ kalā sūryaḥ kalā candraḥ kalā

vidyutkalaiṣa vai somya catuṣkalaḥ pādo brahmaṇo

jyotiṣmānnāma .. 4.7.3..



3. [The swan said,] ‘O Somya, let me tell you about one foot of Brahman.’ [Satyakāma replied,] ‘Yes, lord, please tell me.’ [The swan] said to him:- ‘Fire is one part, the sun is another part, the moon is a third part, and lightning is a fourth part. O Somya, these are the four parts that make up a foot of Brahman. This foot is named Jyotiṣmān, the Luminous’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Somya, O Somya; brahmaṇaḥ te pādam bravāṇi iti, I will now tell you about a foot [quarter] of Brahman; bravītu me bhagavān iti, yes, lord, please tell me; tasmai ha uvāca, [the swan] said to him; agniḥ kalā, fire is one part; sūryaḥ kalā, the sun is one part; candraḥ kalā, the moon is one part; vidyut kalā, ūghtning is one part; eṣaḥ vai somya catuṣkalaḥ pādaḥ brahmaṇaḥ, O Somya, these are the four parts that make up a foot of Brahman; jyotiṣmān nāma, named Jyotiṣmān, the Luminous. Commentary:-The swan is speaking here of luminous things, such as fire, the sun, etc. Its partiality for luminous things gives rise to the suspicion that it is itself something luminous. It is, in fact, Āditya, the sun.

Translation By Max Müller

3. The Hamsa said:- 'Friend, I will declare unto you one foot of Brahman.' 'Declare it, Sir,' he replied. He said to him:- 'Fire is one quarter, the sun is one quarter, the moon is one quarter, lightning is one quarter. This is a foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, and called Gyotishmat (full of light).


Sloka : 4.7.4

स य एतमेवं विद्वाꣳश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मणो

ज्योतिष्मानित्युपास्ते ज्योतिष्मानस्मिꣳल्लोके भवति

ज्योतिष्मतो ह लोकाञ्जयति य एतमेवं विद्वाꣳश्चतुष्कलं

पादं ब्रह्मणो ज्योतिष्मानित्युपास्ते ॥ ४.७.४॥

sa ya etamevaṃ vidvāgͫścatuṣkalaṃ pādaṃ brahmaṇo

jyotiṣmānityupāste jyotiṣmānasmigͫlloke bhavati

jyotiṣmato ha lokāñjayati ya etamevaṃ vidvāgͫścatuṣkalaṃ

pādaṃ brahmaṇo jyotiṣmānityupāste .. 4.7.4..



4. ‘He who knows this foot of Brahman, which has four parts and is known as “the Luminous,” and worships it as such becomes illustrious in this world. He who knows this foot of Brahman, which has four parts and is known as “the Luminous,” and worships it as such attains worlds which are luminous.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ etam evam vidvān, he who knows this thus; catuṣkalam pādam brahmaṇaḥ, one foot [or quarter] of Brahman having four parts; jyotiṣmān iti, known as the Luminous; upāste, [and] meditates on it; jyotiṣmān asmin loke bhavati, becomes illustrious in this world; yaḥ etam evam vidvān, he who knows this thus; catuṣkalam pādam brahmaṇaḥ, one foot of Brahman having four parts; jyotiṣmān iti, known as the Luminous; upāste, [and] meditates on it; jyotiṣmataḥ ha lokān jayati, wins luminous worlds after death. Iti saptamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the seventh section. Commentary:-If you know luminous things well, you yourself become luminous—that is to say, famous—in this world. Then after death you win a luminous world. The idea is that you attain whatever you worship.

Translation By Max Müller

4. 'He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the name of Gyotishmat, becomes full of light in this world. He conquers the worlds which are full of light, whoever knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the name of Gyotishmat.


Sloka : 4.8.1

॥ इति सप्तमः खण्डः ॥

मद्गुष्टे पादं वक्तेति स ह श्वोभूते गा अभिप्रस्थापयांचकार

ता यत्राभि सायं बभूवुस्तत्राग्निमुपसमाधाय गा

उपरुध्य समिधमाधाय पश्चादग्नेः प्राङुपोपविवेश ॥ ४.८.१॥

.. iti saptamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

madguṣṭe pādaṃ vakteti sa ha śvobhūte gā abhiprasthāpayāṃcakāra

tā yatrābhi sāyaṃ babhūvustatrāgnimupasamādhāya gā

uparudhya samidhamādhāya paścādagneḥ prāṅupopaviveśa .. 4.8.1..



1. [Then the swan said,] ‘The madgu will tell you about another foot of Brahman.’ The next day Satyakāma collected the cows and drove them towards his teacher’s house. At dusk they arrived at a place [where they halted for the night]. Having confined the cows and collected some fuel, he lit a fire and sat down just behind it facing east.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Madguḥ te pādam vaktā iti, the diver-bird will tell you about [another] foot; saḥ ha śvaḥ-bhūte gāḥ abhiprasthāpayāñcakāra, the next day he led the cows [towards his teacher’s house]; yatra sāyam, when it was dusk; tāḥ abhi-babhūvuḥ, they arrived at a place; tatra agnim upasamādhāya, having made a fire there; gāḥ uparudhya, keeping the cows confined; samidham ādhāya, having collected fuel; paścāt agneḥ, behind the fire; prāk upa-upaviveśa, sat facing the east. Commentary:-The madgu, or diver-bird, is most of the time in water. Because of its close connection with water, and because water sustains life, the diver-bird stands for life (prāṇa).

Translation By Max Müller

1. 'A diver-bird (Madgu, meant for Prâna) will declare to you another foot of Brahman.' (After these words of the Hamsa), Satyakâma, on the morrow, drove the cows onward. And when they came towards the evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid wood on the fire, and sat down behind the fire, looking toward the east.


Sloka : 4.8.2

तं मद्गुरुपनिपत्याभ्युवाद सत्यकाम३ इति भगव इति

ह प्रतिशुश्राव ॥ ४.८.२॥

taṃ madgurupanipatyābhyuvāda satyakāma3 iti bhagava iti

ha pratiśuśrāva .. 4.8.2..



2. The madgu came flying to him and said, ‘O Satyakāma.’ Satyakāma replied, ‘Yes, lord’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Madguḥ upanipatya, the diver-bird flew down; tam abhyuvāda satyakāma iti, [and] called to him, ‘O Satyakāma’; bhagavaḥ iti ha pratiśuśrāva, he replied, ‘Yes, lord.’ Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Then a diver flew near and said to him 'Satyakâma.' He replied:- 'Sir.'


Sloka : 4.8.3

ब्रह्मणः सोम्य ते पादं ब्रवाणीति ब्रवीतु मे भगवानिति

तस्मै होवाच प्राणः कला चक्षुः कला श्रोत्रं कला मनः

कलैष वै सोम्य चतुष्कलः पादो ब्रह्मण आयतनवान्नाम

॥ ४.८.३॥

brahmaṇaḥ somya te pādaṃ bravāṇīti bravītu me bhagavāniti

tasmai hovāca prāṇaḥ kalā cakṣuḥ kalā śrotraṃ kalā manaḥ

kalaiṣa vai somya catuṣkalaḥ pādo brahmaṇa āyatanavānnāma

.. 4.8.3..



3. [The madgu said,] ‘O Somya, let me tell you about one foot of Brahman.’ [Satyakāma replied,] ‘Yes, lord, please tell me.’ [The madgu] said to him:- ‘Prāṇa is one part, the eyes are another part, the ears are a third part, and the mind is a fourth part. O Somya, these are the four parts that make up a foot of Brahman. This foot is named Āyatanavān, the Support’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Somya, O Somya; brahmaṇaḥ te pādam bravāṇi iti, I will now tell you about a foot [or quarter] of Brahman; bravītu me bhagavān iti, yes, lord, please tell me; tasmai ha uvāca, [the madgu] said to him; prāṇaḥ kalā, prāṇah [the vital force] is one part; cakṣuḥ kalā, the eyes are one part; śrotram kalā, the ears are one part; manaḥ kalā, the mind is one part; eṣaḥ vai somya catuṣkalaḥ pādaḥ brahmaṇaḥ, O Somya, these are the four parts that make up a foot of Brahman; āyatanavān nāma, named Āyatanavān, the Support. Commentary:-This part of the story, about the madgu, is devoted to the teaching of prāṇa. In fact, the madgu represents prāṇa. Here the role of the mind has to be understood. The mind is the fourth part of this foot of Brahman, and it is the repository of all that we experience through our diverse organs. This is why it is called Āyatanavān, the Support.

Translation By Max Müller

3. The diver said:- 'Friend, I will declare unto you one foot of Brahman! 'Declare it, Sir,' he replied. He said to him:- 'Breath is one quarter, the eye is one quarter, the ear is one quarter, the mind is one quarter. This is a foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, and called Âyatanavat (having a home).


Sloka : 4.8.4

स यै एतमेवं विद्वाꣳश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मण

आयतनवानित्युपास्त आयतनवानस्मिꣳल्लोके

भवत्यायतनवतो ह लोकाञ्जयति य एतमेवं

विद्वाꣳश्चतुष्कलं पादं ब्रह्मण आयतनवानित्युपास्ते

॥ ४.८.४॥

sa yai etamevaṃ vidvāgͫścatuṣkalaṃ pādaṃ brahmaṇa

āyatanavānityupāsta āyatanavānasmigͫlloke

bhavatyāyatanavato ha lokāñjayati ya etamevaṃ

vidvāgͫścatuṣkalaṃ pādaṃ brahmaṇa āyatanavānityupāste

.. 4.8.4..



4. ‘He who knows this foot of Brahman, which has four parts and is known as “the Support,” and worships it as such becomes a support [to others] in this world. He who knows this foot of Brahman, which has four parts and is known as “the Support,” and worships it as such attains worlds which are spacious’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ etam evam vidvān, he who knows this thus; catuṣkalam pādam brahmaṇaḥ, one foot [or quarter] of Brahman having four parts; āyatanavān iti, known as the Support; upāste, [and] meditates on it; āyatanavān asmin loke bhavati, becomes āyatanavān [i.e., a support to others] in this world; yaḥ etam evam vidvān, he who knows this thus; catuṣkalam pādam brahmaṇaḥ, one foot of Brahman having four parts; āyatanavān iti, known as the Support [i.e., it is spacious and therefore able to support things]; upāste, [and] meditates on it; āyatanavataḥ ha lokān jayati, wins spacious worlds after death. Iti aṣṭamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the eighth section. Commentary:-If a person worships this foot of Brahman as āyatanavān—that is, as spacious—he himself becomes spacious. Being spacious means that he can give shelter to many. He has this advantage as long as he is alive. Then when he dies he is able to attain many larger worlds.

Translation By Max Müller

4. 'He who knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the name of Âyatanavat, becomes possessed of a home in this world. He conquers the worlds which offer a home, whoever knows this and meditates on the foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the name of Âyatanavat.'


Sloka : 4.9.1

॥ इति अष्टमः खण्डः ॥

प्राप हाचर्यकुलं तमाचर्योऽभ्युवाद सत्यकाम३ इति

भगव इति ह प्रतिशुश्राव ॥ ४.९.१॥

.. iti aṣṭamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

prāpa hācaryakulaṃ tamācaryo'bhyuvāda satyakāma3 iti

bhagava iti ha pratiśuśrāva .. 4.9.1..



1. [In due course, Satyakāma] reached his teacher’s house. The teacher greeted him, saying, ‘O Satyakāma.’ He replied, ‘Yes, lord’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Prāpa ha, he reached; ācāryakulam, the teacher’s house; tam ācāryaḥ abhyuvāda, the teacher greeted him; satyakāma iti, O Satyakāma; bhagavaḥ iti ha pratiśuśrāva, [Satyakāma] replied,’Yes, lord.’ Commentary:-Satyakāma tended his teacher’s cattle, but while doing so he lived an austere life and a life of deep meditation.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Thus he reached the house of his teacher. The teacher said to him:- 'Satyakâma.' He replied:- 'Sir.'


Sloka : 4.9.2

ब्रह्मविदिव वै सोम्य भासि को नु त्वानुशशासेत्यन्ये

मनुष्येभ्य इति ह प्रतिजज्ञे भगवाꣳस्त्वेव मे कामे ब्रूयात्

॥ ४.९.२॥

brahmavidiva vai somya bhāsi ko nu tvānuśaśāsetyanye

manuṣyebhya iti ha pratijajñe bhagavāgͫstveva me kāme brūyāt

.. 4.9.2..



2. The teacher said:- ‘Somya, you shine like one who has known Brahman. Who taught you?’ Satyakāma assured him:- ‘Certainly no human being. But will you, O Lord, please teach me now about Brahman, the subject closest to my heart?’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Brahmavit iva vai somya bhāsi, [the teacher, Gautama, said to Satyakāma,] Somya, you are shining like one who has known Brahman; kaḥ nu tvā anuśaśāsa iti, who taught you; anye manuṣyebhyaḥ, somebody other than a human being; iti ha pratijajñe, he assured him; bhagavān tu eva me kāme bruyāt, but, Lord, teach me now about Brahman, the subject closest to my heart. Commentary:-The look on Satyakāma’s face surprised his teacher. He looked like a knower of Brahman. He was shining. What are the signs of a person who has known Brahman? According to Śaṅkara, that person is happy and cheerful, with a smile on his face all the time. His mind is always under control, as are his sense organs. He is also free from desires and therefore from worries. Satyakāma had these signs. This is why his teacher asked him who had taught him. Satyakāma emphatically said that no human being had taught him. He meant thereby that so long as his teacher was there he needed no other human being to teach him. He also assured his teacher that he had now come to him to learn about Brahman, the subject dearest to him.

Translation By Max Müller

2. The teacher said:- 'Friend, you shine like one who knows Brahman. Who then has taught you [1]?' He replied:- 'Not men. But you only, Sir, I wish, should teach me [2];

Footnote:

1. It would have been a great offence if Satyakâma had accepted instruction from any man, except his recognised teacher. 2. The text should be, bhagavâms tv eva me kâme brûyât (me kâme = mamekkhâyâm).


Sloka : 4.9.3

श्रुतꣳह्येव मे भगवद्दृशेभ्य आचार्याद्धैव विद्या विदिता

साधिष्ठं प्रापतीति तस्मै हैतदेवोवाचात्र ह न किंचन

वीयायेति वीयायेति ॥ ४.९.३॥

śrutagͫhyeva me bhagavaddṛśebhya ācāryāddhaiva vidyā viditā

sādhiṣṭhaṃ prāpatīti tasmai haitadevovācātra ha na kiṃcana

vīyāyeti vīyāyeti .. 4.9.3..



3. [Satyakāma said,] ‘I have heard from revered ones like you that a person learns best when he learns from a competent teacher.’ The teacher then, taught Satyakāma everything. Nothing was left out.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Śrutām hi eva me, I have heard; bhagavat-dṛśebhyaḥ, from revered ones like you; ācāryāt ha eva vidyā viditā sādhiṣṭham prāpati iti, knowledge learned from a competent teacher is the best; tasmai, to him [Satyakāma]; ha etat eva uvāca, he taught all this [i.e., what Satyakāma had already learnt from the bull, fire, the swan, and the madgu]; atra ha na kiñcana vīyāya iti vīyāya iti, nothing was left out, nothing was left out. Iti navamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the ninth section. Commentary:-You learn things best when you learn them from a good teacher. This is why Satyakāma asked Gautama to teach him. Gautama then taught him all sixteen kalās, or parts, about Brahman. That is to say, he taught him everything. Earlier, the bull, fire, the swan, and the madgu had taught him about Brahman. Gautama did not leave that out. He taught him everything. The word vīyāya is repeated twice to emphasize that Gautama did not leave out anything.

Translation By Max Müller

3. 'For I have heard from men like you, Sir, that only knowledge which is learnt from a teacher (Âkârya), leads to real good.' Then he taught him the same knowledge. Nothing was left out, Yea, nothing was left out.


Sloka : 4.10.1

॥ इति नवमः खण्डः ॥

उपकोसलो ह वै कामलायनः सत्यकामे जाबाले

ब्रह्मचार्यमुवास तस्य ह द्वादश वार्षाण्यग्नीन्परिचचार

स ह स्मान्यानन्तेवासिनः समावर्तयꣳस्तं ह स्मैव न

समावर्तयति ॥ ४.१०.१॥

.. iti navamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

upakosalo ha vai kāmalāyanaḥ satyakāme jābāle

brahmacāryamuvāsa tasya ha dvādaśa vārṣāṇyagnīnparicacāra

sa ha smānyānantevāsinaḥ samāvartayagͫstaṃ ha smaiva na

samāvartayati .. 4.10.1..



1. Upakosala Kāmalāyana lived twelve years with Satyakāma Jābāla as a celibate disciple, studying the scriptures and looking after his teacher’s sacrificial fires. On the completion of that period, other students were permitted to go home. The only exception was Upakosala. He was detained.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Upakosalaḥ kāmalāyanaḥ ha vai satyakāme jābāle brahmacaryam uvāsa, Upakosala Kāmalāyana lived with Satyakāma Jābāla as a celibate student; tasya ha dvādaśa varṣāṇi agnīn paricacāra, for twelve years he looked after his [teacher’s] sacrificial fires; saḥ, he [Satyakāma]; ha sma anyān antevāsinaḥ samāvartayan, permitted the other disciples to return home [after the completion of their Vedic studies]; tam ha eva na samāvartayati sma, but did not let him [Upakosala] go home. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Upakosala Kâmalâyana dwelt as a Brahmakârin (religious student) in the house of Satyakâma Gâbâla. He tended his fires for twelve years. But the teacher, though he allowed other pupils (after they had learnt the sacred books) to depart to their own homes, did not allow Upakosala to depart.


Sloka : 4.10.2

तं जायोवाच तप्तो ब्रह्मचारी कुशलमग्नीन्परिचचारीन्मा

त्वाग्नयः परिप्रवोचन्प्रब्रूह्यस्मा इति तस्मै हाप्रोच्यैव

प्रवासांचक्रे ॥ ४.१०.२॥

taṃ jāyovāca tapto brahmacārī kuśalamagnīnparicacārīnmā

tvāgnayaḥ paripravocanprabrūhyasmā iti tasmai hāprocyaiva

pravāsāṃcakre .. 4.10.2..



2. Satyakāma’s wife said to him:- ‘The brahmacārin is much reduced by austerities and has looked after the fires with great care. Lest the fires blame you, I suggest you teach him.’ But Satyakāma did not teach him. Instead, he left on a journey.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Tam, to him [Satyakāma]; jāyā uvāca, his wife said; taptaḥ, much reduced by austerities; brahmacārī; the brahmacārin; kuśalam, with great efficiency; agnīn paricacārīt, has tended the fires; mā tvā agnayaḥ paripravocan, may the fires not speak ill of you; prabrūhi asmai iti, please teach him; tasmai ha aprocya eva, he did not teach him; pravāsāñcakre, he left on a journey. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

2. Then his wife said to him:- 'This student, who is quite exhausted (with austerities), has carefully tended your fires. Let not the fires themselves blame you, but teach him.' The teacher, however, went away on a journey without having taught him.


Sloka : 4.10.3

स ह व्याधिनानशितुं दध्रे तमाचार्यजायोवाच

ब्रह्मचारिन्नशान किं नु नाश्नासीति स होवाच

बहव इमेऽस्मिन्पुरुषे कामा नानात्यया व्याधीभिः

प्रतिपूर्णोऽस्मि नाशिष्यामीति ॥ ४.१०.३॥

sa ha vyādhinānaśituṃ dadhre tamācāryajāyovāca

brahmacārinnaśāna kiṃ nu nāśnāsīti sa hovāca

bahava ime'sminpuruṣe kāmā nānātyayā vyādhībhiḥ

pratipūrṇo'smi nāśiṣyāmīti .. 4.10.3..



3. Upakosala was upset and started fasting. His teacher’s wife said to him:- ‘Brahmacārin, eat something. Why are you not eating?’ Upakosala said:- ‘There are too many desires in me and they are pulling me in different directions. I am like one suffering from many ailments. I don’t want to eat’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ, he [Upakosala]; ha vyādhinā, due to mental affliction; anaśitum dadhre, started fasting; tam ācārya-jāyā uvāca, the teacher’s wife said to him; brahmacārin aśāna, brahmacārin, start eatine; kim nu na āśnāsi iti, why are you not eating; saḥ ha uvāca, he [Upakosala] said; bahavaḥ ime asmin puruṣe kāmāḥ there are many desires in this person; nānātyayāḥ, they are pulling me in different directions; vyādhibhiḥ pratipūrṇaḥ asmi, I am full of ailments; na aśiṣyāmi iti, I will not eat anything. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

3. The student from sorrow was not able to eat. Then the wife of the teacher said to him:- 'Student, eat! Why do you not eat?' He said:- 'There are many desires in this man here, which lose themselves in different directions. I am full of sorrows, and shall take no food.'


Sloka : 4.10.4

अथ हाग्नयः समूदिरे तप्तो ब्रह्मचारी कुशलं नः

पर्यचारीद्धन्तास्मै प्रब्रवामेति तस्मै होचुः प्राणो ब्रह्म

कं ब्रह्म खं ब्रह्मेति ॥ ४.१०.४॥

atha hāgnayaḥ samūdire tapto brahmacārī kuśalaṃ naḥ

paryacārīddhantāsmai prabravāmeti tasmai hocuḥ prāṇo brahma

kaṃ brahma khaṃ brahmeti .. 4.10.4..



4. Then the fires—the Dakṣiṇāgni, the Gārhapatya, and the Āhavanīya—began to say to each other:- ‘This brahmacārin has become thin from practising austerities. He has so long looked after us with great care. Let us teach him.’ They said to Upakosala, ‘Prāṇa is Brahman, ka [happiness] is Brahman, and kha [space] is Brahman.’





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ha agnayaḥ samūdire, then the fires [the Dakṣiṇāgni, the Gārhapatya, and the Āhavanīya] began to say; taptaḥ brahmacārī, the austere brahmacārin; kuśalam, with great care; naḥ paryacārīt, looked after us; hanta asmai prabravāma iti, so we will teach him; tasmai ha ucuḥ, they said to him; prāṇaḥ brahma, prāṇa is Brahman; kam brahma, happiness is Brahman; kham brahma iti, ākāśa [space] is Brahman. Commentary:-The three fires that had been so well taken care of by Upakosala were moved to see his condition. They also felt that a great injustice had been done to him by his teacher, Satyakāma. They then decided to take it upon themselves to teach him.

Translation By Max Müller

4. Thereupon the fires said among themselves:- 'This student, who is quite exhausted, has carefully tended us. Well, let us teach him.' They said to him:-


Sloka : 4.10.5

स होवाच विजानाम्यहं यत्प्राणो ब्रह्म कं च तु खं च न

विजानामीति ते होचुर्यद्वाव कं तदेव खं यदेव खं तदेव

कमिति प्राणं च हास्मै तदाकाशं चोचुः ॥ ४.१०.५॥

sa hovāca vijānāmyahaṃ yatprāṇo brahma kaṃ ca tu khaṃ ca na

vijānāmīti te hocuryadvāva kaṃ tadeva khaṃ yadeva khaṃ tadeva

kamiti prāṇaṃ ca hāsmai tadākāśaṃ cocuḥ .. 4.10.5..



5. Upakosala said:- ‘I know that prāṇa is Brahman. But that ka and kha are Brahman I do not know.’ The fires replied, ‘That which is ka is also kha, and that which is kha is also ka.’ Then the fires taught him that Brahman was both prāṇa and ākāśa [space].





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ ha uvāca, he [Upakosala] said; vijānāmi aham yat prāṇa brahma, I know that prāṇa is Brahman; kam ca tu kham ca na vijānāmi iti, but I don’t know that ‘ka’ and ‘kha’ are Brahman; te ha ucaḥ, they [the fires] said; yat vāva kam tat eva kham, that which is ‘ka’ is also ‘kha’; yat eva kham tat eva kam iti, that which is ‘kha’ is also ‘ka’; prāṇam ca ha asmai tat ākāśam ca ucaḥ, then they taught him about prāṇa and ākāśa [space]. Iti daśamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the tenth section. Commentary:-Upakosala had no difficulty accepting that prāṇa was Brahman, for prāṇa is the vital breath and Without the vital breath, life is impossible. In view of its importance it may be conceded that prāṇa is Brahman. But how can ka and kha be Brahman? Upakosala thought to himself:- ‘Ka is happiness, but what kind of happiness? It is happiness born of sense experience. It is therefore transitory. It cannot be the same as Brahman. Similarly, kha is also transitory, for it means ākāśa, space. Ākāśa is material and therefore transitory.’ The fires then said that ka and kha are used as both nouns and adjectives, and sometimes they qualify each other. Kha as an adjective may qualify ka when ka stands for Brahman. What does ka mean here? Here it means Brahman without any attributes. Similarly, when we say kha, we mean ākāśa. When we say ka is kha, we mean ‘pleasure’ is ākāśa. But this is not the material ākāśa. Here it means the ākāśa, space, inside the heart. The idea is that Brahman and joy (ka) are both in the space inside the heart (khā).

Translation By Max Müller

5. 'Breath is Brahman, Ka (pleasure) is Brahman, Kha (ether) is Brahman.' He said:- 'I understand that breath is Brahman, but I do not understand Ka or Kha [1].' They said:- 'What is Ka is Kha, what is Kha is Ka [2].' They therefore taught him Brahman as breath, and as the ether (in the heart) [3].

Footnote:

1. I do not understand, he means, how Ka, which means pleasure, and is non-eternal, and how Kha, which means ether, and is not intelligent, can be Brahman. 2. The commentator explains as follows:--Ka is pleasure, and Kha is ether, but these two words are to determine each other mutually, and thus to form one idea. Ka therefore does not mean ordinary pleasures, but pleasures such as belong to Kha, the ether. And Kha does not signify the ordinary outward ether, but the ether in the heart, which alone is capable of pleasure. What is meant by Ka and Kha is therefore the sentient ether in the heart, and that is Brahman, while Prâna, breath, is Brahman, in so far as it is united with the ether in the heart. 3. And as its ether, i.e. as the ether in the heart, the Brahman, with which prâna is connected. Comm.


Sloka : 4.11.1

॥ इति दशमः खण्डः ॥

अथ हैनं गार्हपत्योऽनुशशास पृथिव्यग्निरन्नमादित्य

इति य एष आदित्ये पुरुषो दृश्यते सोऽहमस्मि स

एवाहमस्मीति ॥ ४.११.१॥

.. iti daśamaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha hainaṃ gārhapatyo'nuśaśāsa pṛthivyagnirannamāditya

iti ya eṣa āditye puruṣo dṛśyate so'hamasmi sa

evāhamasmīti .. 4.11.1..



1. Then the Gārhapatya fire said to him [Upakosala]:- ‘The earth, fire, food, and the sun—these are all part of my [i.e., part of Brahman’s] body. The person seen in the solar orb is me. I am that’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ha enam gārhapatyaḥ anuśaśāsa, next the Gārhapatya fire gave him this instruction; pṛthivī agniḥ annam ādityaḥ iti, the earth, fire, food, and the sun [are all part of me—i.e., of Brahman]; yaḥ eṣaḥ āditye puruṣaḥ dṛśyate, the person seen in the sun; saḥ aham asmi saḥ eva aham asmi iti, I am he, I am he. Commentary:-First the fires taught Upakosala together. Now they are teaching him separately. The Gārhapatya fire begins. He said:- ‘The earth, fire, food, and the sun—these constitute my body. I divide myself into these things. There in the solar region is a person. That is me. I am known as the Gārhapatya fire and I am also this person in the solar region. Earth and food are both objects of enjoyment and consumption, but fire and the sun are not in this category. They are similar to each other, however, just as food and the earth are similar to each other, being objects that people can enjoy.’

Translation By Max Müller

1. After that the Gârhapatya fire [1] taught him Earth, fire, food, and the sun (these are my forms, or forms of Brahman). The person that is seen in the sun, I am he, I am he indeed [2].

Footnote:

1. The household altar. 2. Fanciful similarities and relations between the fires of the three altars and their various forms and manifestations are pointed out by the commentator. Thus earth and food are represented as warmed and boiled by the fire. The sun is said to give warmth and light like the fire of the altar. The chief point, however, is that in all of them Brahman is manifested.


Sloka : 4.11.2

स य एतमेवं विद्वानुपास्तेऽपहते पापकृत्यां लोकी भवति

सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति नास्यावरपुरुषाः क्षीयन्त उप

वयं तं भुञ्जामोऽस्मिꣳश्च लोकेऽमुष्मिꣳश्च य एतमेवं

विद्वानुपास्ते ॥ ४.११.२॥

sa ya etamevaṃ vidvānupāste'pahate pāpakṛtyāṃ lokī bhavati

sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati nāsyāvarapuruṣāḥ kṣīyanta upa

vayaṃ taṃ bhuñjāmo'smigͫśca loke'muṣmigͫśca ya etamevaṃ

vidvānupāste .. 4.11.2..



2. ‘He who knows this Gārhapatya fire and worships it thus has all his sins removed, and he attains the world of the Gārhapatya fire. He lives a long and bright life, and his descendants do not perish. In this world and the next, we look after that person who knows this fire and worships it thus’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ, he who; etam evam vidvān, knowing this in this way; upāste, [and] worships; apahate pāpa-kṛtyām, he destroys his sins; lokī bhavati, becomes a dweller in the world of the god of fire; sarvam āyuḥ eti, lives the full range, of his life; jyok jīvati, he lives a bright life; asya āvarapuruṣāḥ, his descendants; na kṣīyante, do not perish [i.e., his line is never broken]; asmin ca loke amuṣmin ca, in this world and also in the other world; vayam tam upabhuñjāmaḥ, we will look after him; yaḥ etam evam vidvān upāste, he who knows this [fire] thus and worships it. Iti ekādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the eleventh section. Commentary:-Here the benefit of worshipping the Gārhapatya fire in the right manner is being given. The first benefit is that all the worshipper’s sins are burned away. He also attains the world reserved for the worshippers of this fire. When the fire says that the worshipper’s descendants do not perish, he means that his line will not be broken.

Translation By Max Müller

2. 'He who knowing this meditates on him, destroys sin, obtains the world (of Agni Gârhapatya), reaches his full age, and lives long; his descendants do not perish. We guard him in this world and in the other, whosoever knowing this meditates on him.'


Sloka : 4.12.1

॥ इति एकादशः खण्डः ॥

अथ हैनमन्वाहार्यपचनोऽनुशशासापो दिशो नक्षत्राणि

चन्द्रमा इति य एष चन्द्रमसि पुरुषो दृश्यते सोऽहमस्मि

स एवाहमस्मीति ॥ ४.१२.१॥

.. iti ekādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha hainamanvāhāryapacano'nuśaśāsāpo diśo nakṣatrāṇi

candramā iti ya eṣa candramasi puruṣo dṛśyate so'hamasmi

sa evāhamasmīti .. 4.12.1..



1. Next the Dakṣiṇāgni [Southern] fire said to Upakosala:- ‘Water, the quarters, the stars, and the moon—these are all part of my [i.e., part of Brahman’s] body. The person seen in the moon is me. I am that’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ha enam anvāhārya-pacanaḥ anuśaśāsa, next the Anvāhārya Pacana [the Dakṣiṇāgni, or Southern] fire gave him this instruction; āpaḥ diśaḥ nakṣatrāṇi candramā iti, water, the quarters, the stars, and the moon [are all part of me—i.e., of Brahman]; yaḥ eṣaḥ candramasi puruṣaḥ dṛśyate, the person seen in the moon; saḥ aham asmi saḥ eva aham asmi iti, I am he, I am he. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Then the Anvâhârya fire [1] taught him:- Water, the quarters, the stars, the moon (these are my forms). The person that is seen in the moon, I am he, I am he indeed.

Footnote:

1. The altar on the right. Anvâhârya is a sacrificial oblation, chiefly one intended for the manes.


Sloka : 4.12.2

स य एतमेवं विद्वानुपास्तेऽपहते पापकृत्यां लोकी भवति

सर्वमायुरेति ज्योग्जीवति नास्यावरपुरुषाः क्षीयन्त उप

वयं तं भुञ्जामोऽस्मिꣳश्च लोकेऽमुष्मिꣳश्च य एतमेवं

विद्वानुपास्ते ॥ ४.१२.२॥

sa ya etamevaṃ vidvānupāste'pahate pāpakṛtyāṃ lokī bhavati

sarvamāyureti jyogjīvati nāsyāvarapuruṣāḥ kṣīyanta upa

vayaṃ taṃ bhuñjāmo'smigͫśca loke'muṣmigͫśca ya etamevaṃ

vidvānupāste .. 4.12.2..



2. ‘He who knows this Dakṣiṇāgni fire and worships it thus has all his sins removed, and he attains the world of the Dakṣiṇāgni fire. He lives a long and bright life, and his descendants do not perish. In this world and the next, we look after that person who knows this fire and worships it thus’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ, he who; etam evam vidvān, knowing this in this way; upāste, [and] worships; apahate pāpakṛtyām, he destroys his sins; lokī bhavati, becomes a dweller in the world of the god of fire; sarvam āyuḥ eti, lives the full range of his life; jyok jīvati, he lives a bright life; asya āvarapuruṣāḥ, his descendants; na kṣīyante, do not perish [i.e., his line is never broken]; asmin ca loke amuṣmin ca, in this world and also in the other world; vayam tam upabhuñjāmaḥ, we will look after him; yaḥ etam evam vidvān upāste, he who knows this [fire] thus and worships it. Iti dvādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the twelfth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

2. 'He who knowing this meditates on him, destroys sin, obtains the world (of Agni Anvâhârya), reaches his full age, and lives long; his descendants do not perish. We guard him in this world and in the other, whosoever knowing this meditates on him.'


Sloka : 4.13.1

॥ इति द्वादशः खण्डः ॥

अथ हैनमाहवनीयोऽनुशशास प्राण आकाशो द्यौर्विद्युदिति

य एष विद्युति पुरुषो दृश्यते सोऽहमस्मि स

एवाहमस्मीति ॥ ४.१३.१॥

.. iti dvādaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

atha hainamāhavanīyo'nuśaśāsa prāṇa ākāśo dyaurvidyuditi

ya eṣa vidyuti puruṣo dṛśyate so'hamasmi sa

evāhamasmīti .. 4.13.1..



1. Next the Āhavanīya fire said to Upakosala:- ‘Prāṇa, space, heaven, and lightning—these are all part of my [i.e., part of Brahman’s] body. The person seen in lightning is me. I am that’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Atha ha enam āhavanīyaḥ ānuśaśāsa, next the Āhavanīya fire gave him this instruction; prāṇaḥ ākāśaḥ dyauḥ vidyut iti, prāṇa, space, heaven, and lightning [are all part of me—i.e., of Brahman]; yaḥ eṣaḥ vidyuti puruṣaḥ dṛśyate, the person seen in lightning; saḥ aham asmi saḥ eva aham asmi iti, I am he, I am he. Commentary:-There is no commentary available for this verse.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Then the Âhavanîya [1] fire taught him:- 'Breath, ether, heaven, and lightning (these are my forms). The person that is seen in the lightning, I am he, I am he indeed.

Footnote:

1. The Âhavanîya altar is the altar on the eastern side of the sacrificial ground.


Sloka : 4.13.2

स य एतमेवं विद्वानुपास्तेऽपहते पापकृत्यां लोकी भवति

सर्वमयुरेति ज्योग्जीवति नास्यावरपुरुषाः क्षीयन्त उप

वयं तं भुञ्जामोऽस्मिꣳश्च लोकेऽमुष्मिꣳश्च य एतमेवं

विद्वानुपास्ते ॥ ४.१३.२॥

sa ya etamevaṃ vidvānupāste'pahate pāpakṛtyāṃ lokī bhavati

sarvamayureti jyogjīvati nāsyāvarapuruṣāḥ kṣīyanta upa

vayaṃ taṃ bhuñjāmo'smigͫśca loke'muṣmigͫśca ya etamevaṃ

vidvānupāste .. 4.13.2..



2. ‘He who knows this Āhavanīya fire and worships it thus has all his sins removed, and he attains the world of the Āhavanīya fire. He lives a long and bright life, and his descendants do not perish. In this world and the next, we look after that person who knows this fire and worships it thus’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Saḥ yaḥ, he who; etam evam vidvān, knowing this in this way; upāste, [and] worships; apahate pāpa- kṛtyām, he destroys his sins; lokī bhavati, becomes a dweller in the world of the god of fire; sārvam āyuḥ eti, lives the full range of his life; jyok jīvati, he lives a bright life; asya āvarapuruṣāḥ, his descendants; na kṣīyante, do not perish [i.e., his line is never broken]; asmin ca loke amuṣmin ca, in this world and also in the other world; vayam tam upabhuñjāmaḥ, we will look after him; yaḥ etam evam vidvān upāste, he who knows this [fire] thus and worships it. Iti trayodaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the thirteenth section. Commentary:-

Translation By Max Müller

2. 'He who knowing this meditates on him, destroys sin, obtains the world (of Agni Âhavanîya), reaches his full age, and lives long; his descendants do not perish. We guard him in this world and in the other, whosoever knowing this meditates on him.'


Sloka : 4.14.1

॥ इति त्रयोदशः खण्डः ॥

ते होचुरुपकोसलैषा सोम्य तेऽस्मद्विद्यात्मविद्या

चाचार्यस्तु ते गतिं वक्तेत्याजगाम

हास्याचार्यस्तमाचार्योऽभ्युवादोपकोसल३ इति

॥ ४.१४.१॥

.. iti trayodaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

te hocurupakosalaiṣā somya te'smadvidyātmavidyā

cācāryastu te gatiṃ vaktetyājagāma

hāsyācāryastamācāryo'bhyuvādopakosala3 iti

.. 4.14.1..



1. The fires said:- ‘O Somya Upakosala, we have just told you the knowledge of fire. That is also Self-knowledge. Your teacher will tell you about the way to the next world.’ In due course, his teacher returned, and he called him, saying, ‘Upakosala’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Te ha ucuḥ, they [the fires] said; upakosala somya, O Somya Upakosala; eṣā te asmat vidyā, this knowledge about us [we have given] to you; ca ātma-vidyā, that is also Self-knowledge; ācāryaḥ tu te gatim vakta iti, but the teacher will tell you about the way [to the next world]; asya ācāryaḥ, his teacher; ājagāma ha, returned; ācāryaḥ abhyuvāda tam upakosala iti, the teacher called him, ‘O Upakosala.’ Commentary:-What the fire meant was that Upakosala’s teacher would give him the final lesson. He would tell Upakosala what he should do to get the full benefit of what he had learned from the fires.

Translation By Max Müller

1. Then they all said:- 'Upakosala, this is our knowledge, our friend, and the knowledge of the Self, but the teacher will tell you the way (to another life).'


Sloka : 4.14.2

भगव इति ह प्रतिशुश्राव ब्रह्मविद इव सोम्य ते मुखं भाति

को नु त्वानुशशासेति को नु मानुशिष्याद्भो इतीहापेव

निह्नुत इमे नूनमीदृशा अन्यादृशा इतीहाग्नीनभ्यूदे

किं नु सोम्य किल तेऽवोचन्निति ॥ ४.१४.२॥

bhagava iti ha pratiśuśrāva brahmavida iva somya te mukhaṃ bhāti

ko nu tvānuśaśāseti ko nu mānuśiṣyādbho itīhāpeva

nihnuta ime nūnamīdṛśā anyādṛśā itīhāgnīnabhyūde

kiṃ nu somya kila te'vocanniti .. 4.14.2..



2. [Upakosala] replied, ‘Yes, lord.’ [His teacher said:-] ‘O Somya, your face is shining like that of a knower of Brahman. Who has taught you?’ ‘Sir, who will teach me?’ He said this as if he was trying to hide the truth. Then, pointing to the fires, he said:- ‘Earlier they looked, different. Now they look like this.’ In this way, he indicated the fires. [The teacher asked,] ‘Somya, what did the fires teach you?’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Bhagavaḥ iti ha pratiśuśrāva, ‘Yes, lord,’ he replied; brahmavidaḥ iva somya te mukham bhāti, your face is shining like that of a knower of Brahman; kaḥ nu tvā anuśaśāsa iti, who has taught you; kaḥ nu mā anuśiṣyāt bho iti, who will teach me, sir; iha iva apanihnute, [he said this] as if he was trying to hide [the truth]; ime, these [pointing to the fires]; nūnam īdṛśāḥ, look like this [as if they are frightened]; anyādṛśāḥ iti, looked different before; iha agnīn abhyūde, in this way he spoke about the fires; kim nu somya kila te avocan iti, Somya, what did they teach you? Commentary:-Upakosala knew the limitations of the fires, and that is why he did not want to tell his teacher what they had taught him, or that they had taught him anything at all. Further, he noticed that in the presence of his teacher the fires appeared to be frozen with fear. This is why he was vague and evasive in his reply.

Translation By Max Müller

2. In time his teacher came back, and said to him:- 'Upakosala.' He answered:- 'Sir.' The teacher said:- 'Friend, your face shines like that of one who knows Brahman. Who has taught you?' 'Who should teach me, Sir?' he said. He denies, as it were. And he said (pointing) to the fires:- 'Are these fires other than fires?' The teacher said:- 'What, my friend, have these fires told you?'


Sloka : 4.14.3

इदमिति ह प्रतिजज्ञे लोकान्वाव किल सोम्य तेऽवोचन्नहं

तु ते तद्वक्ष्यामि यथा पुष्करपलाश आपो न श्लिष्यन्त

एवमेवंविदि पापं कर्म न श्लिष्यत इति ब्रवीतु मे

भगवानिति तस्मै होवाच ॥ ४.१४.३॥

idamiti ha pratijajñe lokānvāva kila somya te'vocannahaṃ

tu te tadvakṣyāmi yathā puṣkarapalāśa āpo na śliṣyanta

evamevaṃvidi pāpaṃ karma na śliṣyata iti bravītu me

bhagavāniti tasmai hovāca .. 4.14.3..



3. Upakosala replied, ‘This is what they said.’ [And he told his teacher all that the fires had taught him.] The teacher said:- ‘O Somya, they taught you only about the worlds, but I will teach you about Brahman.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Idam iti ha pratijajñe, ‘This [is what they taught,]’ he [Upakosala] replied; lokān vāva kila somya te avocan, they have only told you about the worlds, O Somya; aham tu te tat vakṣyāmi, but I will tell you about that [Brahman]; yathā puṣkara-palāśe āpaḥ na śliṣyante, as water does not stick to the lotus leaf; evam, in the same way; vidi, one who knows [Brahman]; evam, thus; pāpam karma na śliṣyate iti, is not tainted by sinful work; bravītu me bhagavān iti, sir, please teach me; tasmai ha uvāca, he said to him. Iti caturdaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fourteenth section. Commentary:-Just as water never sticks to a lotus leaf, similarly, sin never sticks to one who knows Brahman thus.’ Upakosala replied, ‘Sir, please teach me about Brahman.’ The teacher said— A person who has known Brahman is always pure. Nothing can taint him. He is incapable of doing anything wrong.

Translation By Max Müller

3. He answered:- 'This' (repeating some of what they had told him). The teacher said:- 'My friend, they have taught you about the worlds, but I shall tell you this; and as water does not cling to a lotus leaf, so no evil deed clings to one who knows it.' He said:- 'Sir, tell it me.'


Sloka : 4.15.1

॥ इति चतुर्दशः खण्डः ॥

य एषोऽक्षिणि पुरुषो दृश्यत एष आत्मेति

होवाचैतदमृतमभयमेतद्ब्रह्मेति

तद्यद्यप्यस्मिन्सर्पिर्वोदकं वा सिञ्चति वर्त्मनी एव

गच्छति ॥ ४.१५.१॥

.. iti caturdaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ..

ya eṣo'kṣiṇi puruṣo dṛśyata eṣa ātmeti

hovācaitadamṛtamabhayametadbrahmeti

tadyadyapyasminsarpirvodakaṃ vā siñcati vartmanī eva

gacchati .. 4.15.1..



1. The teacher said:- ‘The person seen in the eyes is the Self. It is immortal and fearless. It is Brahman. This is why, if anyone puts clarified butter or water in the eyes, it goes to the corners of the eyes’.





Commentary of Shankaracharya

Word-for-word explanation:-Yaḥ eṣaḥ akṣiṇi puruṣaḥ dṛśyate, this person who is seen in the eyes; eṣaḥ ātmā, this is the Self; iti ha uvāca, he [the teacher] said; etat amṛtam abhayam, this is immortal and fearless; etat brahma iti, this is Brahman; tat, this is why; asmin, into this [eye]; yadi api sarpiḥ vā udakam vā siñcati, if anyone puts clarified butter or water; vartmanī eva gacchati, it goes into the comers [of the eye]. Commentary:-How do you know the Self? You have to have full self-control. You have to have a gentle nature, and you must withdraw your mind completely from the external world. Then you can see the Self in the eyes. That Se